Copyright
G. Stanley (Granville Stanley) Hall.

Morale, the supreme standard of life and conduct online

. (page 1 of 25)
Online LibraryG. Stanley (Granville Stanley) HallMorale, the supreme standard of life and conduct → online text (page 1 of 25)
Font size
QR-code for this ebook


UN VERS TY OF CALIFORNIA SAN DIEGO



3 1822017193749




/*/




*> _




LIBRARY

UNIVERSITY OF
CALIFORNIA

SAN DIEGO .







31822017193749




MORALE

THE SUPREME STANDARD
OF LIFE AND CONDUCT



By
G. STANLEY HALL

Morale
Adolescence

Youth
Educational Problems

Founders of Modern
Psychology

These Are Appleton Books

D. APPLETON & COMPANY

Publishers New York



T 241



MORALE

THE SUPREME STANDARD
OF LIFE AND CONDUCT



BY

G. STANLEY HALL, PH.D., LL.D.

PRESIDENT OF CLARK UNIVERSITY

Author of " Adolescence," " Founders of Modern
Psychology," etc.




D. APPLETON AND COMPANY

NEW YORK LONDON

MCMXX



COPYRIGHT, 1920, BY
D. APPLETON AND COMPANY



PRINTED IN TH ONITBD STATES OF AMERICA



[PREFACE

The first draft of nearly half this present volume
was printed in the Psychological Bulletin (Vol. XV,
!No. 11). This part was somewhat radically revised,
and the substance of the volume as it now stands was
given in weekly lectures in Clark University during
the year 1918-19.

I hope that this concise survey of these very
diverse fields may be considered as a plea for a new
and more inclusive standard of the evaluation of
not only individuals but of human organizations, and
I would fain nope it may be worthy of a place as a
textbook in some of our higher institutions of learn-
ing, perhaps in place of the types of ethics now in
use. Our ideals of conscience, honor, and morals
generally have not accomplished all we have hoped
for. Why not try the standard of Morale here sug-
gested as more fitting for the conditions of modern
life?

I have been much aided in this work by the
Librarian of the University, Dr. Louis N. Wilson,
who has collected for our Library some 7,700 books
and pamphlets on the war, besides 2,200 not yet
catalogued, 312 serials which are not complete, 253

v



2049430



PKEFACE



maps, 6,200 posters, and 3,400 pictures. I am also
indebted to Miss Helen G. Elliot, who has this col-
lection in charge; and last but not least to my secre-
tary, Miss Mary M. McLoughlin, who has typed and
read the proof of the entire volume and has other-
wise been of great service. G. STANLEY HALL

CLARK UNIVERSITY



Vl



CONTENTS

PAGE
CHAPTER PREFACE V

I. MORALE AS A SUPREME STANDARD 1

Comparison of morale as the modern standard with
the standards of (I) Conscience, (II) Honor, (III)
the Superman, (IV) Morale.

II. MORALE, PATRIOTISM AND HEALTH 22

Our present problem of morale in general and espe-
cially in this country Its peculiar difficulties here
Its relations to health.

III. THE MORALE OF FEAR, DEATH, HATE, AND ANGER 35

I. Morale and the pss'chology of fear in war The
methods of its conquest II. Morale and death The
various attitudes of different types of soldiers to
death Burials, graveyards, and monuments Spirit-
ism III. Anger in life, in literature, and its place in
the present war.

IV. MORALE AND DIVERSIONS 70

I. Humor, wit and fun Its compensatory value for
morale II. Music aft the organ of affectivity Its
development in this country, France, England, and
Germany War poetry III. The soldier's reading.
V. THE MORALE OF PLACARDS, SLOGANS, DECORATIONS,

AND WAR MUSEUMS 86

I. The origin of pictures and posters and their func-
tions in this war II. Medals and other insigna of
honor in the different countries III. Museums and
collections of various kinds in different lands of
mementoes of the war.

VI. MORALE, SEX, AND WOMEN 101

I. Morale and sex in war The effects of war upon
this instinct Government prophylaxis Moralizing
methods in camp II. What women have done and
can do to sustain morale Their attitude toward the
soldier.

VII. WAR AIMS AND KNOWLEDGE 116

I. The need of soldiers to know what they are fighting
for II. The three stages of news-getting by the
American press Censorship The German system of
espionage and some methods of propaganda The
great need in this country of better knowledge of the
world's events.

vii



CONTENTS

CHAPTEB PAGE

VIII. CONSCIENTIOUS OBJECTOBS AND DIVEBSITIES o? PA-

TBIOTIC IDEALS 132

I. The treatment of objectors in lands where they are
recognized Fake objectors ; the proper test and
treatment II. Factors of patriotism Contrast in the
goals of military training between France and
Germany, viz. organization versus esprit The French
psychology of the attack.

IX. THE SOLDIEB IDEAL AND ITS CONSEBVATION IN PEACE. . 142
What is the ideal soldier? Value of the details of his
training Carrying on the war in peace True
Democracy Capital versus Labor America as the
"big brother" of the countries she has made
democratic.

X. MOBALE, TESTS, AND PEBSONNEL WOBK 153

Recent studies of types of character Testing soldiers
and officers The development of personnel work in
the army and in industry Dangers here of substitut-
ing Kultur for culture in general and the same danger
now imminent in psychology.

XI. SPECIFIC MOBALE FOB THE ARMY 173

Outline of the Munson memorandum Characteriza-
tion of the methods of developing morale in Camp
Greenleaf Lessons of this work.

XII. MOBALE AND REHABILITATION OF THE WOUNDED 188

The state of mind of the maimed soldier and how it
has been met The marvelous work of the surgeon
The persuader What is done in the various countries
to restore the soldier to efficiency and settle him in a
vocation Success here second to no other triumph of
morale

XIII. THE LABOB PBOBLEM: 201

The necessity of studying and realizing the funda-
mental needs of labor everywhere for food, domestic
life, ownership, recreation, work, intellectual activity,
and association with fellow-men The power of labor
to reconstruct the world not realized by capital.

XIV. MOBALE AND PROHIBITION 219

The suddenness and extent of prohibition as one cause
of world unrest Comparisons with the effects of
hunger The rOle of food shortage in the development
of the race Labor meetings as a substitute for the
saloon Projection of alimentary diseasement and the
need of stimulation outward

XV. MOBALE AND PBOFITEEBINQ 230

War always followed by a period of greed Its
camouflages The cures of (a) publicity; (b) ridicule;
(c) portrayals of the simple life ; (d) morale and
revolution The need of studying as well as burning
anarchistic literature

viii



CONTENTS

CHAPTEB PAGES

XVI. MORALE AND FEMINISM 241

Why woman suffrage has done so little Why its
leaders are so averse to the recognition of sex differ-
ences in this age when individual differences are so
studied Incompleteness of women without children
The results of her inferiority of physical strength
List of sex differences Ultimate goal of the woman
movement Secondary sex differences in psychoanaly-
sis Problems to which woman should address herself
Marriage and divorce.

XVII. . , MORALE AND EDUCATION 271

War activities in schools, including pre-military train-
ing A paido versus a scholio-centric system The
trend from culture to Kultur and how to check it
The rehumanization of the classics The humanistic
side of science Modifications needed in history and
sociology Education and psychology living in a pre-
evolutionary age Religious, medical, and legal train-
ing Faculty and school-board reforms.

XVIII. MORALE AND STATESMANSHIP 293

The tendency of the soundest minds to become neu-
rotic when confronted by great problems The
Nemesis of mediocrity Disproportionate magnifica-
tion of items of the Treaty Loss of perspective and
of the power to compromise Failure of the League as
involving a relapse to the old selfish continental policy
of each nation for itself.

XIX. MORALE AND "THE REDS" 316

The intense appeal of radicalism The need of a new
type of professor of economics Hatred of the "Reds"
for nationalism and substitution of war between
classes for the war between states The international
principle What Bolshevik "nationalization" of prop-
erty would mean in this country Its undemocracy
The religious movement vs. it in Russia Labor re-
organization the hope of the world.

XX. MORALE AND RELIGION 342

Peculiar dangers of lapse to lower levels in religion
Sympathy between Catholicism and Teutonism In
how far the former is un-democratic The need and
opportunity for a new dispensation in religion, with
hints as to its probable nature.

r.IBLIOCBAFIJY 373



ix



MORALE

THE SUPREME STANDARD
OF LIFE AND CONDUCT



CHAPTER I

MORALE AS A SUPREME STANDARD

Comparison of morale as the modern standard with the standards of
(I) Conscience, (II) Honor, and (III) the Superman.

Is there any chief end of man, any goal or destiny
supreme over all others? If so, and if found, we shall
have in the degree of approximation to it the best of
all scales on which to measure real progress in terms
of which all human values are best stated and defined.
I answer that there is such a goal and that it took
the awful psychic earthquake of war to reveal it in its
true perspective and to show us its real scope. It is
simply this to keep ourselves, body and soul, and our
environment, physical, social, industrial, etc., always
at the very tip-top of condition. This super-hygiene
is best designated as Morale. It implies the maximum
of vitality, life abounding, getting and keeping in the
very center of the current of creative evolution ; and
minimizing, destroying, or avoiding all checks, ar-
rests, and inhibitions to it. This mysterious de-
velopmental urge, entelechy, will-to-live, elan vital,
horme, libido, nisus, or by whatever name it be called,
which made all the ascending orders of life and in
Mansoul itself evolved mind, society, language, myths,
industry, gods, religion in short all human institu-
tions, and lastly science, is in some strong, in others



MOKALE

weak, and in the same individual it is now high, now
low ; but its presence makes, and its absence destroys
morale. The story of the retardations and advance-
ments of this great energy in the cosmos constitutes,
every kind of real history. It is the only truly divine
power that ever was or will be. Hence it follows that
morale thus conceived is the one and only true religion
of the present and the future, and its doctrines are the
only true theology. Every individual situation and in-
stitution, every race, nation, class, or group, is best
graded as ascendant or decadent by its morale, hard
to guage as this most imponderable, vital, and fluctu-
ating of all spiritual qualities is. It is exquisitely
sensitive . to temperature, climate, health, rest or fa-
tigue, knowledge, tradition, and every social influ-
ence. If God be conceived as immanent, as thus im-
plied, and not as ab extra and transcendent, which is
idolatry, we might define morale in terms of the
Westminster divines as glorifying God; while the
other half of this famous definition of man's chief end,
"and enjoy Him forever," is simply transcendental
selfishness. True morale is never motivated by the ex-
pectation of pay or pain in another world.

I. Morality and conscience. How, then, does morale
differ from morality? I answer it recognizes and does
justice to the unconscious and instinctive impulsions
to virtue, as the Stoic-Christian ethics of conscience
does not. Seneca's Mens sibi conscia reoti could
make the good man happy in poverty, disgrace, and
even when tortured to death as a martyr; while the.



MORALE AS A SUPREME STANDARD

tyrant, though rich and honored by all, was in his
heart miserable because he lacked this inner sense of
right. Kant's conception of duty as sublime as the
starry heavens and as purged of every vestige of
hedonism, as making behavior conform to the prin-
ciples of universal law-giving, subjecting every issue
to the acid test of asking what if everybody should
do so these were indeed sublime ideas. So, too, is
toleration, although it is very hard indeed unless
belief is already cankered by doubt.

These lofty conceptions, however, are only a part of
morale. Conscience is the very acme of self-con-
sciousness. It involves deliberation and excludes
most of those energies of the soul that are bewusst-
seinsunfdhig or which cannot get into the narrow field
of consciousness. The case of conscience must be sub-
mitted to an inner oracle, but the brief which con-
sciousness submits can never contain all the data.
Hence comes casuistry and every kind of perversion,
e. g., the conscientious objector. The sins done in the
name of conscience are many and great ; hence codes
and laws are necessary.

The prizes offered for years by the French govern-
ment to boys in the Lycce for the best essays on moral
themes were so often won by the worst boys, who
could best praise the very virtues they most violated,
that they were finally abandoned because it was real-
ized that these lads were partly camouflaging their
faults and developing hypocrisy; in other words, the
kind of morality thus secured was against the inter-

3



MORALE

ests of true morale. It was at best a kind of flirtation
with the cardinal virtues. Over-conscientiousness
tends to a kind of moral Fletcherism or excessive
mastication or rumination of motives. It has led to
all the contorted scrupulosities of the New England
conscience. This moral invalidism is often interest-
ing, perhaps pathetic and even tragic in its issue. It
keeps good resolutions playing over the surfaces of
the soul, which is enervated if they are not enforced.

Several decades ago the French began collecting in-
stances of conspicuous virtue and now have a score or
two of school texts which they have gathered not
merely from incidents recorded in the daily press but
from their history and literature, and these instances
of heroism, these golden deeds, are set forth for the
inspiration of the young. Altogether they constitute
most interesting and profitable data from which the
most obvious inference is that in most of these cases a
sudden crisis was sprung and the deed was done quite
without reflection or any kind of moral or other con-
sciousness, because the morale of the doer was already
high or rose suddenly to the emergency. There was
no time for conscience to act or for temptation but
only a sudden realization of an instinct latent in all
of us which points true as the compass to the pole to
the highest goal of the individual and of the race, viz.,
the gregarious or social instinct, which has such
countless modes of expression.

Years ago a rich church-lady fell from a Brooklyn
ferry-boat and was saved by a rough English tar who,

4



MORALE AS A SUPREME STANDARD

seeing her fall, plunged in and saved her by clinging
to a cake of floating ice. With some difficulty the
man was found and brought to a church-vestry meet-
ing, eulogized, congratulated, given a purse, and a
medal was pinned on his jacket; and finally, despite
his intense aversion, he was almost dragged to the
front and made to tell about the act. About all he
could say was that the boat gave a lurch, she pitched
into the water, and he of course hopped in, only doing
his duty as anyone would do. But he added "I ain't
no hero, and if I'd a' supposed you'd a' thought a
common fellow like me was tryin' to do a big thing
and would a' made such a fuss about it, I'd a' let the

d old woman drown." He got away from the

church as soon as he could, and the next morning
found him in a police court for drunkenness and dis-
order. Money and medal were gone, and fame knew
him no more. In this case we have a deed prompted
by high morale which was probably weakened by be-
ing made conscious.

If we always did right, we should no more know
that we had a conscience than the well man knows he
has a stomach, heart, or nerves. To be conscious of
conscience means that evil has found entrance and
that if we now do right, we do so only with a majority
of our faculties and not unanimously with them all.
Very, much good is done in this way, to be sure, but it
is not virtue of the purest order but of a secondary
quality. Virginal purity never debates or parleys,
for to deliberate is too of tem to be lost. The teachable

5



MORALE

morality of our texts of ethics is of a lower order than
the intuitive or automatic. The world needs it badly
enough but it is essentially remedial. It is not so
much primordial innocence as moral convalescence.
Hence it is not better to have sinned and be saved
than never to have sinned at all. The old sailor felt
that to be made conscious of his good deed brought
deterioration of its quality. If the best of us have
erred, every one of the worst of us has, like him, some
traits of pristine, unfallen, spontaneous goodness.
Even though our moral instinct is not strong enough
to keep us always right ; even though we are not like
the child who may touch fire, or the chick that may
peck at its excrements once but never again; even
though we may have become acutely conscious of
wrong in us to extirpate it, the essential thing is that
there is the latent impulse back of and prompting all
the conscious phenomena and that we do not find it
in any school of current ethics. Although conscience
can and will yet do very much in the world, it is no
longer the supreme oracle it once was thought to be.
II. Honor. In this twilight of conscience the guide
most would now turn to is honor, which is a very dif-
ferent sentiment. A slur upon it makes the most
cowardly boy fight, the most unabashed girl blush
and weep, and the dread of the loss of it impels men
to face death in almost any form. Life is a paltry
thing if it must be lived in dishonor. Like conscience,
it is very subject to perversions and may become ca-
pricious and fantastic. Indeed it may be but a

6



MORALE AS A SUPREME STANDARD

crabbed and shriveled remnant of what it once was,
but it is never absent even among thieves, prostitutes,
and beggars. If it is threatened, the Japanese* knight
trained in the chivalric code of bushido seeks death
by hara-kiri. What would any modern social group
think of a man who would not defend his lady escort
against brutality even though he risked his life to do
so? In the medieval courts of love and under the
lofty ideals of King Arthur and the Round Table and
the Grail, honor was discussed, idealized, defined, and
codified. It was defined as living and acting as if
noble ladies were always looking on. A German
pamphlet tells us that under the dueling code of the
corps a member may be declared dishonorable on any
one of sixty- three points, for offense against each of
which he must win back his honor on the Mensur. It
is sought in badges, titles, and decorations. True, it
is of pagan origin and our academic moralists give it
scant recognition, but it must be reinstalled and rein-
terpreted. Aristotle thought it embodied in his ideal
of the "magnanimous man," dignified in mien, slow of
speech and movement, unerring in judgment, and in
conflict always able to find a higher way out. Thus
it is older than Christianity, and its ideals perhaps
on the whole are somewhat more akin to those of the
superman than they are to those of Christianity, but
the true gentleman can pity even those whom he may
feel that selection ought to exterminate. The man of
honor despises all dignity and praise not based on
genuine intrinsic merits. At his best he is marked in

7



MOKALE

all his ways by a distinction so natural that it seems
innate, and his friendship, wherever he bestows it, is
an honorary degree. True, it is a military virtue
perhaps rather more than one of peace. At its best
it prompts one to ask in every emergency what 5s the
ideal course to pursue, the highest, purest, most dis-
interested motive to act from, the loftiest and not
the most expedient solution. The man of honor would
choose to be refuted by merely specious arguments
rather than to use them and win out.

Dishonor is to succeed in anything, great or small,
by trick or subterfuge. Honor is to do right, but
not because it would be embarrassing to be found out
wrong. It cannot accept secret rebates, adulterate or
partake in corporate practices that as individuals one
would shrink from. It cannot be silent in view of im-
position and outrage when exposure would put them
both to flight. Those who do this cannot be called
gentlemen. Shall we go farther and say that it is dis-
honorable to accept from any source a dollar that one
has not earned by a real service? Honor's true knight
will keep a personal conscience that neither party
allegiance nor popular clamor can silence. His maxim
will not be the craven one of "Make no enemies what-
ever befalls," but "Make all the enemies of truth,
right, justice, and decency between man and man in
your community your" own."

This spirit is akin to that of true sportsmanship.
Many remember the critical moment in an Interna-
tional Tennis Championship game before the war

8



MORALE AS A SUPKEME STANDARD

when the representative of this country made a fluke
which would have lost us the championship had not
the English champion purposefully made exactly the
same fluke because he did not deem it honorable to
win on an accident. It is by no means true that this
spirit animates all our great games in this country,
for there are still too many secret practices, tricks,
and unfair advantages to make these games ideal
schools of honor. There is hardly any amusement,
even those most tabooed, which might not be permit-
ted if it could only be made a school of honor pure and
undefined, and not of the dishonor which seeks to win
at any price. Its standard of life is single, not double.
It keeps the spirit as well as the letter of the profes-
sional codes. It is to the inner all that the best man-
ners and style are to the outer life. It is the best bond
and boon of friendship, another of the forgotten pagan
virtues which in its classical sense of Aristotle and
Cicero can live again only in its atmosphere. Indeed
honor is capable of being construed as almost the
whole of the inner vocation of man. It is more elastic
than conscience. In the days of the French Commune
a captain was seized on a baseless pretext and trun-
dled in a tumbrel to the guillotine. His young wife,
in tears and agony, catching sight of him, tried to
press through the crowds to stand by his side. See-
ing her, he shouted, "Take her away; I do not know
and never saw her," because he knew that recognition
would involve her in his doom. Was this love, or
honor, or both? Together they most certainly make

9



MORALE

the most precious metal that human life can produce.

In fine, we must not forget that the noblest function
of honor is to regulate love for and duties to pos-
terity, for all the issues of future generations are now
committed to the honor of young men and young
women. Its distinction is to preside over the race ; to
keep love high, pure, and wedded to religion, for
each alone can keep the other pure; and to be for
every age the present representative of that great
cloud of witnesses who, in the long perspective of
future generations, will throng the earth when we
are gone, and compared to which the fifteen hundred
million people alive to-day are but a handful. Honor
should be thus the native breath and vital air of the
true lady and gentleman, and in putting its cult for
a time in the place so long occupied by that of con-
science, a great gain will ensue.

III. The superman. Nietzsche has best formulated
this ideal, which has inspirations for many in our day
all its own. The conception of the superman claims
to be a corollary of Darwin's struggle to survive and
win the largest "place in the sun." In the long struggle
of evolution the fittest have always won out and the
unfit or less fit have always died out. Progress all the
way from the amoeba to man has been marked by the
death of laggards or backsliders who failed in the
competition. Hence for the superman pity means de-
generation of the world and degradation for him.
Jesus was the arch plotter against the advancement
of the race by teaching tenderness to weaklings. He

10



MOEALE AS A SUPREME STANDARD

thus indefinitely retarded the progress of humanity
and in fact was Himself a pitiful degenerate, whom
we must nevertheless not pity but whom we may im-
precate and curse. If Russia to-day illustrates the
effects of the diametrically opposite interpretation of
evolution, so far as society goes, as altruism and mu-
tual help under the stress of the herd instinct (Kro-
potkin and his adherents), the very soul of Germany,
on the other hand, especially its militarism, was no
less saturated by the gospel of Nietzsche, as is set
forth by her military writers from Clausewitz to



Online LibraryG. Stanley (Granville Stanley) HallMorale, the supreme standard of life and conduct → online text (page 1 of 25)