G. Stanley (Granville Stanley) Hall.

Morale, the supreme standard of life and conduct online

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do everything that he does, in his way, and because
he does it, must be radically modified. Woman's na-
ture and needs must be reformulated, and she must
recognize that many of those very qualities which, she
has hitherto kept in abeyance and suppressed, because
they differentiated her from man, should be activated.
Only by doing this in the industrial, social, domestic,
intellectual, and even marital relations can she jus-
tify all the great new opportunities which are now
opening to her throughout the world. The problem
of "What next?" for her, therefore, requires a new
and more advanced program for the future, since
much as she has won of late, these achievements are
only prolegomena and she is still far from her ulti-
mate goal. All that she has accomplished represents
only the preparatory stages of the struggle to attain
what she really wants.

There is already a vast mass of data, experiment
al, historical, sociological, economic, anthropological,
and biological, and such a maze of opinions and an



all-pervasive bias, conscious and unconscious, even
among experts, that the attempt to find a consensus
as to real sex differences and tab off its items may
seem, curiously enough, at the same time both over-
bold and commonplace.

Woman certainly has less physical strength than
man. The war has shown this for she has not fought
in the trenches. Botchkareva 1 was herself a prodigy
of valor and endurance but her "Battalion of
Death" was depleted to one-fourth, not by battle but
by the inherent unfitnesses of her sex for warfare,
which is the field par excellence for Adler's "manly
protest." She faces death in most of its forms more
heroically than man but not mutilation. Physical
training improves her no less, but her ideal is not
that of a Hercules. The very fact that she is inferior
in muscular power has made her turn to subtlety,
persuasion, and moral force for attaining her ends,
which are more spiritual. As by her tact, insight,
and altruistic devotion to offspring she tamed and
domesticated savage man, so now by these same quali-
ties, more enlightened, resourceful, and concerted,
she faces the greater task of purging modern society
of its gross selfishness, for this is the root of all our
evils political, industrial, social and moral. Per-
haps nowhere are virile qualities more stimulated
than in warfare; nowhere do men get so close to-
gether as in the camp and trench. Despite woman's
disapproval of war it is just these qualities that are

1 Maria Botchkareva : TasHJca, My Life as Peasant, Officer and
Eeile, N. Y. f Stokes, 1919.


most attractive to her. She not only abhors the
slacker (and whoever heard of a hero of romance who
was not athletic!) but instinctively encourages war
by her worship of the uniform because it is a symbol
of man's power to protect defenseless motherhood
and childhood. In this way she more or less offsets
her work for peace. Nothing is thus more obvious
than the fact that in all those forms of physical labor
that involve the larger fundamental muscles dig-
ging, most of the activities of farming, lumbering,
road-making, transportation by sea and land, build-
ing, fisheries, and the severer forms of athletics, she
cannot compete with man, and because of her func-
tions in transmitting life, the industries she enters
should require less uniformity, to which her nature
submits with more danger.

A volume would not suffice to describe the differ-
ences of the sexes at every stage and in every condi-
tion of life. There is little clear difference in the
acuity of the senses, reaction and association time,
memory, or class rank in all academic grades (in
which, indeed, she is often superior to the male, so
that she has abundantly justified her right to the
higher education everywhere). She distinctly excels
man in color perception and appreciation. The whole
world of flowers and. even plant forms have a message
for her that man knows not of. They are often given
half-human characteristics and perhaps embody dis-
tinct moral qualities. Woman is better oriented in
her immediate environment, and less likely to be in-



formed about things that are afar in time and space
and do not immediately concern her. She also pre-
sentifles more and better than man, that is, sees
everything in terms of the here and now. She under-
stands other women better than man understands
other men, and judges and measures man by different
standards from those which he applies to his fellow-
men. She is vastly more altruistic. Her love is more
absorbing and its loss less consolable. Her religious
instincts are far stronger. Her moods are more vari-
able and periodically conditioned. Her emotional
nature is richer, deeper, stronger, and it is in this do-
main now just beginning to reveal its secrets to psy-
chology that the mainsprings of life, health, success,
and failure are found. While we know much of the
adolescent boy, the adolescent girl is still one of the
great mysteries. She matures earlier and passes her
prime sooner, but seems on the whole to live a little
longer. She needs more time for both her toilet and
regimen. As a girl she plays different games; pre-
fers different pets ; submits best to school discipline
and authority; has less power to organize; is more
plastic and adaptable and less often punished in
school; is far more conscientious about tasks and
"flunks" less; has a larger vocabulary in early life;
prefers and excels in language, literature, and the hu-
manities rather than in the more exact physical sci-
ences, while in biology and chemistry she is more
drawn to applications to life rather than to pure sci-
ence; she prefers the concrete to the abstract and is



more interested in persons than in ideas. Women
graduates marry by much less percentage than male
graduates. She knows and teaches young children
far better than man does. She suffers vastly more
during both pubertal and adolescent years from re-
pressions, is held in check by far more conventional
and social taboos of both conduct and expression, and
is more a slave to fashion. She is more liable to cer-
tain and less so to other diseases, in many of which
there are complications peculiar to her sex. She en-
dures most surgical operations better than man and
dreads them less. Her sex has furnished the great
majority of the complex and interesting cases upon
which psychanalysis is based, and this because of her
more exuberant, emotional, and imaginative life. She
has gathered most of the original data of paidology,
although man has done most in the way of writing it
up and systematizing it. At all ages she meets death
with more resignation and suffers less from fear of it.
If she commits suicide, it is by different methods and
for different causes. Woman's offenses against the
criminal law, too, differ radically from those of man.
The same is true of her social activities. Marriage
involves far more change in her inner and outer life
than it does for man, and is far more fateful either
for weal or woe. Like man ^he is sexed in very dif-
ferent degress, the excess in Tier tending to masochism
as in him it does to sadism. Her self-consciousness
takes a very different form. She is more intuitive
and man is more logical. Her sex instincts are more



rhythmic, less fulminating, with far wider psychic
irradiations, and she also has far more power of both
sublimation and repression.

Now, even these differences are inadequately rec-
ognized. Their implications are manifold, and the
practical application of them would involve social,
industrial, and educational readjustments of a far-
reaching nature, which if made would greatly en-
hance the efficiency of our civilization. If woman
would now reinterpret herself and her environment
more or less according to her nature and needs, she
could realize many possibilities now open which have
never been within reach before, the doors of which
will soon be closed if they are not entered now.

The ultimate goal of the whole feminist movement
is more independence, initiative, and control by
woman over her reproductive and domestic life. As-
suming that everything is right or wrong that is so
biologically and sociologically (which, by the way, is
one of the most pregnant postulates of our times in
its new quest for first principles), we may say that it
is both the right and duty of every woman to mate and
bear and rear children, to do this without stigma, and
to be sheltered and protected while doing it. Always,
and especially more when the world needs repopu-
lation, to refuse this function, if it can be performed
under tolerably normal conditions, is not only recre-
ancy but is akin to desertion. Moreover, it is a dwarf-
ing and a perversion of Nature's intent. This, too, is
the call of patriotism and religion. Selfishness, fas-



tidiousness, or timidity are no more excuses than they
are for slackerdom in war, and to face these obstacles
is woman's perpetual call to heroism.

Highly cultured mothers often hesitate long before
enlisting in this war against the race suicide of the
best. If they venture upon motherhood, it is but for
once or perhaps with the motto Uno sed leo, with the
excuse that their culture enables them to develop
their offspring so much more than the common
mother can do, that what is lacking in its number can
be made up by its quality. It is the sons and daugh-
ters of such who are liable to be handicapped later by
an aggravated mother-complex, from which more neg-
lect, wise or even unwise, would have saved them.
Nurture can never compensate for that most ancient
and precious of all worths, heredity. The only
child, especially of such over-careful parentage, spe-
cial studies show to be peculiar and almost always a
little warped and spoiled by overattention. 2

Here, too, we face the problem of birth control and
contraceptive methods, diffusion of the knowl-
edge of which so many eminent men, led perhaps by
the committee of one hundred prominent American
women, have of late actively espoused, although to
diffuse these methods is still a crime in the statute
books of many of our states. It is of course pathetic
that so many wives now bear children when they are
unfit or more than they can endow with health or de-

* E. W. Bohannon : A Study of Peculiar and Exceptional Children,
IV, 3 Fed. Sem., Oct., 1896 ; and The Only Child in a Family, V. 475,
Ibid, April, 1898.



cently provide for. While preventions of some usu-
ally traditional kind are known and used everywhere,
even among savage tribes, there is a large section of
society, generally the lowest and most prolific, that
knows them not, at least practically. These methods
of course offer a safeguard against the results of ille-
gitimate intercourse and may thus tend to increase it.
Surely physicians should have the right to prescribe
them, but there is great reason to doubt whether the
universal diffusion of this knowledge would be in
the interests of true human stirpiculture. We are
very far from being able yet to breed men as we breed
cattle. To achieve this end we must perhaps some-
time use contraception, but it is doubtful whether we
are yet near enough to the goal to make any general
propaganda of this mode of bettering humanity either
safe or wise. But this, again, is on the whole more a
woman's problem than it is a man's.

But we must go deeper yet to find the taproot of
the in>tersex problem. Some two-thirds of Darwin's
epoch-making "The Descent of Man" are devoted to
secondary sexual characters and traits. By this he
means sex differences other than those of the sex or-
gans and their functions, which are primary. In
chapters crowded with facts he traces secondary sex
differences in insects, fishes, lower and higher verte-
brates, including birds, and finally man. There are
differences in form sometimes amounting to dimor-
phism; there are also differences in color, stridula-
tion, voice, hair, strength, all the organs of conflict,



and a host of others. . In a sense, too, flowers and the
many devices of plants for securing cross fertilization
belong here. There are also differences in behavior,
showing off, ornamentation for allurement, etc. Proof
that all these structures and functions are connected
with sex is shown not only by the r61e they play in
the life of the various species but Dy the fact that
they develop at sex maturity and decline with

As we go up the scale, the male seems to win more
by using these secondary qualities, even pugnacity,
as a method of charming rather than forcing the fe-
male, and even if he has a mate for the season he must
win her anew at every approach for there is no mar-
riage among animals in the sense that there is but
one courtship and once winning is followed by sub-
jection ever after.

Now modern psych analysis has greatly extended
our knowledge of these secondary sex qualities in the
human species and shown them to be a far larger fac-
tor in life than we had supposed. It shows us that
many of the highest human qualities moral, re-
ligious, aesthetic, social in short that happiness,
health, and success in life generally are dependent to
a degree we never dreamed of upon the normality of
the vita sexualis. It has also shown us that the sex
instinct is the most plastic, educable, polymorphic,
and transformable of all things in human nature, that
its regimen conditions far more than we had dreamed
of in human life, and that its perversions are the



worst and its sublimations and spiritualizations the
best things in man's world. As Darwin shocked the
conservatives of his time by showing the great role
that secondary traits have played in all the stages of
animal evolution, so the psychanalysts of to-day are
showing the pervasiveness and dominance of second-
ary psychic sex qualities in hygiene, art, religion, lit-
erature, the formation of character, the determina-
tion of sanity and insanity, and in the production of
genius, so that to many sex in its larger sense now
seems the chief source of human energy and efficiency.
These studies, along with the hardly less important
researches of the so-called Pawlow school on the con-
ditional reflex, have now given a tremendous ree'n-
forcement to the old saw that love and hunger rule
the world. They are also showing that from a bio-
logical point of view man is sexually aberrant in that
in him alone mating has become an end in itself and
is vastly in excess of the needs of procreation. This
was the mystic fall of man. It was caused or exag-
gerated by three very important facts: (1) the devel-
opment of the hand and its possible misuse; (2) the
erect position, which made impregnation less certain ;
and (3) the use of clothing and fire, which made an
instinct that had been seasonal active throughout the

But the new dispensation of love seeks redemption
and would turn this curse into a blessing. To this
very excess of sex energy, because it is so metamor-
phic, man owes much of his higher development and



many of his greatest achievements, and our problem
now is to advance this process more consciously since
we are coming to understand it so much better. It
is most significant and fortunate that this new insight
coincides with the great advance in the influence of
woman in the world.

Now, the chief factor in the long-circuiting subli-
mation or irradiation of the sex impulse, not only into
Darwin's secondary sex qualities but also into the
higher cultural field, has been the hesitation or
reluctance of the female. If she had wooed and
made the advances, or even been won too easily, the
sex impulse would have been short-circuited and
the higher qualities would never have been developed.
In the larger sense courtship is not merely the formal,
conventional process society in different ages and
climes prescribes, but it consists in making oneself
as fit as possible to pass successfully the incessant
examination to which the nubile female is always sub-
jecting every nubile man in her environment. To fill
and satisfy thus woman's ideal is the acme of morale
in this field. Thus in a sense Miss Gamble is right
in saying that woman has made man by giving him
his best qualities by her coyness and resistance. A
humble missionary's son in an obscure corner of the
British colonial possessions fell in love with the
daughter of the governor of the province, who did not
reciprocate his advances. He resolved to make him-
self worthy, and so went home, studied, worked, and
rose until he finally was himself appointed governor



all to win the girl who made him, which he did.
It would be impossible to enumerate all the great
deeds, noble qualities, monumental works in every
field of art and literature which men have
achieved under the inspiration of women, and
this is the larger psychogenetic function of court-
ship. Some girls even develop ideal lovers (for
a salient illustration of which see the romantic
and anonymous story "Whispering Dust"), and may
be so fortunate as to find their ideal embodied in some
man. If not, they have to make compromises with
their ideal which are sometimes tragic unless the man
of their choice can develop toward the realization of
their dreams. Something of this sort all wooing
seeks more or less to achieve, and to stimulate it is
one of the chief prerogatives of woman. The girl who
goes in to win at any price and allows liberties in her
competition is thus recreant to one of the chief func-
tions of her sex, and the wife who favors or permits
marital approaches without a preliminary flushing
up of these higher secondary sex qualities in her mate
lowers the standards wliich it is the prime function
of her sex to keep high. Not only this, but the pre-
liminary activation of these higher powers must in
some way we do not yet fully understand mobilize
more of the pangens, ids, determinants, or other vital
units essential for giving the offspring the full benefit
of the higher heredity. Surely those conceived in this
way must be better endowed by Nature than those
conceived in sudden, brutish passion.



What we need to-day, then, is to know more about
the higher equivalents of sex, just as we are seeking
substitutes for war and drink, and it is fortunate for
the world that we are just now finding more of these
psycho-kinetic surrogates, proxies, and vicariates for
it. It was out of superfluous reproductive energy
that Nature evolved all the Darwinian secondary sex
qualities, and now we must find and utilize the irra-
diations of this basal instinct that are necessary for
the next upward step of human culture.

The dangers as well as the possibilities here are
many and great, because the arousal of the proxy
function may stimulate instead of vent or vicariate
for the primary. While we do understand much of
the uses of physical culture here, it is much less
realized that almost any and every kind of affectivity,
using this term in the broadest sense to include the
feelings, sentiments, emotions, and even moods and
passions, liave this function. These higher traits and
functions of mind and body are all erethic and ex-
citable. Youth particularly needs spells of excita-
tion. It must tingle, glow, increase blood pressure,
and to do this in a way and in directions that develop
the higher powers of man helps on their transmissi-
bility. Wherever, for instance, in school, monotony,
routine, and lifeless methods prevail, we are laying
the basis for a low-level erogenous excitement, be-
cause if legitimate interests are not aroused, theyoung
are prone to seek excitement in forbidden ways. In
industry, too, mechanical, uniform, and uninterest-



ing processes fail to provide for this need, which if
left to itself so strongly tends to lapse to evil ways.
We are happily now learning that more and more of
our real life consists of affectivities, and wherever we
can substitute interest and zest of any kind or of any
degree for dull, mechanical processes, we are setting
a back-fire to these temptations. Thus sports, games,
interest in machines, art, social activities, and any-
thing into which the young can throw themselves with
abandon serve not only as moral preventatives and
prophylatics, but they also make these very qualities
more accessible to heredity. Thus the more monotony
in physical or educational work, the greater the need
of arousing and absorbing recreations.

Involved in all this is the general principle that it
is possible for the individual to draw upon the accu-
mulated energies of the race that slumber in him, and
here there opens before us a new problem in the edu-
cation of the future, not only in the sense of schooling
but for the regimentation of social and individual
life. Many if not most of the great steps upward
that man has taken in the course of his civilization
the great books, works of art, architecture, reforms,
inventions and discoveries, victories in war have
been made by those who were more or less in a state
of super-excitement, when they were really exercis-
ing the higher powers of man, which can only be done
by calling upon the vast stores of racial energy laid
up in us all, and without the adequate expression of
which most live out all their lives. It adds something



to know, as we now do, the glands which must be
aroused to exceptional activity as a physiological con-
dition of this state, so that some now speak of the
"adrenalin type" of man and of work. In the army
we found those who having marched, fought, gone
without sleep or food until they seemed to be "all in,"
rather suddenly found themselves reenforced by a
power not themselves, so that they made a great rally
and performed what seemed not only to others but
to themselves prodigies of valor and effort, these
men often being those who in their lives before had
given least indications of such reserves. Part of the
education of the future, therefore, must be to teach
each man a ready way of drawing upon these reserve
powers to meet emergencies. This abandon to super-
individual energy not only has power to abate but it
may even go far toward suppression of the sex im-
pulse, as celibates, anchorets, hermits, and saints have
shown us. Indeed it is possible to overdraw our ac-
count at this great bank of heredity, so that, to use
Spencer's phrase, individuation subordinates the pow-
ers of genesis. It is not mystics alone but also great
geniuses and even great warriors who have thus given
to mankind energies that were meant for posterity.
Exercise in thus mobilizing the higher powers of man
is necessary for the most effective hereditary trans-
mission, and is a kind of rehearsal in exaggerated and
specialized form of the arousals which should always
precede the act of transmission itself. A word of
caution, however, is necessary here. It is possible for



man, and still more so for woman, to overdraw his or
her vital genetic energies in these ways of diversion.
Especially is this true for refined, cultivated, and
conscientious girls.

The problem of finding and using these higher sub-
stitutes is essential for the progress of civilization.
Aristotle first glimpsed it in his doctrine of catharsis,
and homeopathy later applied it to medicine with the
maxim similia similibus curantur, and since Jenner
discovered vaccination and especially since Pasteur,
it has opened to us the great field of immunity by an
attenuated virus. As pain and rage were vented
homeopathically by seeing these passions represented
on the stage in tragedy, and the spectator was after-
ward for a time safeguarded against yielding to them
in the shock and strain of real life; as chicken-pox
gives immunity from small-pox ; so psychology is now
seeking a prophylactic against not only war and drink
but venery by finding more harmless vents for these
instincts. Ultra-pacifism cannot eliminate the fight-
ing instinct; prohibition and teetotalism cannot de-
stroy man's proclivity for inebriation; and celibacy
cannot eradicate the sex instinct. All these propen-
sities are too deeply rooted in human nature ever to
be eliminated. Hence, these negative methods are so
crude and drastic, that we must seek higher and bet-
ter methods in which the substitute will not prove a
provocative. Religion, which is one of the world's

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Online LibraryG. Stanley (Granville Stanley) HallMorale, the supreme standard of life and conduct → online text (page 17 of 25)