G. Stanley (Granville Stanley) Hall.

Morale, the supreme standard of life and conduct online

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where to take the helm and reorganize the world.
The best of us have not seen that labor to-day, if it
fully realizes its power and can organize, has the
world "on the hip" and can radically reconstruct our
entire industrial system, destroy all the economic ad-
vantages which our size and resources make possible
and which we have so fondly counted upon after the
war. The gravest of all its bequests to this restora-
tion period is the problem whether we have leaders
who are at once informed, sagacious, and foresightful
enough to find or make a way out of the present dead-
lock, which the story of the labor conference at Wash-
ington now ought to bring home to all of us. The



morale of Capital and also of Labor and their rela-
tions to each other is at present very low, and until
there is a new morale for both, we can never have in-
dustrial peace. The Whitley report shows that Eng-
land, owing probably to the better organization of
her boards of trade and chambers of commerce, is
much farther on in the way of this peace than we are.
.While this plan could not be adopted without modifi-
cations to fit it to our conditions, it is a hopeful sign
that if employers like Judge Gary have as yet little
conception of the new industrial revolution that is
now pending, others like John D. Rockefeller, Jr.,
with his plan of a hierarchy of joint council from
the smaller local plants up to those of national di-
mensions, have glimpsed a way of setting a backfire
to the insidious soviet principle that workers alone
shall rule the world.

It now begins to seem not impossible that the time
will come sooner or later when we shall have to face
the issue between the utter loss of our present pro-
ductive power and of our industrial and commercial
prospects on the one hand or, on the other, the revo-
lutionary reversal of our present restrictions on im-
migration and import some millions of Asiatic toilers
to check the profiteering spirit of labor leaders.

In ancient Rome, the women, Zeller (in his Vor-
trdge und Abhandlungen) tells us, were fabled to
have struck and declared they would bear no chil-
dren until the Senate granted them certain rights.
This, of course, was a measure far more desperate



than present methods and one not yet resorted to in
modern life. He also tells us how when the pipers
struck and marched to Tiburnum, they had Rome at
their mercy for there could be no sacrifices to the gods,
no religious processions, no marriages or funerals.
This suggests what might happen if to-day the clergy
should strike and close all the churches, the results of
which an anonymous recent skit has amplified. In
the medieval university students often struck against
their dons and also against the municipalities and
even kings and popes, and it was thus they won their
ancient liberties and privileges ; while to-day students
and even school classes and teachers themselves have
taken similar measures, and it is not entirely incon-
ceivable that our modern educational institutions
may thus some day tie up the sources of knowledge.
These things may happen on a larger scale, and even
courts, legislative bodies, kings, and presidents may
follow suit. But even this would be less disastrous
in its immediate effects than if the miners combined
to freeze us and food producers should conspire to
starve us to their terms. Capital might withdraw, and
all bankers, millionaires, and heavy stockholders re-
tire with all their holdings to some far off Plutocria
of their own, beyond the reach of every confiscatory
method, and leave the rest of the world to syndicalists
and socialists, and all the wage-earners the world
over might at a predetermined day and hour paralyze
all occupations. At any rate such vague possibilities
may hearten us that the worst has not yet come.




The suddenness and extent of prohibition as one cause of world un-
rest Comparisons with the effects of hunger The r61e of food
shortage in the development of the race Labor meetings as a
substitute for the saloon Projection of alimentary diseasement
and the need of stimulation outward.

Practically every great nation and race in history
and even savage tribes have had some form of stimu-
lating beverage or drug, and this has often played
a very prominent role in their social customs and re-
ligious rites. Even the Christian Church has utilized
wine in one of its chief sacraments. While there have
always been ascetics, the great majority of men who
have lived on this earth have, at least occasionally,
drunk something stronger than water. However
convincing the physiological data which favor ab-
stinence may be and this, I believe, is by no means
a closed question the psychological and social effects
of such a stimulus have by no means been sufficient-
ly studied and, what is perhaps no less important,
the few and significant data we have in this field
have not yet been given their true evaluation.

Not only laborers but the average man and, indeed,
his forebears for generations have had their tipple,
and for a very large proportion of them beer or light
wine has been, used habitually and daily. Of these



moderate drinkers there are perhaps few who have
put themselves hors de combat by a "spree."

Science tells us what few users would deny that
it is not the very best food and even that it has some
qualities of poison; but so do some of our habitual
foods, as well as tea and coffee. The user, however,
insists that it does certain things for him all its own
and so persists, if he can, in using it. He believes
it rests and happifies him. It may draw a little on
his physiological reserves, but he often needs to use
it to keep the pace or to be contented. It is a sedative,
a banisher of care, trouble, and worry, tending to
make one live in the present and banish disquietude
about the future and dim unpleasant memories of
the past. If it dulls his intelligence a bit, that itself
is often a relief. If his food is poor and scanty, he
thinks he has something that can to some extent
make good the deficit, and he feels dietary shortage
or error less consciously. If his wages are small and
his work hard, he has a solace.

The saloon is a social as well as dietetic institu-
tion and it also stimulates the sociability and good
fellowship so satisfying to gregarious man. In the
saloon many find one of the chief joys of life. They
feel relaxation and stimulus combined in proportions
which are most agreeable, and go home to happier
sleep and more pleasant dreams for it all and back
to work in the morning with pleasing memories and
anticipations. The moderate user loaths the sot and
is indignant at the reformer who intimates that he is



in danger of becoming one. The more intelligent
advocates of temperance have recognized the social
function of convivial drinking and have tried long,
if not very wisely and successfully, to provide a
psychic substitute, not only for beverages that cheer
and can inebriate but also for the saloon itself. It
is much that the need of such a vicariate has been

Now, suddenly and with none of these palliatives
or ameliorations, the saloons throughout the country
are closed, the currents of habit dammed, and one
of the staple intakes of a large proportion of the
world's workers is cut off by drastic and penal leg-
islation. Upon whom does the chief burden of hard-
ship fall? Not upon the manufacturers, for they
are a small minority; not upon the bartenders who
have been thrown out of business, although they are
many and have much political and social influence;
not upon habitual drunkards, for they, too, are a
small minority; but chiefly upon those who indulge
only in moderation. Some of these have welcomed
the new law because it strengthened in them eco-
nomic or hygienic impulses in the same direction
which, without this external aid, were too feeble to
act. The consciences of these have been reen forced.
Crime and disorder due to inebriation have been
everywhere decreased, it is true. But the great ma-
jority of moderate users feel that one of the inherent
rights of man has been invaded and experience a
goading sense of injustice. Perhaps they are better



off and will admit it later, but nevertheless the
effect of this abrupt breaking of a fixed habit of the
individual and of the race is bound to cause deep
and .widespread, if rather slow and to the psycho-
logical laity undetected, results.

Ask anyone who has tried to give up smoking (and
this is a practice which the new lady voters and
their followers, and the parsons and pedagogues
which have sometimes been called a third sex and
all their followers will next try to stop) how he felt,
and he will reply that the hours dragged, that he
was restless, uneasy, made changes in his daily habits,
sought new interests or diversions, or worried along
hoping that the uneasiness would abate or something
would turn up; or possibly he sought a substitute.
So, too, the moderate drinker seeks some other source
of mild psychic inebriation as a surrogate for the ex-
periences of the saloon and as a vent for his aimless,
ill-defined cravings. He is perhaps all unconsciously
discontented and his attitude is that of a seeker of
something, though he knows not what. He is a trifle
resentful, perhaps anxious and fearsome, before he
finds a definite object or cause for these feelings.
There is something lacking and his life seems a bit
void. Formerly he was able to change his inner states
at the bar, but now that this is impossible, the only
relief is in seeking a change in his outer situation in
order to reestablish the lost equilibrium with his en-
vironment. This is, of course, essentially uncon-
scious, and he has very little idea of what is taking



place within him. He knows nothing of the law of
psycho-kinetic equivalents for they work as secretly
and slowly as do irresistibly.

Now, all studies of fasting in men and animals,
as we have said above, show that shrinkage of rations
makes all creatures restless. Incipient starvation has
played an important if not the chief r61e in all tho
great migrations of insects, fish, birds, higher mam-
mals, and men. The westward sweep over southern
Europe of Huns, Vandals, and other wild tribes from
western and southern Asia is now known to have
been caused by a physiological upset due to climatic
changes attending the desiccation of a great internal
sea that made waste and arid wide spaces that had
once been fertile and capable of supporting large
populations. When the food supply grows scanty,
every living thing that has organs of locomotion
mobilizes for a trek in quest of better food areas. If
it is impossible to change the habitat, then the state
of mind undergoes a change under the same princi-
ple of compensation. Not only do men, as Napoleon
said, fight on their stomachs, but courage, persever-
ancej temperance, and even public sentiment and
opinion depend largely on the normality of nutritive
processes. We even hear much, now of the herbivor-
ous and carnivorous types of character in man, but
a volume would hardly suffice to enumerate the basic
facts that show how hunger is a coregent of love in
the world.

If alcohol is the vicious thing physiologically it



is now commonly said to be, even the moderate drink-
er under prohibition must be regarded somewhat as
a patient undergoing a more or less unwilling cure.
His whole system in general, and his metabolic ac-
tivities in particular, are in process of refunctioning
if not of reconstruction. Especially his stomach,
liver, kidneys, and brain, which school temperance
books and cuts depict as so disorganized and morbid,
must undergo a considerable change in order to be-
come normal, and so we must expect our patients to
be irritable, and make all due allowances and pro-
vision for this. It is thus characteristic of this state
of mind that if it cannot find outlet, it is prone to
make an object for this smothered resentment. If
thwarted in one direction, man seeks vent for his
feelings in another. Thus it comes that if the tem-
perancelers are too strongly entrenched to be over-
come, the former would-be drinker turns against
capital, employers, and the industrial system, or at
least is more ready to listen to the advocates of radi-
cal views.

Deprived of the conviviality of the saloon he finds
a proxy for it in strike meetings, where common
cause brings him very close to his fellow-men. When
the bars are closed his recourse is the streets, and if
there is a mob or riot he finds in these a source of ex-
citement which he once found in the bottle or the
glass. Instead of a few boon companions he seeks
vent for his social instincts in the crowd, and the dis-
content of his alimentary tract is projected outward



upon his general social and industrial environment.

Teetotalism has its place, and a very important
one in the cure of chronic inebriates, and we all know;
the arguments and statistics of the temperance propa-
ganda by heart; but of the other side we know far
less. Most great reforms come slowly, but here actu-
al prohibition has come almost like a shock and the
whole autonomic system has to make readjustments
as best it can. Thus a psychologist seeks to find the
relation between the prohibition of Vodka and the
Russian debacle and Bolshevism, as well as between
industrial and social unrest; and in this country the
epidemic of strikes, which S. C. Mason of the Na-
tional Association of Manufacturers states has cost
us ten million dollars a day for the last eight months,
cannot be entirely disconnected from our sudden and
enforced abstinence.

Men in process of cure of the drink habit are more
particular a.bout their food and more dependent upon
both its quantity and quality. Better edibles have
long been known to be a safeguard against this habit,
and poor, badly-cooked, ill-adapted, or insufficient
nutriment is one of the chief causes of the craving
that may make the drunkard. Thus to set a table in
any sense or degree which can make up for the ta-
booed bar, especially with the present soaring prices,
is a graver problem than either wage-earner or house-
wife has yet learned to realize and which they are not
competent to solve if they do see it. That subtle and
of late much-discussed thing we call appetite, which at



its best impels all the processes of the lower and
even the higher activities of digestion, is so metamor-
phic that we cannot trace all its transformations,
one of which, some are now telling us, is hunger for
intellectual pabulum. But we do know that both
its normal and perverted forms are profound deter-
minants of both character and conduct and that its
satisfactions or thwartings on its different planes
have very much to do with the place of both indivi-
duals and communities on the algedonic scale; and
also that they are potent factors in activation or

The saloon, indeed, has always played a great so-
cial role, far more important than even psychological
sociologists have yet realized. It was the poor man's
club where he met his fellows, exchanged views and
concepts, learned what was going on in his environ-
ment, and got into more vital touch with it. It was
also a great political institution where the henchman
met his followers and won their votes. For this so-
cial intercourse he now substitutes a trade-union
meeting where his own individual interests are de-
bated by those in his calling, and here he seeks and
finds contact with narrow, more personal, and more
common interests.

One reason for this is the deep human need for ex-
citement. So urgent is this that if man cannot get
it by drink, he will work up calentures about the items
of his environment. Durkheim and his school think
the great step upward in the early history of man



was taken in the fervor of collective feeling, think-
ing, and acting, as in the savage corroboree ; and mild
inebriation, whether by drink, ideas, or common sen-
timents, not only fuses individual souls into a larger
whole but also and by many other means loosens
higher superindividual, racial energies, and inspires
each with the instinct of the herd. The deepest root
and chief charm of alcohol is that its cult mobilizes
the higher powers of men in its way and enables each
to draw on the stored capital of the species. This,
too, is its danger. A great many of the most signal
achievements of man in his progress upward have
been done in this exalted and inspired state when he
seems to be helped by powers higher than his own.
Religion itself owes much if not most of its in-
fluence to the fact that its cults placed at the dis-
posal of the individual those powers which inebria-
tion is the easiest and most vulgar way of getting at
and using.

Human nature will not give up this ready way of
access or appeal without an adequate substitute and
should not be expected to do so. Hence the demand
is now laid upon us as never before to find the sources
of legitimate excitement which may occasionally
arouse us to a higher pitch of abandon. To do this
is now one of the imperative tasks of morale in the
interest not only of education but of industrial, so-
cial, and civic life. Many if not most of the great
questions of this reconstruction era have been more
warmed and heated than they would otherwise have



been because this ready recourse to low-level stimu-
lus has been removed.

Drunkenness is a terrible disease, and perhaps it
needed a no less drastic cure than prohibition. But
the patients have now convalesced from the disease
itself and are like men who, having taken drugs
that had checked the invasion of noxious germs, must
now undergo a subsequent convalescence from the
effects of the strong antidotes that must be elimin-
ated from their systems. If they are cured of the
disease, they are not yet cured of the medicine.

There was a time when men found needed excite-
ment in religion, which sometimes lapsed to orgies
and even debauches. Some of the most intense ex-
periences of the race and the individual have been in
this domain, but that is no longer the case. Wars,
panics, great psychic epidemics, have swept over the
world, and along with their devastations have also
served as vents to compensate man for the long re-
pressions that society and the mores always impose.
In ancient Rome the circus, in Spain the bull-fight,
in various Catholic countries the customs of Mardi
Gras, the carniral of the Corso, hallowe'en, April
FooPs Day, where liberty degenerates into license
and everyone feels impelled to let himself go and for
the time being breaks the monotony and routine of
life, and now perhaps the mild excitement of the
movies, prize-fights, and our great national games
may serve something of this purpose. But the aver-
age modern toiler, especially in this country, knows



little or nothing of any of these and so turns to dissi-
pation or drink, which in a sense must vicariate for
all of them. Our problem thus is to see that as the
world "goes dry," the human soul must not dessicate.
Plato longed for a day when statesmen would become
philosophers; and philosophers, statesmen. Now we
are realizing that for many reasons and in manj;
fields legislators ought to be psychologists. But, alas !
we are about as far from realizing the classical as the
modern ideal. The psychologists have a duty here in
this reconstruction period which they have not yet



War always followed by a period of greed Its camouflages The
cures of (a) publicity; (b) ridicule; (c) portrayals of the simple
life; (d) morale and revolution The need of studying as well aa
burning anarchistic literature.

War always upsets industry. Young men are
called to the colors, and older men and .women and
boys and girls take their places. The vast supplies,
stores, munitions, and ships that must be provided in
as short a time as possible transform the machinery
of production and distribution and cause general un-
settlement. The government comes to the aid or as-
sumes control of our great public service corpora-
tions. There is great centralization of power and
perhaps arbitrary use of it, and lavish and often in-
considerate expenditure. Thus, along with and often
as if in compensation for the glow of patriotic and
self-abnegating enthusiasm, arises a spirit of greed
and profiteering. Wages and prices seesaw upward,
and the motive of public good gives place to that of
private or personal profit. Even those who respond
generously to the many war charities and other calls
cannot resist the temptation to make excessive
profits, opportunities for doing which are so many
and alluring. Legislation against the high cost of
living, the sale at cost of government stores, ex-



posure of wrong-doing, court procedures, and public-
ity can help a little; but so strong and fundamental
is the lust to own and acquire, so well entrenched,
able, and subtle are the defenses of even the most ob-
noxious trust methods of hoarding and manipulating
the market, and so many are the members of our law-
giving bodies who secretly hold retainers for the in-
terests, and so powerful and sagacious are their lob-
bies that the best legislation can only slightly miti-
gate the evil, for the more reformatory the laws, the
more difficult it is to execute them. "Why should and
how could I refuse to accept high selling rates like
my competitors? The purpose of business is to make
all the money it can, whether from a government con-
tract or customers, and to ask me to charge less than
I can get is not only an interference with the liberty
of trade but is a blow at my rights and those of eco-
nomic society. How can I be asked to forego the ad-
vantages others are utilizing to the uttermost? Is it
not rather my right and my duty to enter and stay
in the battle of competition and enlarge my business
and. make it lucrative by every decent means?"

To meet this spirit by an appeal to the good of
the community as a whole, or by preaching the re-
ligious duty of self-subordination, service, and sacri-
fice, or by portraying the evils of selfishness is insuffi-
cient The profiteer often gives generously to his
Church, if he has one, and feels especially that if he
has made honest returns of his property and income
and paid all the taxes the government claims, he has



done his duty to his country. Perhaps he does more
yet by way of charities and feels that he has bought
and paid for protection and immunity. Moreover, he
has laws or can have them made, or else can find able
counsel to justify ways of legal evasion from those
which would curb his excesses. In fact, neither
charity, patriotism, nor good citizenship as he con-
ceives them offers any formidable barrier to his lust
for gain. Perhaps he is even considered generous to
his employees and has won and is proud of their
loyalty, and is thought honest, benevolent, and pub-
lic-spirited in his community. But for all this the
profiteer lacks the very basis of business morale.

.What is this and how can it appeal to him? This
is one of the hardest and most pressing problems of
the whole reconstruction morale. To find an ade-
quate answer would be to find a way of escape from
one of the greatest dangers that threaten human so-
ciety to-day. Perhaps there is no remedy and perhaps
no safeguard can be found. Ancient states, especially
Greece and Kome, perished because they could find
no means of checking the disintegration of their
social and political organizations by the lust of per-
sonal aggrandizement. They declined so far because
public spirit died. Are we destined to share their
fate? The torch of their civilization not only burned
dimly but would have gone out completely, and the
world would have been plunged into utter darkness
but for the timely advent of Christianity. But can
we hope for any new dispensation as regenerative



as that was to save us from a more complete fall?

Many corrective agencies besides the appeal to leg-
islation and. courts are already at work, others sug-
gested, and still others are possible for both the trusts
that squeeze competition and the profiteering that

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Online LibraryG. Stanley (Granville Stanley) HallMorale, the supreme standard of life and conduct → online text (page 15 of 25)