G. P. (George Payn) Quackenbos.

An English grammar online

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Indefinite Answers. — ^I know not who did it, which it was, what truth is.
Indef, ^Expressions. — ^Find out who did it, which it was, what truth i&

167. The interrogative pronouns are, ♦
WhOy applied only to persons. " Who is there ? '*
Whichj applied to persons, animals, and things.

« Which of you ? " « Which of the cats ? " « Which
of the tables?"
Whaty applied only to things. " What do I see ? "

168. Whether was formerlj applied to persons and things as an interrog-
atire pronoun ; as '* W?uther is greater, the gold or the temple that sanctL
fieth the gold ? ** It is no longer used in this sense.

169. The interrogatives are declined like the corre-
sponding relatives, § 154.

170. The interrogatives and relatiyes must not be confounded. Observe,
1. That the introduction of an antecedent converts an interrogatiye into i|
relative. 2. That what is not an interrogative, but a relative, when equivi
alent to that which. Thus : —

Interroffatives. — Who said so ? Do you know who sud so ? I can no^
remember who said so. I know what [not equivalent to that u^ieh'] it ia.

186. Wbftt ig an Interrogative Fronoimt Give examples. 107. Name the in-
terrogatives, and tell to what each ia appUed. 168. What other word wa« formeily
need as an interrogative pronoun t 160. Decline the interrogatives. 17a From
what must the interrogatives be distingaiahed t What effect has the introdnetioB



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PAB8INiQ> OV JLMTKUifiOGA!IiyE8. 69

Bslatkfe», — The person to^flBid so is tee. Doyoaknowtfaeminidbo
Bftid so? I can not respect those who said so. I said what [that whidk]
yon told me.

171. Parsing. — The interrogative pronouns are al-
ways in the third person. In parsing, mention their
person, number, case, and the rule that applies.

What is that t — Whose hooka a/re those t Yours t

What is an interrogatiTe pronoun, in the third person, singular num-
ber, nominative case after the verb u : — Rvle^ A verb that has no object
takes the same case after as before it, when both words refer to the same
person or thing.

Whose is an interrogatiye pronoun, in the third person, singular num-
ber, possessive case, and modifies the noun hooki : — Hule, A substantire
that modifies a noun denoting a different person or thing, by unplying pos-
session, origin, or fitness, is in the possessive case.

YoDis is a personal pronoun, in the second person, angular number,
common gender, possessive case, and modifies books understood (ffoun
being here equivalent to are they your booke f) : — Rvle, A substantive
that modifies a noun denotmg a different person or tiling, &a

172. To parse this last word, we have to supply what is understood.
So, when a question is answered with a single word. ** Whom did Madison
succeed? Jefferson." That is, he succeeded Jefferson; Jefferson is in the
objective case, the object of the verb succeeded understood. — ^* Who suc-
ceeded Jefferson? Madison.** That is, Madison succeeded him; Madison
is in the nominative case, the subject of the verb succeeded understood. —
In such constructions, when you are in doubt as to the case, supply the
words understood.

BXEBOISB. H

Pcvne the nouna^ and the perdcmal^ relative^ and interrogatvoe
pronouns :— Whom did Napoleon marry? Josephine and Maria
Locdsa. — ^Which is the house? I forget which it is. — ^What is a
noim? A word nsedas a name. — Who were the inventors of
printing ? Gutenberg, Schoeffer, and Faust. — ^To whom did Colum-
bus first apply for aid ? To the Spanish ? No ; the Genoese.— I

of an antecedent 9 When is what not an interrogative 9 Give examples. 171. In
what person are the interrogative pronouns 9 In parsing them, what mnst be men-
titmed t Learn the parsing forms. 172. What mnst he done in parsing, when a
fUMtion is asked OT answered with a single word f Give examples.



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TO ABJXCnVX FBGNOXnSIB.

know what yon law. — ^Whose doiilies are these ? Jameses and
mine.

Make two sentences with simple personal pronouns for subjeeti;
two with interrogatives for subjects; two containing simple rela-
tives in the possessive ease ; two containing compound relatives in
the objective; two containing compound personals in the ohjeetive.



LESSON XXZ.

ADJECTIVE PBOKOUNS.

173. Adjeotivb* Peonouns. — ^All pronouns not in-
eluded in the classes already named are called A^jeetive
Prononni. They are divided into the following classes : —

1. BemonstratiTea, which point out widi precision the
objects to which they refer : — Thisj that j former ^ latter j
iothj same.

2. DistribntiTea, which represent objects as tak^
separately : — £hoh^ every ^ either^ neither.

3. Indefinitea, which refer to objects generally, with-
out specifying any in particular: — Oney noney otheTj
(mother y eome^ aUy cmy^ such.

174. Caution. — ^It is only when used in stead of
nouns or equivalent expressions that these words are

^djectiva pronouns. When used with nouns, they are
adjective!^, h

** David and Jonathan loved each other.** Each and other are here
used in stead of noons, and are adjective pronouns. — ^** Each day brings
other duties.** Each and other are here used with nouns, and are therefore
acUectiyes.

176. Declension.-^^ThiSy that^ one^ and other^ are
thus declined : —

178. What class of pronouns remains to be treated f How are adJeotiTO pro-
nouns subdiyldedf Define Demonstratives ; Distributives ; Indefinites. 174. When
are these words a4)eotive pronouns t When used with nouns, what part of speech
areth^t Ulustnte this. 17ft. DetUneM^t; l*a«;Me/ol*ir; onoMtr. Whatis



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▲BJBOHYB FBOJrOUNS. 71

8. p. 8. p. 8. p. 8. p.



Hf. This, these,

P.

O, this; these.



That, those,
that; ihose.



One, ones,
one's, ones*,
one ; ones.



Other, othen,
other's, others*,
other ; others.



Another is declined in the singuhir like other ^ but has no pluraL The
rest of the adjective pronouns are indedinable (that is, do not change),
and are never used in the possesdye.

176. NvmbefT, — Each^ every^ either^ and neitherj are
always singular. jBoth is always plural. JFbrmer,
lattery samcj nonCj some, aU, cmy, and siochy are used in
both numbers without change of form. Their number
is determined by that of the word for which they stand.

17Y. RemarlcB, — That and thu, former and latter^ are frequently used
to disdnguish two objects mentioned immediately before. Thus used, that
and former refer to the' more remote, or the first-mentioned; ihU and
latter^ to the nearer, or last-mentioned. Thus : — *^ Mercantile and profes-
sional life both haye their advantages : this [or the latter ^ that is, jprofe^-
9umal life'] opens the way to fame ; that [or the former^ that is, mercantile
life'] leads to an honorable competence."

178. Some assign a possessive case to former and latter; *^The
former' B victory counterbalanced the lattei^e defeat" These possessivea
are not authorized. Correct thus: — " The victory of the former counter-
balanced the defeat of the latter,"^

179. PABsmo. — Th^ hiiled one (mother. — Pard-
mony and prodigality ahould hoth he a/voided.

One is an adjective pronoun, in the third person, singular number, nomi-
native case, in apposition with they: — Rule^ One substantive joined to
another denoting the same person or thing, is in the same case.

Awotlier is an adjective pronoun, in the third person, singular number,
olijective case, the object of the verb killed:— Rule^ The object of a verb
or preposition is in the objective case.

Both is an adjective pronoun, in the third person, plural number,
nominative case, in apposition with parsimony and prodigality : — RtUe^

■aid of the rest of the adjective pronoons f 176. Which of the adjective pronooDf
are always tingolar f Which ia always plural f Which are used in both numbers
without change of form f How is their number determined f 177. For what are
Aat and fAis, former and tolter, often used? When so used, to what do thai and
J^rmerwtet% To what do thit and totter refort 178. What case ofybrmer and
kater is eondsmnad as unauthorised f 179. Learn the parsing forms.



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72 THB ABIXOUL

One Babitaiikhe joined to another denoting tbe same person or ^aag^ k in
thesamecase.

EXBBCISB.

Pftne the naunt and pronaum : — Such is the case. — ^Thej will
perish, each and every of them. — ^Here are three shoes, a new one
and two old ones. — ^Do either joa choose. I will do neither.—
Give some to me. I have not anj. I have none to spare. — She
can not mean that. — ^These are beautifdl, those amiable; the
former we admire, the latter we love. — ^Listen to others' woes. —
He executed a deed to Bichard Boe, and the same was dnlj
recorded.

Supply pronouns qf the ekuset indicated : — ^I (pompound per-
eonaV) also am a man. — ^Love aU men, do harm to {adjectice pro-
noun). — (Interrogative) does not love (pereonaT) country ? — (Com-
pound relative) I may do, I will not deseii (personal) friends. —
(Adjective pronoun) who grieve, shall find comfort for (pereonal)
sorrows. — Sach (relaUve) do good, shall have their reward.



LESSON XXXI.

THB ABTIOLB.

180. The Abholb. — The third part of speech is the
Article.

The apple ; an apple. The book; a hock.
When we say the appUy the book, we refer to some partienlar ai^
and book. When we say an apple, a book, we mean one ci each, but no
particular one. This difference of meaning results from the use of the
words the and on or a before the nonns. These two words (for an and a
are but different forms of the same word) are called Artides.

181. The Articles are the words the and an or a» used
before other words to limit their meaning.

182. The articles are generally used before nouns with or without

18a What is the third part of speech f What do we mean when we flay the
apple, thebookl When we say an appU, abookl From what does this difference
of meaning resultt 181. What are the Artielesf 182. Before what are the artl>



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OLABSIFIOATIOH (Xf ABTIOLES. 73

^a wotd or words between; as, tbe rose, a rose, the wild rose, an insignifi-
cant rose, a red and wbite rose. In all these expressions, the aitide
limits the meaning of the noun roM, and is said to relate to it
188. An article may also relate to,

A pronoun; as, the former y the latter^ the one^ the other.

An adjective ; as, ** The softer it is, the better.^

An adverb ; as, *' The more we stndy, the better we like to stndj.**

184. OauHons. — ^Do not confound the article an with the oonjunotion
ofi, used by old writers for if; as, ^^An it be a long part, I oan*t re-
member it**

Do not confound the article a with the preposition a, used in such ex-
pressions as to ^0 a kuntinff^ to buret out a laughingy ice

185. Claadfication and TTae. — ^The is called the Defi-
nite Article. It is used with nouns in both numbers,
and generally denotes a particular object or objects.

An, or a, is called the Indefinite Article. It is used with
noons in the singular only, and denotes one object but
no particular one.

186. Nouns taken in their widest sense are often used without either
article; as, *^^Day is the time for work; nighty for repose,"

187. The definite article used with the names of animals, plants, trees,
&c, in the singular, may denote either one of the kind or the whole group.
I may say, ** The dahlia you gave me is dead ;**— meaning a particular
plant : or, *' The dahlia is a native of Mexico ; ''-^neaning the whole group
ofplants so called.

188. TTae of an and a. — ^The indefinite article has two
forms, a/n and a.

189. An is used before words commencing with a
vowel sound ; as, an ant, an earl, an idol, an oak, an
umbrella, an heir, an honor.

oles generally used f Give examples. 183. To what besides a noun may an article
relate? 184. With what must the article on not be confoondedt With what mnst
the artiole a not be confounded f 185. What is the called f With what is It nsed t
What does it generally denote ? What is on or a called t With what is it nsed t
What does it denote! 188. When are noons nsed without either article!

187. What may ike^ nsed before the names of animals, ^., in the singular, denote f

188. Mention the forms of the indefinite jurtiole. 189, Where must an be usedt
Show the difference between oommenoing with ayewel and pommenoing with a

4



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74 PABSIKG OF ABTI0LB8.

Obterre that a word may commence with a consonant and yet witb a
Towd soond ; as in the last two examples, in whidi h is silent

190. A is used before words commencing with a con-
sonant sonnd ; as, a bird, a cat, a sea, a hen, a wonder,
many a one, a yew, a ewe, a miit, a eulogy, a humor.

W and y, bej^nning words, are consonants. A must therefore be used
before words coDamendng with these letters or their sound, as in the last
leyen examples.

Words beginning with h sounded, take & Those b^inning with A
silent, may commence ^nth a Towel sound and take an^ as an herb ; or with
a consonant sound and take a, as a Aiimor. £ither an or a may be used
before words commencing with h that are not accented on the first syllable;
as, an histo'rian or a histo'rian.

191. The articles have neither person, number, gen-
der, nor case.

192. EuLB IX. — An article relates to the word whose
meaning it limits.

193. Fabsino. — The son of a hing.

.The is the definite article, and relates to wn : — Rule^ An article rektes
to the word whose meaning it limits.

A is the indefinite artide, and relates to king : — JRtUe^ An article, &c.

EXBBCISB.

Supply the proper indefinite article^ (icearding to §§ 189, 190.
Then pane tlie noune^ pronouns^ and a/rticles : — ^We waited — hour
for the wagon, which at last came, bringing — ham, — basket of
eggs, — half-barrel of cider, and — well-cooked joint of beef. —
ewe, — ox, — year-old colt, and — young calf, were feeding in —
wom-out field. — humorous account of — European tour made
by — Yankee in — one-horse wagon, has had — wide circulation.
— heiress with such — immense fortune is not met with every
day. — honorable man and — honest man are two dififerent
things.

vowel sound. 190. Where is a used f Which form must be used before wordi
beginning with to and y 7 Which form, before words beginning with h 7 Which
form, before words beginning with A, not accented on the first syllable f 101. What
properties do not belong to the articles t 192. Bedte Bnle IX. 198. Learn the
parsing fonm



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ADJECfrtVBB ASD THXIB CLASSES. 75

LESSON XZXIL

ADJECTIVES AND THEIR CLASSES.

194. The Adjective. — ^The fourth part of speech is
the Adjective.

" Those four noisy English boys are here."
The words thosey four, noisy, and English, lire here all Jomed to the
noun hoys. Those and English tell which bdys are meant ; four tells how
many boys; noisy tells what kind of boys. Words like these, joined to a
nonn or pronoun, to qualify or limit its meaning, are called Adjectives.

195. An AdjectiTe is a word used to qualify or limit
the meaning of a substantive ; as, sweet roses, Iiappy
thou.

196. The substantive to which an adjective relates, is often understood;
as when we speak of the good, the living, meaning good men, living per-
Mons, So, " There are worse things than [for a man^ to be poorJ*^

191, A word generally used as a noun becomes an adjective when it is
jomed to a substantive to qualify or limit its meaning ; as, an iron mask,
a rose color, a night attack, London porter.

198. Classes. — ^Adjectives may be divided into four
classes ; Proper, Numeral, Pronominal, and Common.

199. A Proper Adjeetive is one derived from a proper
noun, or identical with a proper noun in form ; as, a
Homan nose, C5k?eroma7i eloquence, Byron collars, a
Philadelphia lawyer.

200. Caution, — ^Proper Ai^jectives must be distmguished from proper
nouns having the same form. Observe the difference in the following ex-
amples : —

Proper AdJective8,~^Irish melodies ; Welsh flannel ; Itussian isinglass.

IM. What is the fourth part of gpeech t In the lentenoe Those four noity
English boys are here, what words are Joined to the nonn 602^ 7 What do they re-
spectively tell t What are words like these, joined to a noon or pronoun, called f
195. What is an Adjective ? 190. Give examples to show that an adjective may
relate to a substantive understood. 197. When does a word generally used as a
nonn become an adjective t 198. Into how many classes may adjectives be divided t
Name them. 199. What is a Proper Adjeotivef 200. From what most proper



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76 NUMERALS. — ^FBONOMINAIi ABJECrnySS.

Pn^per J\r<mn«.— Can jou Q>eak IrUhf The WMi are a t^iflj
people. AJRutsian; the i^umaiM; a BtunafCt reTenge. — A. plural or
poflsessiye form, as m the last two examples, indicates a noun.

201. A Bameral Adjeetive is one that denotes a defi-
nite number ; as, three^ third, three-fold.

202. The Numeral Adjectives are distinguished as
Cardinals, Ordinals, and MultiplicatiYes.

The Cardinals answer the question hmo many ; as,
(me, Vim, three, fov/r, thirteen, twenty-one, 1/wo hundred.

The Ordinals answer the question which in order;
BB,Jir8t, second, third, fowrth, thirteenth, tweniy-Ji^d,
i/wo-hund/redth.

The Multiplieatives answer the question h&w mwny
fold; as, single, double or twofold, triple or threefcM,
quadruple or fourfold, twenty fold, hwndredfold.

203. Caution, — ^The nmnerals must be distinguished from nouns haTing
the same form, as used in the following sentences : — " Here is a <en(nDiean-
faig a ten-dollar bill),'* "They came by Jifties and hundreds,^ " Divide
fifty-ihru by one fourth,^ " It produced a hundredfold,^

204. The Pronominal A^eotiTes are words identieal in
form with certam pronouns, but used wiih nouns and
not m stead of them.

The pronominal adjectives are which, what, which-
ever, whichsoever, whenever, whatsoever, this, that, thescy
those, former, latter, hoth, scMne, each, every, either^
neither, one, none, other, another, some, aU, any, stich.

The adjective pronouns all become pronominal adjectives, when used
with their nouns. Thus : — 7%i8 man, that field, both eyes, the stwie party,
other countries, stteh persons. Silver and gold have I none. Which thing
is an allegory. What tiioughts are these ?

a^jeotivea be distinsniiBhed ? Give examples showtng the difference. What does
a plural or poBseBsive form Indicate? 20L What is a Nmneral Adjective!
902. What three classes are embraced under Numerals t What question do the
Cardinals answer? The Ordinals? The Multiplioatlves? 203. From what must
the numerals be distinguished ? 204. What are the Pronominal Adjectives t Nam*
the prcmominals. Under what ciroamstanoes do all the adjective pronoims beoom*



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COMMON ADJXOnVES. 77

205. The Chumnon A^jectivei are all those not em-
braced in the above classes, A common adjective may
express,

1. Quality; as, wicked^ handsome, idle, red-hot, ever-to^-remembered.

2. Quantity ; as, much labor, money erwugh, a whole month.

8. Material ; as, a gold crown, a golden crown, wooden budgets.
4. Hme ; as, daily, weekly, annttal, tuhseguent, everlasting.
6. Situation ; as, the above rule, the off horse, the und&r side.

6. Direction ; as, a west wind, the Aometoarc^ journey.

7. An indefinite number; as, several, sundry, few, many, numerow.
" 8. Negation; as, " There is no music in his souL"

EXEBCISB.

Supply adjectives of the classes indicated : — ^Alexander the Great
was a {camnfwm) general; he invaded {common) lands, subdued
{common) nations, took {common) cities, was successful in {pro-
nominal) battle, and added much to {proper) glorj.-^Pronominal)
boys are so {common) that they can not tell how much {cardinal)
times eleven is. — ^The United States has had two {common) and
{common) wars with the {proper) nation ; during the {ordinal)^
Madison was president. — ^Darkness and tempest make a {multipli-
coHve) night. — {Proper) politeness is famous the world over.



LESSON XXXIII.

COMPARISON OF ADJECTIVES.

^ The country is pleasant in spring, pleasanter in summer, but pleasanteel
in autumn."

206. Here we are told that the quality of pleasantness belongs to the
country in different degrees at different times. These different degrees
are implied in the words pleasant, pleasanter, pleasantest. By varying
the form of an adjectiTe, therefore, we may make it express in different
d^rees the quality which it denotes.

pronominAl a^Jeotlves t aos. What are the Common Adjeotivei t State what a
oommoD adjective may express, and give examples in each case.

S06. Repeat the sentence given at the oommenoement of this lesson. What
are we here told f In what words are these difilbrent degrees implied? By varying



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78 CX>HPABISON.

207. CoMPAEKON. — Adjectives are not dedmed.
But some, principally the common adjectiyes, are comr
pared^ — that is, varied in form, to express different
degrees of the qnality they denote : as, few^ fewer ^
fewest ; witty ^ wittier^ wittiest.

208- Degbees of Compabison. — ^There are three de-
grees expressed by different forms of the adjective.
They are called Degrees of Comparison, and are dis-
tinguished as the Positive, the Comparative, and the
Superlative.

The Positive is the degree expressed by an adjective
in its primitive form ; as, " He is wise and happy. ^^

The Comparative is a higher degree than some other
or others with which it is compared ; as, " He is %Diser
and Kappier than I or thou.'* " He is wiser and hap-
pier than he was.'* " He is wiser than he is happy.'*

The Superlative is the highest degree of all that are
compared ; as, " He is the wis^ and Iwppiest of us aU."

209. Formation of the Degrees. — ^The Comparative
Degree is formed by annexing er, and the Superlative
by annexing est, to the Positive ; as,

Pm. Pleasant, Rude, Holy, Wet,

Comp. pleasanter, rnd-er, holier, weUer,

iSup. pleasantest rud-est holiest weUest
In annexing er and es<, omit final «, change final y to i, or doid>le

the final consonant, if it is required by the rules of spelling. See the last

three examples.

210. Many adjectives of one syllable are compared,

the fbrm of an adjective, then, what may we make it express t 207. What do we
mean when we say that adjectives are compared 7 208. How many degrees are
expressed by different forms of the adjective f What are they called f How are
theydlstlngiiishedf What is the Positive f What is the Comparative ? What is
the Superlative f 209. How are the comparative and the superlative degree
Ibrmedt Give examples. In some oases, what changes have to be madet
SIO. What adjectives are compared t What a^Jecttyoa are mot compared t



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OOICPASISOK. 79

and Boine of two syllables ; but none of more than two.
We use quicker^ quickest ; prettier^ jprettiest : but not
peacefuler^ peacefulest ; gloriouser, gloriousest

211. Some adjectives have a meaning that does not
admit of diflferent degrees ; hence they can not be com-
pared. This is the case with proper and numeral adjec-
tives, with most of the pronojninals, and with such
common adjectives as chiefs cov/rMesSj injmite^ golden^
encmgh^ daily ^ nOj &o.

212. In stead of annexing er and est to the primitive form of the a(]yec-
tiTe, we may express the same ideas by prefixing to it the adverbs more
and mo9t; as, quicky more quick^ most quick. These forms are more
eommon than those in er and eH^ when the adjective consists of two syl-
lables, and are altogether used when it has more than two. In the case of
monosyllables, however, the forms in er and eH are preferred. Thus,
more pleasant^ most pleasant, are more frequently used than ple<uanUr^
pleasarUest ; but shorter^ shortest^ are preferred to more shorty most ehorL

213. Other adverbs besides more and most may be joined to ac^ectivea,
to express ^different degrees; such as, less and least^ very^ exceedingly^
surpassingly^ kc. An adjective, however, does not become comparative
or superlative by having any of these adverbs joined to it, but only when
«r or est is added, or its form is otherwise altered.

214. Rule X. — ^An adjective relates to the substan-
tive whose meaning it qualifies or limits.

To find this substantive, a question may be asked with who or what.
Thus :^'* The elephant is the largest of beasts.** Question, The largest
vkat of beasts? Ahswt, The largest beast of beasts. Largest relates to



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