G. P. (George Payn) Quackenbos.

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Pres, — He dies, respected by alL
Put. — ^He will die, respected by alL

304. The perfect participle generally ends in ed^ t, or n, and has the
same form in both voices. In the active voice, it seldom if ever appears
alone, but is used in forming the compound tenses ; as, I have asked^ I
had brought^ I shall have fallen. In the passive voice, it is used both
alone and in forming the compound tenses; as, **He died, laved and re-
speeted.^ " I am loved and hope to be respected.^

305. The Compoimd Perfect Participle assumes an ac-
tion or state as completed before some other action or
state, past, present, or future.

Past, — Having learned mj lesson, I iwAi a walk.

Pres, — Having learned my lesson, I take a walk every day.

Put. — ^After having learned my lesson to-morrow, I shaU take a walk.

306. In the active voice, the compound perfect participle is formed by
prefixing having to the perfect participle ; in the passive voice, by prefix-
ing having been. — (Active.) Having asked, having brought, having fallen,
(Passive.) Hamng been asked, having been btcught,

307. To sum up, transitive verbs have three parti-
ciples in the active voice, and three in the passive.

CHve ezamplet. 802, How does the present participle end in the aetive voice!
What is its sign in the paMlve voice 9 808w How does the perfect partioiple assame
an action or state! Oive examples. 804. How does the perfect participle gener*
ally end t For what alone is it used in the active voice t How is it used in the
passive t 809. How does the eomponnd perfect participle assame an action or
state? 800. Howls it formed in the active voice f How, in the i>assivet 807.
9iim up what has been said on this subject. CHve the parUoiplM of the varb ask.
Give thoM otfaJl



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104 EziaEEonB oir pabuqipubb.

Intranntiye verbs, haying no passiye yoioe, make but
three participles, corresponding in form with those of
transitive verbs in the active voice.

onstruction, what is said of the auxil-
iary ? On the other hand, what is sometimes understood ? In this ease, how muflk


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«<I am mupriaed, giieTed, and diooked sfc your propoflaL" To repiaftl
the ftoziliary [am grieved, and am shocked] would be inelegant But
ffrieved and shocked are to be parsed as if am preceded each^ — that is, as in
the passiye voice, indicative mood, present tense, &c

On the other hand, the principal verb is sometimes understood, and the
auxiliary alone expressed ; as, ** May I go ? You may,^ Here parse may
as an auxiliary used for may go^ an intransitive verb, fai the potential
mood, present tense, Ac.

819. Conjugation. — ^By the Conjugation of a va* is
meant the process of carrying it through its several
moods, tenses, persons, and numbers.

To distingniflh the persons in coi^jugatmg, we prefix Hie pronouns 7,
ikeu^ he, in tiie smgular ; am, ycu, they, in the pluraL In the subjunctive
mood, we prefix the conjunction if. These words must be parsed separatd j
ftom the verb.

320. We shall now consider the auxiliaries in turn.

321. Be, in its various parts, is the common verb with
which we affirm existence ; as, " Be happy." " I am

B^des appearing as a principal verb, ie is used in
all its parts as an auxiliary.

Combined with the present partidple active, it makes the progressive
form of the various tenses of the active voice ; as, I am ruling, I was ruling.
Combined with the perfect participle passive, it forms the passive tenses ;
as, lam ruled, Iwaertded,

The verb he is conjugated in Lesson XLVHL

322. Have is used both as a principal verb and as an
auxiliary. As a principal verb, it is transitive, and may
be carried through all the moods and tenses of botii
voices. As an auxiliary, it is used in the compound
p^ect participle, and in six tenses, as foUows : —

we parse the auxiliary f 819. What is meant by conjugating a verbt How do we
diBtingruish the persons in copjngatingf In the subjonctive mood, what do we
prefix? 82L Whfvtdoweaffinnwiththe verb6e7 Besides appearing as a prin-
cipal verb, how is U used IT What does it form, when oonabined with the present
participle active t What, when combined with the perfect participle passive t 332.
How is have usedt In what parts is it used a» an anxiliaiyt Of what teoM ia


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ta>ia FkBT.— JTaw.

Ihdio^ Plu. — Hiid,

Xin»io. Sso. Fu. — Shall horn,

823. The first two of these are conjugated thus : —

Singular, Plural, Singular, Plural,

Pofnr. PntF.— Ifay Kante.

Pomr. PLir.^-Mi^t have,
Inhk. Pxiur. — ^To have.


I have, We have,

Thou hast, You have,
8. He has; The j have.

1. I had, We had,

2. Thouhadst, You had,
8. He had; They had.

824. In solemn style, have makes hath in the third singular; as, **He
hath offended Qod.**


Insert verhi in eomj^mnd tensesy and Bta/te the mood and tense of

each: — ^The Spanish Moors to have invented steel needles.

The first settlers of America Behring's Strait. Brick-making

IB said one of the earliest arts. The Chinese ac-
quainted with the mariner's compass before it in Enrope.

Yon ■ that I was rode, bnt I assure you no offence was in-
tended. Had he not known how to swim, he . In some

oountries, forgers ^— for life. The boiler exploded, and many
paaseogers .



825. Do and did are used both as principal verbs and
as auxiliaries. Do appears as an auxiliary in the pres-
ent tense of the indicative, subjunctive, and imperative ;
did in the imperfect, indicative and subjimctive.

826. In the subjunctive mood, these auxiliaries re-
main unchanged. In the indicative, they are conjugated
thus: —

fune the ftUzUiftryf Had? 828. Oany have through Its penons and nvmben.
Do the same with had. 824. In solenm ityle, what does have make in the third

82&. How are do and did nsedf In what parte of the verb does do appear aa
an casiUary t In what, did 7 829. Oonjngate do a&d did in the iabjunotlipe mood.


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Singular. Plwrai. Binguhar. PlwraL.

jj ri. I do, We do,

p •! 2. Thou doet, Tou do,

Of [s. He does; They do.

1. I did, We did,

2. Thou didst, You did.

8. He did; They did.

827. As a principal verb, do makes doM or dost [pronounced dwtl in
ihe second singular, and dotth or doth \dutK\ in the solemn fonn of the
third singular. As an auxiliary, it makes doU alone in the second singular,
and doth in the sdemn form of the third. " Thou do^/, dost^ wonders ; he
doeih, doth miracles : ^ but ** Thou dost not speak ; doth he not hear? ^

328. Will is used as a principal verb, fmd also as an
auxiliary in the future tenses. It is differently con-
jugated, according to its use. Thus : —

Principal Verb. Auxiliart.


I will.


1. I win,

We will.

Thou wiliest.

You will.

2. Thou wilt.

You will.

He wills;


8. He will;


329. Shall, like wiU^ appears as an auxiliary in the
future tenses. It is thus conjugated : —

Singular, — ^I shall, thou shalt, he shall;
Plural. — ^We shall, you shall, they shalL

330. Force op will and seall. — ^We saw in § 255
that the first future implies, 1. Future time simply.
2. Determination.

When future time simply is implied, shaU is used as
the auxiliary in the first person, and wUl in the second
and third. Ishallj thou wUt^ he wHZ} We sh^dU^ you
wiUj they wiU.

When determination is implied, wiU is used in the
first person, shall in the second and third. IwiU, thou
shalty he shall; We wiU^ you shall^ they shall.

In the indicative. 827. What differences are there in the conjugation of do as a
principal verb and as an auxiliary t 828. How is voill used Y Conjugate wW. as a
principal verb. Conjugate it as an auxiliary. 829. In what tenses does sAotf ap*
pear as an auxiliary ? Conjugate BhaXL. 830. What does the first future tense im>
ply? Go through the first future tense, when ftiture time simply is implied. Q^
through the first Aiture, when determination is implied. When ddteniiiiiatl<Hi is


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In this latter form, the speaker deelares his determmatioii, in the first
person about himself; in the seocmd, about the person spoken to; in the
third, about the person or thing i^ken of. A promise or threat may
therefore be conveyed. Thus : — *' I vnll go, if I perish in the attempt [it
is my determination].** ^* You thall have what you want [it is my deter-
mination — promise]." " He a^otf suffer for this insult [it is my deter-
mination — threat]."

881. WUl emphasized in the second and the third person implies deter-
mination in the person spoken to or of, respecting his own acts ; as, ** He
wXL go [he is determined to do so]." '* They vMl not repent [they are
determined not to do so]."

In questions, ahaU and wiU hare a different

iSAo//, in the first person, asks for advice; **ShaU I go?* In the
second person, it denotes futurity simply ; '* Shall you go ? " In the third
person, it asks for the determination of the person addressed respecting
some person or thing spoken of. " Shall this man rule 6ver us [is it your

On the other hand, mil in all three persons implies sunple futurity;
** Will \^ you, he, be in time?" In the second and the third person, it
also sometimes asks for the determination of the person spoken to or of ;
as, " Will you accept my invitation ? "

888. WUl sometunes expresses merely what is habitual ; as, ** He tottf
sit and read for hours [he is in the habit of doing so]."


Correct the a/uxilidries: — ^Dogst thou not see thy danger?^
He dogtli not walk safely, that walks in the paths of sin. — ^Thou
shalst not steal. — ^To whom will we flee for aid? — ^I will drown I
Shall nobody save me? — Shall l^e not have departed? — Wilst thou
not stay ? — "So matter who is present, I shall state my views.

Supply the proper auxilia/ry : — I expect that I [toill or »7iall f]
see my father. — ^I have resolved that I [will or sTiall f] rise early.
— [ Will or sTiall f] it be right to let this go on ? — ^We [will or
ihall t] next proceed to treat of Optics. — ^He [wiU or sTiall t] suo-

implled, respeotlng what la it exercised in the different pensone f What, therefore,
may he conveyed ? Give examples. 881. What does triU emphasized in the second
and the third person imply? 382. In questions, what is the force of shall in the
■ereral persons t Of ttiU ? 883. What does toill sometimes express?


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112 AmrnjAmTTO of the fotentiaim

coed, if iBdnrtry is w(»th any thmg.-*We [¥>iU or akallt] hftve
left before yon arriye.— Bj the time winter sets in, they [foiU or
shaU f] have taken their departure.



334. Hay, can, must, and need, are anxiliaries of the
present potential. They are thus conjugated : —

Singular. Plural.

I may, thou mayst (mayest), he may ; We may, you may, they may.
I can, thou canst, he can; We can, you can, they can.

I mus^ thou must, he must ; We must, you must, they must

I need, thou needst (est), he need; We need, you need, they need.
836. These auxiliaries followed by have (may have, &c.) indicate the
perfect potential

336. Weed is also used as a principal verb ; as, " We
all need pardon." — —

887. As an auziliaiy, neec^remams unchanged in the third, singular. As
a principal verb, it becomes needs, or in solemn style needeih ; and another
verb limiting its meaning is put in the infinitiye. Dr. Johnson says, *^ He
that can swim, need not despair." Here need is an auxiliary, and neei
despair is in the present potential Shakspeare says, " I need not to advise
you further." Here need is a principal verb in the present indicatiye, mod-
ified by the infinitiye to advise. Both constructions are authorized, but the
former is the more common.

338. Kight, oonld, would, and should, are anxiliaries of
the imperfect potential They are conjugated thns : —

Singular. Plural.

I might, thoa mightst (est), he might ; We might, you might, they might.

I could, thou oouldst (est), he could ; We could, you could, they could.

I would, thou wouldst (est), he would j We would, you would, they would.

I should, thou shouldst (est), he should ; We should, yon should, they should.

884. Of what tense are mai/f can, must, and need the auxHiaries? Oopjugate
may ; can ; mutt ; need. 886. What tense is indicated l^y these auxiliaries fbi*
lowedbyAave? 836. How is need also used ? 887. What ^fi'erence is there In the
conjugation of need as a principal verb and as an auxiliary ? Give an example of
two 'equivalent constructions with need, 888. Of what tenae are might, C9uld,


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' S89. These amiHanes followed by lum {might haoe^ &a) indiotte the
ph^ifect pot^itial.

340. In subjoined clauses, after a verb in the imper-
fect tense, wcnild and should are used with the same
difference of meaning for the different persons as wiU
and «AaZZ (§ 330), Thus:—

FiOvrity. — ^I said I should go. I told jou it would not rain.
Leiermination, — ^I said I vwM go. I told you she should not go.

341. Would is sometimes used to denote what was habitual ; as, " He
iMw^ cat and read for hours.**

842. Would is sometimes, but very rarely, used as a principal Teifo.
Thus, in the Psalms, ** Israel would none of me.**

843. Observe that when he^ hame^ do^ willy needy and
imuldy are combined with a participle or any other part
of a principal verb, they are auxiliaries. When not so
combined, they are principal verbs.

Awnliaries. — He U amuang the diildren. Osesar too^ loved. I do not
want to be robbed. They have pitied us. Do look. Save her, do. Does
He not help those whom He toiU save. Nothing need be sud. Who would
be a slanderer?

Principal Verbs, — That story is amusng. Gsesar was ambitious.
Save pity <m us. They crossed the river, as they intended to do. Indus-
try does wonders. He saves those whom He wiUs to save. A workman
Hot needeth not to be ashamed. Th^ would none of my reproof.


Correct the auxiliaries : — Can I leave the room?— May thou be
happy I — ^Men will not listen, that they might save their souls. —
No person needs blush when he has done his best. — ^He cried out
in terror that he should drown, nobody should help him. — Can he
not have started? — ^I promised that he would be allowed to return.
— Oan thou not regulate thine own conduct? — ^Helen promised

would, and ghould the auxiliaries t Conjugate might; could f would f should,
889. What tense is indicated by these auxiliaries followed by have 1 84a How are
would and should used in snbjoined clauses f 841. What is would sometimes nsed
to denote t 842. How is would sometimes used ? 848. Which of the auxiliaries
•n also used as principal verbs 9 How can it be told whether these words ar*
•nziUarlM or prineipal TWbsf Olve examples.


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that flhe might write to-morrow. — Ihoa need not have taken Back
pains with it. — ^A prize was offered to him who would write tbo
best composition.



844. The intransitive verb he is conjugated thns:-


Present Tense.
Singular. PluraL

^ r 1. I am, 1. We are,

1^2. Thou art, 2. Yon are,

^ ( 8. He is; 8. They are.

Imperfect Tense.

1. I was, 1. We were,

2. Thou wast or wert, 2. You were,
8. He was; 8. They wert.

Perfect Tense.

1. I have been, 1. We have been,

2. Thou hast been, 2. You have been,
8. He has been; 8. They have been.

Pluperfect Tense.

1. I had been, 1. We had been,

2. Thou hadst been, 2. You had been,
8. He had been ; 8. They had been.

Mrst Future Tense.

1. I shall or will be, 1. We shall or will be,

2. Thou shalt or wilt be, 2. You shall or will be,
8. He shall or will be ; 8. They shall or will be.


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THB yXBB BS. 115

Second Hjtture Tense.

Singular. Plutal.

1. I eihall orwiH have been, 1. We shall <?r willhave been,

2. Thou ahalt or wilt have been, 2. You shall <w will have been,
8. He shall or will have been ; . 8. Theyshallorwillhavebeen.


Present Tense.

1. I maj, can, mnst, or need be, 1. We may, can, must, or need be,

2. Tliou mayst, caoafc,* &c., be, 2. You may, can, must, (W need be,
8. He may, can, must, or need 8. They may, can, must, or need

be ; be.

Impetfeet Tense.

1. I might, could, would, or 1. We might, could, would, or

should be, should be,

2. Thoumightst,couldst,dro.,be, 2. You might, could, &o., be,
8. He might, could, &c., be ; 8. They might, conld, &c., be.

Perfect Tense.

1. I may, can, must, or need 1. We may, can, must, or need

have been, have been,

2. Thou mayst, &c., have been, 2. You may, &c., have been,
8. He may, &c., have been ; 8. They may, &o., have been.

Pluperfect Tense.

1. I might, could, would, or 1. We might, could, would, or

should have been, should have been,

2. Thou mightst, &c., have been, 2. You might, &c., have been,
8. He might, &c., have been; 8. They might, &c., have been.


Present Tense.

1. If I be, 1. If we be,

2. If thou be, 2. If you be,

8. If he be; 8. If they be.

* In reoitijig, always give all the aozlliariei— 7%<m masftt^ eamt, niMit, or
$ t§t d §tbe.


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1. If I were,

2. If thou were,
8. If he were;

Imperfoct ToMe.


1. If we were,

2. If you were,
8. If they were.

1. Bel,

2. Be then or do thou be,
-8. Be he;


I^resent Tense.

1. Be we,

2. Be you or do yon be,
8. Be they.

Frotent Tense. To be. Fer/eet Tense. To have been.

Present. Being. Perfect. Been. Oompound Perfect. Having been.

845. RuiABKS.— Besides the forms given above in the present indica-
tive, we find the foUowiDg used by old writers:—/ (e, thou heest^ he he;
we 6e, you he, they he. ** We he twelve brethren." — GenetUj ehap. 42.
" I think it he thine indeed." — Shakepeare. These forms are obsolete, and
should not now be used.

^ 846. Were is sometimes used for would 6e, and must then be parsed
as in the potential imperfect ; as, ** It were impossible to tell thee all I

847. The conjmiction if is sometimes omitted before the pluperfect
indicative, and the present and unperfect subjunctive. In this case, the
verb or its auxiliarj is placed Wore the subject; as, " Had Caesar been
prudent, he would have paused [for if Cceear had heen].'" " Be it [if U
he] a ghost, I care not." ** Were all Christians [if all Christians were\ in
earnest, what glorious results would be achieved ! "


P(prse the nouTis^ pronouns^ articles, adjecU'oes, and terhsr—KSL
men are mortal — ^We must be oantions. — ^Had King Bichard been

846. What obsolete form of the present indioatlye do we find in old writers t
948. For what is toert sometimes used t How must it then be parsed t S47. What
ki aald with regard to tha omission of the oGi\]unotioa iff


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A lion, he could not have been braver. — ^Be we contented. — Qod
be graoions nnto thee, my son I — ^The world will be wiser than it
has ever been. — ^If 70a be mistaken, we shall all be wretched. —
To be truly happy is the great end of life. — ^Having been there, I
am certain this is the way.



848. The verb bulb, which will serve as an example
of all transitive verbs, is thus conjugated in the active
voice : —

Present Tense.

Singular. Plural

1. I rule or do rule, 1. We rule or do rule,

2. Thou rulest or dost rule, 2. Yon rule or do rule,
8. He rules or does rule ; 8. They rule or do rule.

Imperfect Tense.

1. I ruled (W did rule, 1. We ruled <w did rule,

2. Thou ruledst or didst rule, 2. Yon ruled or did rule,
8. He ruled or did rule; 8. They ruled or did rule.

Petfect Tense.

1. I have ruled, 1. We have ruled,

2. Thou hast ruled, 2. Yon have ruled,
8. He has ruled; 8. They have ruled*

Pluperfect Tense.
1. I had ruled, 1. We had ruled,

S. Thou hadst ruled, 2. Yom had ruled,

8. He had ruled ; 8. They had ruled.

Mrst Fatwre Tense.

1. I shall or will rule, 1. We shall or will rule,

2. Thou shalt or wilt rule, 2. You shall or will rule,
8. He shall or will rule; 8. They shall or will rule.


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Second Future Tense.
Btngylar. Plural.

1. I shall or will have ruled, 1. We shall or will have ruled,

2. Thou shalt or wilt have ruled, 2. You shall or will have ruled,
8. He shall or will have ruled; 8. They shall or will have ruled.


Present Tense.

1. I may, oau, must, or need 1. We may, oan, must, ^need

rule, role,

2. Thou mayst, oanst, i&o., rule, 2. You may, oan, &o.y rule,
8. He may, can, &c., rule; 8. They may, can, ^., rule.

Imperfect Tense.

1. I might, could, would, or 1. We might, could, would, or

should rule, should rule,

2. Thou mightst, ^., rule, 2. You might, &c., rule,
8. He migh^ &c, rule; 8. They might, &o., rule.

Perfect Tense.

1. Imay, can, must, orneed have 1. We may, can, must, or need

ruled, have ruled,

2. Thou mayst, &c., have ruled, 2. You may, &c., have ruled,
8. He may, &c., have ruled ; 8. They may, &c., have ruled.

Pluperfect Tense.

1. I might, could, would, or 1. We might, could, would, or

should have ruled, should have ruled,

2. Thou mightst, &c., have ruled, 2. You might, &o., have ruled,
8. He might, &c., have ruled ; 8. They might, &c., have ruled*


Present Tense.

1. If I rule or do rule, 1. If we rule or do rule,

2. If thou rule or do rule, 2. If you rule or do rule,
8. If he rule or do rule; 8. If they rule or do rul«.


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Itnperfeet Tense.
Bingvlar, Plural.

1,111 ruled or did role, 1. If we ruled or did rule,

2. If thou ruled or did rule, 2. If you ruled or did rule,

8. If he ruled or did rule; 8. If they ruled or did rule. »


Present Tense.

1. Kule I, 1. Rule we,

2. Bule thou or do thou rule, 2. Eule you or do you rule,
8. Rule he; "^ 8. Rule they.

Present Tense. To rule. Perfect Tense. To have ruled.

Present. Ruling. Perfect, Ruled. Comp. Perfect. Having ruled.

849. Remakes. — ^Except in solemn and poetical style, the second per-
•on plural of the verb is used in addressing a single person, in stead of the
second smgular. In oonyersation we say yen ruU^ not thou rulext, though
but one person is referred to; but in prayer or poetry we say thou ruiut.

850. In the third person singular of the present indicatiye, there is a
solemn form ending in th; as, he ruUth.

851. The compound forms <^ the present and imperfect indicadve^
containing do and didy are properly used when a negation is expressed or
empharas is required ; as, ** * You do not love me.' * I do looe you.' " " He
says I did not go, but I did go^ — ^When there is no emphasis or negation,
the simple form is to be preferred as stronger. ** We beseech thee," not
" we do beseech thee."

852. To avoid a disagreeable combination of consonants, the termina-
tion st is sometimes omitted by good writers in the second person singular
of the imperfect indicative. Thus PoUok says, thou conquered^ thou came^
thou noticed^ thou lifted. So Pope: — thou who touched; thy word who
knew no wish. The regular form, however, is more used, and therefore to
be preferred.

349. In what number do we commonly nee the verb when we address a single
person 9 850. Give the solemn form of the present indicative in the third person.
861. When is it proper to use the compomid forms of the present and imperfeet
Indicative t 852. In what part Is st omitted by some writers t Whyf Whleh


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120 PAfiBivs yoKaL

868. Li the imperaftbe mood, mofltgnimnan give <»djUie 860^^
0011. But all three penons are found in standard wiitera, and may be naed
^ JjjOict^ wh^ occasion requires. Ywn pibsoh/ "Cursed he I that did ao."
/^ — Shaktpeare, " Proce«i we therefore." — Pope, Thibd PEBSOir. **Thy

Online LibraryG. P. (George Payn) QuackenbosAn English grammar → online text (page 9 of 24)