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settle in Tortuga, off Hispaniola, and prey on Spanish commerce
throughout the century.

596. Italy. By the Treaty of Cherasco, the Emperor recognises n go^
Nevers as Duke of Mantua, allows Savoy to obtain part of the *
Duchy of Montferrat, and withdraws the Imperial troops from Italy,
leaving the reward of the Mantuan war to France, which again obtains
a footing in Italy.

By a secret agreement with the Duke of Savoy, Richelieu obtains
the fortress of Pinerolo, which dominates Savoy, and Victor Amadeus
marries a sister of the King of France.

597. Germany. Gustavus concludes a subsidy treaty with France, and
attempts to win over Saxony and Brandenburg. He succeeds with the
latter, but too late to relieve Magdeburg, which, after a long siege, is
stormed and sacked by Tilly. The Emperor orders an attack on Saxony,
which is thus forced to ally with Gustavus, The two powers rout Tilly
at Leipsig, and Gustavus occupies the Rhine principalities. At the
Emperor's urgent entreaty, Wallenstein undertakes to collect an army,
but he insists on complete control. At this moment, he begins to
secretly negotiate with the Swedes.

598. Holland. A Spanish fleet sent against the Dutch privateers is

599. England. The Treaty of St Germain between France and
England cedes New France, Acadia and Canada to France.

600. France. Montmprency, governor of Languedoc, receives Gaston
of Orleans in his province and heads a rebellion against Richelieu, by
whom it is quickly suppressed. Gaston is pardoned, but Montmorency,
the last of the famous family, is executed.

601. Germany. Gustavus advances on Bavaria, defeats and kills Tilly,
who attempts to bar the passage of the Lech, and enters Munich,
Hoping to create a principality for himself, and perhaps even to become
King of Hungary, Wallenstein attempts to detach Saxony from the

1632] . CULTURE 119

879. Philosophy. Ames' De Conscientia, inspired by the works of his
Cambridge master, Perkins, developes Protestant casuistry in England.

880. Philology. Laud founds a Professorship of Arabic at Oxford, and
sends Pococke, the first Professor, to the East to gather manuscripts.

881. Social. The Earl of Bedford and others undertake to drain the
Cambridgeshire marshes, the work being directed by Sir Cornelius

882. Deaths. D'Aubigne", Harvey, Kepler.

883. French Ch. Amyraut, Professor of Theology at Saumur, n g31
is ordered by the Protestant synod to inform the King of the ^
infringements of the Edict of Nantes, and enforces his right to address
the King standing, like the Catholic deputies.

884. German Ch. An attempt to unite Lutherans and Calvinists is
made at Leipsig by Hesse, Brandenburg and Saxony.

885. Church Hist. A women's Order, founded by Mary "Ward, on the
model of the Jesuits, is dissolved by the Pope on account of its lax

886. French Lit. Renaudot founds the Gazette de France, which
becomes the organ of the Government, and which he edits for more
than 20 years.

887. Art. Rembrandt's Lesson in Anatomy. (The Hague.)

888. Education. Comenius' Janua Quatuor Linguarum Reserata ex-
plains his system of learning Latin, Italian, French and German, but
overestimates the acquisitive power of the mind.

889. Social. Spee attacks the belief in witchcraft, which is defended by
Carpzov and others.

890. Death. Richer.

891. Eng. Lit. Falkland takes up his residence at Great Tew, r, 632
near Oxford, and gathers round him a circle, including Hales, *-
Chillingworth, Hammond, Morley, Sheldon, Clarendon, Selden, Carew,
Suckling, Davenant, Waller.

892. French Lit. Gomberville's Polexandre (a work of 6,000 pages)
founds the school of Romans de longue Haleine, continued by
Calprenede's Cassandra and Mile Scude'ry's Ibrahim and Grand Cyrus.
This genre forms a transition from the romances of chivalry to the novel
of society, and dominates French literature till Boileau.

898. Art. Van Dyck, a favourite pupil of Rubens, settles in England
on Charles' invitation as Court painter.

120 POLITICS [1632

Swedes. Gustavus, however, joins the Elector and defeats Wallenstein
at Lutzen, where the Swedish King loses his life.

602. Holland. The Dutch take Maestricht, and Spain negotiates for

603. Sweden. Christina, the daughter of Gustavus, succeeds to the
throne under the regency of Oxenstiern.

604. America. Maryland, the northern part of South Virginia, is
colonised by Lord Baltimore, a Catholic, who is allowed to tax and
legislate only with the consent of the adult males, at first directly, later
by representatives.

605. West Indies. English Colonies are planted in Antigua and Mont-

606. England. The City of London's property in Ulster is con-
fiscated on a charge of mismanagement, and alleged encroach-
ments on the royal forests are recovered.

607. Scotland. Charles entrusts the selection of the Lords of the
Articles to the Bishops.

608. Ireland. Wentworth lands in Ireland as Lord Deputy, and sum-
mons a Parliament, equally balanced between the two Churches, from
which he obtains a grant rendering him independent. He reforms the
civil service and the army, introduces flax, and raises Ireland to un-
precedented material prosperity.

609. Germany. Wallenstein's negotiations with Saxony for a general
peace, on the basis of a revocation of the Edict of Restitution, are dis-
allowed at Vienna. He thereupon expels the Swedes from Silesia, but
is checked by Bernard of Weimar's capture of Ratisbon.

Oxenstiern persuades several of the South German states to join
Sweden in the Convention of Heilbronn.

610. Netherlands. The Infanta Isabella dies, and after the failure of
a revolt, the Spanish provinces are governed directly from Spain. The
States-General do not meet again till 1790.

611. England. The King, on the advice of Attorney-General
Noy, persuades London and other port towns to furnish ships,
on the pretext of defence against piracy.

Prynne's ears are cut off for indirectly attacking the Queen in his

612. Prance. Richelieu centralises the administration of the country
by appointing Intendants.

613. Germany. The Emperor deserts Wallenstein, who is declared
a traitor and assassinated. His army passes to the Emperor's son,

1634] CULTURE 121

894. Archaeology. Bosio publishes the result of many years' explora-
tions in the Catacombs in his Roma Sotteranea.

895. Science. Galileo's Systems of the World (a dialogue between
a doubter, a Ptolemaic, and a Copernican) is licensed at Florence
and Rome, but examined by the Inquisition, which summons him to
Rome (1633), compels him to recant his Copernican utterances, and
confines him to his home.

896. Politics. Lebret's La Souverainete" du Roy openly recommends

897. Education. Gustavus Adolphus founds an University at Dorpat.

898. Death. Eliot,

899. Eng. Ch. Laud becomes Archbishop of Canterbury, re-
publishes the Instructions of 1629 and the Book of Sports, moves

the Communion table to the chancel and increases ritual. His efforts

are assisted by Wren of Norwich and other Bishops in their visitations.

The Baptist Community is divided into Particular and General.

900. Scotch Ch. Charles visits Edinburgh with Laud to be crowned,
and orders the Scotch Bishops to prepare a Liturgy.

901. American Ch. Cotton and Hooker arrive in Massachusetts and
obtain almost absolute power in temporal and spiritual matters.

902. Church Hist. Scioppius' Anatomia Societatis Jesu reveals certain
of the secrets of the Order.

903. Eng. Lit. Herbert's The Temple initiates the 'Metaphysical
School ' (based largely on Donne), which is developed by Quarles,
Crashaw, and Vaughan.

Massinger's New Way to Pay Old Debts. With Ford and Shirley
Massinger forms the third generation of English dramatists.

904. Spanish Lit. The first collection is made of Calderon's plays.

905. Philosophy. La Mothe le Vayer's Dialogues of Orasius Tubero
develope the scepticism of Montaigne and Charron. His Virtue of the
Heathen attacks the Jansenist contention that the virtues of the
heathen were vices.

906. Philology. The second Elzevir edition of the N.T. (called the
Textus Receptus), based on the text of Stephanus and Beza.

Morin's De Sinceritate Hebraei Graecique Textus compares and
criticises the texts.

907. Social. The Lancashire witches are tried.

908. Death. George Herbert.

909. Eng. Ch. Father Davenport, chaplain to the Queen,
declares that the 39 Articles are not contrary to Roman doc-

Father Leander, an English Benedictine, and Panzani, an Oratorian,
are sent by the Pope, with the sanction of the King, to investigate the
position of the English Catholics and the English Church. Their report
is favourable; but the idea of reunion falls through, owing to the
opposition of the Jesuits and the Puritans.

122 POLITICS [1634

Ferdinand, who is joined by Spanish troops from Italy, advances to the
relief of Bavaria, and routs Bernard of Weimar and Horn at Nordlingen.
The whole of South Germany is saved for the Church and Empire. At
this point France succeeds Sweden as protector of the Protestants, and
a French army enters the Palatinate.

614. West Indies. The Dutch take the island of Curac.oa, which
becomes the headquarters of contraband trade with the Spanish main-

615. England. The King extends his demand for ship-money MOOR
to the inland counties, thus creating a fleet independent of the L
mercantile marine.

616. Ireland. Went worth claims for the King the province of
Connaught, and invites settlers from England.

617. France. Richelieu declares war against Spain, which attacks the
Elector of Treves. At the same moment he renews the alliance with
Sweden and makes the League of Rivoli with the Dutch, Savoy, Mantua
and Parma.

618. Italy. Rohan occupies the Grisons.

619. Germany. Saxony withdraws from the war by the Treaty of
Prague, which is accepted by Brandenburg and most Lutheran States.
The Emperor limits the Edict of Restitution to 1627, and cedes Lusatia
to Saxony as a fief of Bohemia. The war at this point ceases to be
religious and becomes a struggle of French and Swedes against the
Hapsburgs for territory.

620. America. Discontented with the system of government in Massa-
chusetts, a number of settlers migrate to the Connecticut Valley,
obtained by Lord Brooke and Lord Saye and Sele, in whose honour the
fort of Saybrook is erected.

621. West Indies. The French occupy Martinique and Guadeloupe.

622. Asia. The Dutch occupy Formosa.

623. France. Spanish and Austrian invasions are repulsed ; but M 000
no decisive battle occurs.

624. Holland. The Dutch recapture Breda, the last stronghold held by

625. Germany. Oxenstiern retires to Sweden, but Baner defeats an
army of Imperialists and Saxons at Wittstock.

1636] CULTURE 123

910. French Ch. Amyrault's La Predestination, supporting the theory
of universal atonement, is defended by Daille 7 and Blondel, and attacked
by Pierre Dumoulin, Spanheim and Rivet. A schism in the Protestant
Church is, however, avoided.

Urbain Grandier is burnt for sorcery by Richelieu.

911. Eng. Lit. Milton's Comus is acted at Ludlow Castle.

912. Philosophy. Sanderson's Cases of Conscience.

913. African Ch. The Jesuit mission in Abyssinia, which has obtained
considerable influence, collapses and is never renewed.

914. Death. Coke.

915. Eng. Ch. To prevent the emigration of Puritan ministers, rigor
an ordinance forbids any to leave the country but soldiers, *
sailors, or merchants. Many, nevertheless, escape to America.

Laud begins his Visitation.

916. Scotch Ch. Diocesan Courts are established.

917. French Ch. Petrus Aurelius (probably St Cyran) defends the
Gallican view of the rights of bishops against the Jesuits.

918. French Lit. A society of literary men, meeting weekly at the
house of Conrart since 1629 for discussion and criticism of each other's
works, is transformed by Richelieu, who is connected with the group
through Chapelain, into the Acaddmie Franchise. Conrart becomes its
first secretary, and, on Chapelain's persuasion, the Academy resolves to
compile a Dictionary.

919. Science. Cavalieri invents the principle of indivisibles, and applies
it to the quadrature of curves and surfaces and the determination of
volumes. The method replaces that of exhaustions, and is employed
for half a century, when it is superseded by the integral calculus.

920. Law. Selden replies to Grotius' plea for an open sea in his Mare

921. Deaths. Champlain, Lope de Vega.

Eng. Ch. Hales' Tract on Schism pleads for the toleration n 335
of theological differences, and founds English latitudinarianism. *-

923. French Ch. St Cyran, the life-long friend of Jansen, becomes
director of Port Royal and introduces Jansenism, i.e. ultra- Augustinian-
ism, into France.

924. American Ch. In consequence of his separatist opinions, his
attack on the Charter, and his opposition to oaths, Roger Williams is
banished from Massachusetts and founds the town of Providence, on
land which he buys from the Indians. Absolute religious liberty and
complete separation of Church and State are here first carried out. He
becomes a Baptist (1638), but renounces his re-baptism and becomes

t a i *

a Seeker.

925. French Lit. Corneille's Le Cid, suggested by a play of De Castro,
is referred by Richelieu to a committee of the Academy, which reports
adversely to it. Henceforward the Academy ceases to issue reports.

124 POLITICS [1637

626. England. The Judges are consulted by the King in refer-
ence to ship-money, and 10 out of 12 report that the King may
enforce it if the kingdom appears to be in danger. Hampden deter-
mines to reassert the validity of the Petition of Right, and refuses 20/-
levied for ship-money. Of the 12 judges, five pronounce for him and
seven against. The levy is continued, but the arguments of Hampden's
counsel are widely circulated.

Prynne, Bastwick and Burton are heavily punished for attacks on
episcopacy, and Bishop Williams is disgraced.

627. Prance. Artois is conquered (1637-40).

A revolt of the Croquants in Guienne leads to the abolition of the
privileges of the Province. The same fate befalls Normandy, 1639.

628. Italy. Rohan is forced to retire from the Grisons.

629. America. The Pequods are exterminated by Mason, after five
years of incursions.

Maurice of Nassau becomes Governor-General of the Dutch posses-
sions in South America, suppresses piracy, builds forts, and developes
trade. He fails, however, to conciliate the natives.

630. Africa. Maurice of Nassau despatches a force which captures
Elmina and expels the Portuguese from the Gold Coast.

French traders from Dieppe found the Fort of St Louis, at the
mouth of the Senegal.

631. Scotland. The Tables draw up a Covenant, the subscribers
of which pledge themselves to remove the recent innovations.
Hamilton is sent to revoke the Prayer-book and sanction the Covenant.
The General Assembly is dissolved by Hamilton, but continues its session,
and, under the leadership of Alexander Henderson, abolishes Episcopacy
and restores the Presbyterian system.

632. Prance. The birth of an heir destroys the hope of the Duke of

633. Germany. Bernard of Weimar seizes Breisach, the chief fortress
of Elsass. At the same moment, Turenne defeats the Duke of Lorraine,
and the French fleet is victorious in the Mediterranean.

634. America. The heads of the Connecticut settlements, aided by
Hooker, draw up the Fundamental Orders, perhaps the first written
constitution, resembling that of Massachusetts, though establishing no
religious qualification.

Davenport, a minister silenced by Laud, and Eaton, a parishioner,
found a settlement in New Haven, in the government of which only
Church members share.

Rhode Island is bought from the Indians and colonised by refugees
from Massachusetts.

Swedes and Finns found a fort on the Delaware and call their settle-
ment New Sweden. The colony is annexed to New Netherlands, 1655.

635. Africa. France takes Reunion, called Isle de Bourbon.

1638] CULTURE 125

926. Education. A college is founded by Harvard, a minister of
Charlestown, but remains for a time a seminary for clergy.

Laud's Statutes transfer the government of Oxford University to the
Heads of Houses.

927. Scotch Ch. The use of the new liturgy in St Giles'
Church, Edinburgh, leads to a riot and to the formation of
a Committee called the Tables.

928. Eng. Ch. Chillingworth replies to Knott, a Jesuit, in his Religion
of Protestants a Safe Way of Salvation, discussing fully the meaning of
Protestantism and enforcing its logical corollary of Toleration.

929. American Ch. Mrs Hutchinson introduces mystical antinomian-
ism into Massachusetts, and receives sympathy from Vane, at this time
Governor. She is expelled by his successor, Wiuthrop, and is welcomed
by Roger Williams to Providence.

930. Eng. Lit. Milton's Lycidas.

931. Philosophy. Descartes discusses the grounds of certainty in his
Discours sur la Me'thode pour bien conduire la Raison et chercher la
Ve'rite' dans les Sciences. His ideas are spread by Clerselier, Mersenne,
Rohault, Re'gis and the Logic of Port Royal in France, and by Geulincx,
Renery and Le Roi in the Netherlands. Voetius, Huet and others
attack the new philosophy as tending to atheism.

932. Science. In an appendix to his Discours, Descartes publishes his
Ge'ornetrie, which by the adoption of the analytical method ushers in
the period of modern mathematics. Fermat independently reaches
similar principles.

In a second appendix, La Dioptrique, Descartes states the law of
refraction, taken from Snell.

In a third appendix, Les Me'te'ores, Descartes partially explains the
rainbow, though ignorant of the unequal refrangibility of different rays.

933. Death. Ben Jonson.

934. Eng. Ch. Joseph Mede's Clavis Apocalyptica extracts an
elaborate Millenarianism from the Prophets.

935. French Ch. St Cyran is imprisoned by Richelieu, who dislikes
him for refusing his offers and for aiding Jansen in his attack on the
Protestant alliance. While at Vincennes, St Cyran obtains influence
over Arnauld, Lancelot, Singlin, and De Sacy, and sends Lemaitre to
represent him at Port Royal.

The brothers Dupuy compile Preuves des Liberte's de I'Eglise Galli-
cane, at the instance of Richelieu. A reply by ' Optatus Gallus' is burnt.

936. Polish Ch. The school of Racov is closed by the Jesuits.

937. Church Hist. Cyril Lucar is murdered by the Sultan, at the
instigation of his opponents, and his teaching is anathematised by
a Council at Constantinople.

938. Eng. Lit. Milton sets out on his Italian journey.

939. Science. Horrocks applies the elliptical theory to the moon.
Galileo's Mathematical Discourses and Demonstrations, the first

dynamical investigations of the laws of falling bodies.

940. Deaths. Jansen, Father Joseph.

126 POLITICS [1639

636. Scotland. Charles marches north to punish the Scots for
the refusal of the General Assembly to dissolve, but is confronted

by an army under Leslie, supported by French money, before which his
own troops melt away. The First Bishops' War is concluded by the
Treaty of Berwick, by which the Scotch army is to be disbanded and
Parliaments are to be regularly summoned. Parliament meets at
Edinburgh ; but the King orders its adjournment and prepares for
a new attack.

637. England. Wentworth is made Earl of Strafford, becomes the
King's chief adviser, and advises the summoning of a Parliament.

638. Germany. On the death of Bernard of Weimar, his army passes
with Elsass, his latest conquest, to France.

639. Holland. Spain's last Armada, under Oquendo, is annihilated in
the Channel by Tromp, the English fleet remaining neutral.

640. Savoy. Victor Amadeus I. dies, and his wife, Maria Christina,
assumes the regency, with French support. Her brothers-in-law, desiring
a share of power, ally with Spain and seize Turin with Spanish troops.
A French army comes to the rescue (1640), and recaptures Turin. In
1642, the regency question is compromised, and the civil war ends.

641. Asia. The English East India Company buys land on which it
builds Madras, its first territorial possession in India.

642. England. A Parliament meets, but is dissolved after three
weeks for opposing the Scotch war. The King marches to meet

the Scots, who defeat part of his army at Newburn-on-Tyne, on which
a truce is made at Ripon. Charles calls a Council of Peers to York,
who urge him to summon another Parliament. The Long Parliament
meets (Nov.), impeaches Laud and Strafford, releases and compensates
the political prisoners, and nullifies the recent canons. The King yields
everything to gain money with which to pay the Scots.

643. Germany. The Great Elector succeeds to -Brandenburg, and
makes a truce with Sweden.

644. Spain. Exasperated by Olivarez' attempts to crush its ancient
liberties, Catalonia revolts, allies with France, and remains partially
independent for 16 years.

645. Portugal. The Portuguese, encouraged by the Catalonian revolt,
proclaim John of Braganza John IV. An alliance is made with France ;
and the new King is recognised by the colonies, though Spain retains
Ceuta and Tetuan.

646. West Indies. The manufacture of sugar is introduced into
Barbados from Brazil, and becomes the staple industry of the West

647. Asia. The Dutch destroy Malacca, the Portuguese rival of

1640] CULTURE 127

941. Eng. Ch. Wroth, Erbery, and Cradock, Welsh clergymen,
are deprived of their livings, set up Independent Churches, and
organise Welsh Nonconformity.

942. Scotch Ch. The General Assembly passes the ' Barrier Act,' for-
bidding changes in the laws of the Church till ratified by provincial
Synods and Presbyteries.

943. American Lit. The first Printing-Press is established.
944> Science. Horrocks first observes the transit of Venus.
94S. History. Ussher's Antiquitates Ecclesiae Britannicae.

Spelman's Councils, Laws and Constitutions of the English Church.
940. Philology. John Buxtorf's Lexicon chaldaeum, rabbinicum, tal-

947. Geography. Father Cristoval de Acuna ascends the Amazon and
writes the first adequate description of it.

948. Death. Campanella.

949. Eng. Ch. Henderson, Baillie and Gillespie arrive in London n g^n
and exert great influence by their preaching.

Convocation continues to sit after the dissolution of the Short
Parliament and makes Canons, among them a new oath for the clergy,
accepting the government of the Church by Bishops, ' et cetera.' This
becomes the object of violent criticism, and Lambeth Palace is

At the meeting of the Long Parliament, a Committee for Religion
is instituted. A sub-committee is formed, under the presidency of
White, to deal with ' scandalous ministers.' A selection of cases that
come before it is published as 'The First Century of Scandalous
Ministers,' and many deprivations are made.

Millenarian doctrines begin to appear, and are attacked by Bishop
9'50. Eng. Lit. Isaac Walton's Life of Donne.

951. Netherlands Ch. Jansen's Augustinus is published posthu-
mously, and, despite the Pope's command to avoid discussion, circulates

952. Art. Poussin becomes First Painter in Ordinary to the King of
France, and produces the Labours of Hercules, the Last Supper, the
Triumph of Truth (Paris).

953. History. Selden's De Jure Naturali juxta Hebraeos, with his
Uxor Hebraica, aids Pococke and Lightfoot to reconstruct Jewish life.

954. Politics. Selden maintains that Natural Law was supernaturally
revealed to the first human beings and handed down to us.

Campanula's De Monarchia Hispanica claims universal dominion for

955. Education. Dr Busby becomes Headmaster of Westminster
School, and occupies the post for fifty-five years.

956. Death. Rubens.

128 POLITICS [1641

648. England. A triennial Act is passed, by which Parliament M 041
is to meet every three years, and to sit not less than 50 days. L
Strafford's impeachment is turned into an attainder when it is found
that he is not reached by the statute of Edward III., and the Lords pass
the bill on Pym's discovery of the plot of the Queen to bring up the
army from the North and of the King to seize the Tower. Charles is
frightened into signing the death-warrant, and agrees that the Parlia-
ment shall not be adjourned or dissolved without its own consent.
Parliament abolishes the Star Chamber and High Commission Courts,
and declares ship-money and distraint of knighthood illegal. Charles
goes to Scotland, professedly to assent in person to the abolition of
Episcopacy, but, in the belief of the Commons, to raise an army, and

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