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deity; then at adolescence, the age of dawning love,
would come Christianity as the best expression of
man's highest state, this to be followed by a Bud-
dhistic discipline of soul, turning from the world
with all its pomp and vanities to higher and more
unincorporated things; and, finally, in old age the
finished soul would feel the Brahmanic urge of de-
personalization and apocatastasis.

Of course any such religious recapitulation is at
present only an iridescent dream. All religions in
their best and most intense, which is also their
youthful stage, have merit and good in them all their
own, but the great synthesis and resultant sympathy
between them is something which even the scholars
and pioneers in this field have not yet reached, so
that any such religious curriculum as the above, if it
is ever practical, is a long way off. Only the specu-
lative philosopher Hartmann 6 long ago had the hardi-

5 Amer. Jour, of Relig. Psy and Edu., I, No. 1, 7-29, May, 1904.

8 PMnomenologie des sittchen Bewusstseins, 871, Berlin, Duncker.



kood to attempt to characterize such an evolutionary
history of the religious consciousness, laying down
its stages somewhat as paleontology would trace the
ascending orders of life, and his ambitious and pre-
mature effort is full of errors and gaps, and ends in
a pessimism so extreme that it consigns to the grave
every great hope of the race. If we ever have any
such processional of the soul, it will be a grammar of
assent and not of dissent, and these stages will follow
the biological analogies of the c'hambered nautilus
and of all spiral shells and not the rival pattern of
Nature, that of painful and successive moults.

Berkeley attempted to inwardize the objective ma-
terial world, and told us that the esse of all things
external was really their percipi. I interpret this 7
as a mistaken transfer to the wrong field of the
strong impulse of man, as he matures, to inwardize
all religions and reinterpret them in terms of human
nature and needs, and abjure faith in outer objec-
tivity as the most refined form of idolatry. Berkeley
felt this senescent trend, but his conservative up-
bringing and his clerical training made it impossible
for him to apply it as he should have done to the
whole dominion of faith. It was strong enough in
him, however, to drive him to the more desperate
venture of subjectifying the material world instead.
It is in this sense that psychanalysis sees in his phil-
osophy its classic paradigm of normal, maturing, and

T The Genetic View of Berkeley's Religious Motivation, V. 137-
162, J. Rel. Psy., April, 1912.



senescent involution, the best symbol perhaps in the
history of modern Western thought of the true invo-
lution which is the chief trait of psychic maturity in

Meanwhile, and finally, let us not forget that the
world will never be saved by creeds, forms of wor-
ship, or even by belief, but that even they are valu-
able or vicious solely as they improve or impair char-
acter. The final test of not only all of them but of
all institutions of education and religion alike, as
well as experience itself, is what they do for will,
feeling, emotion, sentiment, or in a word for disposi-
tion, and how much they help in the following points :

(a) Does man find his pleasures in things he ought
to? Can he face the world with joy and confidence
and get real happiness out of the fundamental things
of life; or is he depressed, discouraged, and prone to
lose hope? How the world loves the buoyant tem-
perament, the cheerful optimist, the man who is al-
ways near the top of his condition, who can see the
good side of others, of life, and things in general!
Whether in the trenches or in home life his fellow-
men turn to him and dub him "good fellow," the de-
gree summa cum laude which the folk confers upon
its favorites. Some call it super-health or life
abounding. It is simply high morale in this field.
Are we educating the rising generation to find more
or less pleasure in the things they ought to?

(b) Another ingredient of character and tempera-
ment is altruism shading up into love. If our schools



and creeds make men selfish instead of self-sacrific-
ing, profiteers instead of benefactors, always on the
make and getting instead of giving, they are not
evolving the herd instinct on which all social insti
tutions rest, but are undermining it. We must build
inner and see that they take the place of outer re-
straints to both greed and lust. No life is complete
that is not devoted to something above and beyond
the individual, and he is not mature who has not
found things he would die for as well as live for if
the occasion arose. Do our cults and our culture
help youth to control passion, or do they find in the
very training we give them subtle excuses for self-
indulgence? Do love of country, of the welfare of
the community in which they live, of mankind, have
their true place in their hearts? Do they learn of
the joys of service? These are perhaps the supreme
tests of the real value that home, school, state, or
church can give or do for them.

(c) Again, man must fear aright. We have seen
how potent was this basal anticipation of pain in
the soldier, and it is no less a force though in a very
different way in the life of the citizen. I have com-
piled from medical literature a table of 276 phobias
or morbid fears showing man's manifold proclivities
to timidity. 8 Most men have fears of poverty, many of
dire need and perhaps even of hunger. How can this
dread be made to be a spur to prudence and industry?

8 .4. Synthetic Genetic Study of Fear, Am. J. Psy., 25: 149 and 321



All fear the loss of love or of respect, they have a
horror of inferiority, and the psychanalyst seeks in
his every patient for the root of every psychic disturb-
ance in some conscious or unconscious fear. All
young people need security and help here, for many
if not most suffer dangerously, e. g. } from sex fears,
and if taken in time can easily be relieved. Do we
teach the rising generation to fear aright, that is, to
fear most evils that are greatest, such as unhygienic
habits, dishonesty, and everything degenerative, and
have we forgotten that true courage is the consum-
mate flower of morale?

(d) Anger and hate are another fundamental trait.
Many lives are marred by petty irritability at trifles,
and anger, as well as pity and rage, has its fetishes
that are often absurd. The indignation of a great,
wise, and just man is often sublime, like that of Yah-
veh himself. It can sweep away great and inveterate
abuses and make moral revolutions. There are al-
ways wrongs and evildoers in every community that
are worthy of it, and it is a craven shopman's motto
to make no enemies. We should rather choose them
wisely, and every man should fight some wrong with
all that is in him, for peace has its wars and its vic-
tories. A fit of righteous resentment is often thera-
peutic, and indeed may be almost regenerative. Are
we angry and do we hate aright?

The same might be said of pity and sympathy so
often perverted, and the proper development of which
is so basal for character and conduct. The death of



Christ is the world's masterpiece of pathos. The
same is true also of ambition, of the impulse to do
and be something distinctive in the world, to make
the most and best of ourselves and life. It is also
true of other traits illustrating how "out of the heart
are the issues of life."

Every one of the ancient civilizations fell. Ars
man's modern attempts to domesticate himself, which
we call the civilization of to-day, also self-destructive,
and are the states and nations now playing their role
on the stage of history doomed to the same fate?
What is true progress, and is man really making any?
With all our ever vaunted advance in discoveries and
inventions, arts and sciences, are we really better men
than the ancient Hittites, Babylonians, Greeks, Ro-
mans, and the rest whose very languages are dead
and whose gods only scholars know of? The world
was never so populous, but the future belongs not to
the races that are most fecund but to those which
add to this a selective environment that conserves the
best and eliminates the worst or least fit to survive,
so that quality and not numbers alone holds its true
place as a cofactor. The philanthropy and thje medi-
cal arts that keep the unfit alive do not improve

Now what is the one disease that destroyed the old
and will surely be the death of our civilization if we
cannot find an antidote and therapy for it? It is over-
individuation and its resultant egoism and selfish-
ness. Here animal society has a great lesson for us.



There is not one instinct in any social creature from
bees and ants up that does not subordinate the indi-
vidual to the group. All that these creatures do from
birth to death is in the interests of the community.
No individual lives unto itself. The formicary and
the bee state are vastly older than man and may long
survive him unchanged, because for each member life
is service. Hence come the stable forms in which
these gregarious instincts find expression. Each so-
cial animal lives true to its type, with complete self-
subordination and self-sacrifice, if need be, to it. This
is true of packs of wolves, of wild sheep, horses, cat-
tle, elephants, deer, the buffalo, lemming, pelican,
seals, all creatures that build social nests, migrate,
and mate forays. Here we see the consummation of
mutual help.

Man alone develops consciousness of self, and in
him alone this has grown so hypertrophied that it has
become the muse of his philosophy, and one school of
psychology holds that there is nothing else in Man-
soul worthy of its attention. The ancient Elohist
Hebrew seers thought this a fall, from which Chris-
tianity set forth a plan of redemption, which Bud-
dhism had sought to do in another way before. But
both plans too soon became the one insistent on
dogma and the other mechanized in objective rites.
These two seers, one for the East and one for the
West, saw more clearly than any other of the sons of
men the evil and its menace, and suggested a cure that
brought new hope to the world, but to most men to-



day they are voces et praeterea nihil. So forgotten
or misunderstood are they now that their represen-
tatives bring almost as much confusion as help, and
the coarser souls among them only pervert and mis-
lead. If we cannot resurrect these seers from their
elaborate entombments, we must at least try to re-
state the psychokinetic equivalents of their insights
in modern terms and with the utmost clearness and

Man has two natures, one aboriginal, innate, in-
stinctive, and unconscious, so that there slumber in
each of us all the capacities and possibilities of the
race both for good and for evil. Everything objective
is good or bad as it strengthens the good or evil
trends within us. A few enemies of mankind armed
with all the resources of modern science could by
united effort almost depopulate the world and destroy
our civilization. As knowledge has augmented man's
power over Nature, it has not given him a correspond-
ing increase in his sense of responsibility. The edu-
cation that gives only knowledge and skill is incom-
plete and superficial if it does not also reach the
deeper springs of character and disposition and in-
crease the will to help and serve others, instead of in-
creasing, as it now too often does, only the selfish
will to power. Nothing is truly learned until it sinks
so deep that it affects heredity and would give to our
children, even if born after we were dead, some pre-
potency of sound over unsound tendencies. Ability
to read, write, and cipher, to excel in an occupation



or a line of culture, no matter for how many genera-
tions these facilities have been acquired, gives to off-
spring little or no inborn power in these directions;
but diathesis, disposition, and character, as all studies
of heredity indicate, do more or less strongly tend to
be transmitted, and there is at least a point here
which Weismannism cannot and must not pass, al-
though we may not yet be able to segregate unit char-
acters. Something of this kind must be true or else
all progress is only a Sisyphus labor to be eternally
begun and never securely achieved.

Here and here alone I would carry pragmatism to
its extremest limits, and am almost ready to say that
I would replace, if I could, any or all of my most cher-
ished theoretical beliefs by almost any others, and
would teach them to my children if they helped us
toward the life of service illustrated by animal so-
cieties, and checked the devastating momentum of
hyperindividuation and greed which has destroyed
every great state in the past and which will annihilate
our own civilization if we cannot check it. Just now,
faster than ever before, men, parties, and interests,
seem to be losing the very power of compromise, arbi-
tration, conciliation, the readiness! to submit conflict-
ing claims to fair and impartial trbunals. In the ebb
of the great wave of altruism and service which char-
acterized the war we have now entered a period when
selfishness is rampant and to an almost mad and or-
giastic degree, until it seems as if nothing but a new
religion could save us from disintegration.



Hence, if we can no longer expect any new advent
of any ab extra deity, our only hope is to appeal to
the great heart and soul of the race out of which came
all bibles, gods, and every human institution, and
which has hitherto met all great emergencies and
answered all the deep prayers, wishes, and aspira-
tions that have ever been answered in the past, and
exhort all men everywhere to put and keep themselves
at their best and not to act or resolve from low con-
dition. If Mansoul is not now pregnant with some
great new departure and does not therefore need the
care which the world everywhere gives to those near-
ing parturition, then we must decline and fall. As
morale is the heart of an army, so it alone can hearten
us to withstand the most subtle and inveterate foe of
all civilizations, viz., the degeneration that comes
from selfishness.

Bolshevism is only Czarism democratized. The
lower always follow and catch the spirit of the up-
per classes in the love and use of leisure and idleness,
birth control, the love of luxury, display, fashions,
forms of amusement, attitudes towards religion, lust
for power all these and more seep down from patri-
cians to plebs. All the poor are or would fain be like
the rich, and one chief ingredient of their enmity to-
ward them is envy. Thus all classes are more intent
on getting than on doing good. Eac'h would be some
kind of superman if he could, and his soul is turbu-
lent with the spirit of unrest and even revolt because
he cannot realize his own overweaning ambitions for



Mmself. Thus until the heart of man normally does
experience a transforming new birth to altruism,
there can never be a true and lasting kingdom of
God, that is of man. Woman is thought to be by na-
ture less selfish. Her day has come, and we really
ought to look to her for help. But she is timid from
her long subjection and cannot see and has not the
courage to seize the cue or opportunity; and, more-
over, she is not herself untainted by the hyperindi-
viduation of our age. Thus the old hopes are fading
one by one, the old gods are dead or dying, and their
religions are in a deepening twilight. Nothing or no
one can save us but ourselves. Must history forever
repeat itself, nations and races rising one after an-
other, coming to power and then declining and dying,
always of the same malady, because man can find
and apply no remedy to it that will make society im-
mortal as it should be, like those instinct has evolved?
Christianity could have done it, perhaps, if it had
been understood and not become crassified by dogma
and rites, overinstitutionalized by organization, and
supernaturalized. It saw the vanity of riches, power,
and place, and brought an antidote for mundane sel-
fishness; but it appealed to transcendental satisfac-
tions and would pay for self-effacement in this world
by individual glorification in another, faith in which
is now ineffective if not moribund. Now we want to
be shown that altruism pays in this life, and it will be
long before we can show the world that it is here and
now good policy. All the proof that it is so that the



hedonistic calculus of our ethics has yet been able to
set forth seems only flimsy and tenuous casuistry to
the man on the street.

Thus, again, I say the one clear call of the Zeitgeist
to us just now is to keep ourselves in the attitude of
expectation, of watchful waiting. This is not unlike
the cry of the Baptist to "prepare the way," to watch
and await some new dispensation or to be always
ready, as Jesus would have His disciples for the com-
ing of the Son of Man. This means in modern terms
simply to get and stay at the very top of our condi-
tion, confident that out of this state only can salva-
tion come. Every great hope has been born of a great
despair, as the blackest darkness precedes dawn. If
all consciousness is remedial, the new world con-
sciousness now developing may also prove to be so.
Even love, we are now told, always passes through a
precocious stage when it is focused, only on self, and
it is arrested if it does not with growth turn away
from self to focus on some other object. Must altru-
ism forever suffer arrest in the stage of precocious de-
mentia that has caused nations in the past to decay
because checked at the stage of self-love? Love alone
unselfs. Man is profoundly gregarious and can yet
devote himself to causes, parties, and countless social
and industrial groups. Can this self-subordination
not find a larger object in service of mankind itself?
Man has loved, wealth because it gives power ; but this
power is, after all, only vulgar and material, only a
symbol of a higher moral power. We use wealth self-



ishly, but its philanthropic uses give far higher sat-
isfaction. Can we not sometime learn not only how
to acquire but how to put it to its highest uses and
experience the incomparable joy that comes from a
giving that is not only great but wise? Perhaps some
John D. Rockefeller, Jr., of the future may lead some
such apostolate for the wealthy and make them some-
time, as Carnegie said, "ashamed to die rich." Many
of our academic and some non-academic sociologists
may be Socratic midwives of a new and better future.
There seems now to be a great hope for a sounder
morale in them. There are clergymen who have
broken with the traditions of their theological train-
ing and found ways of evading the limitations of their
office, and taught the simple gospel of right between
man and man now and here. There are social and up-
lift workers who perhaps live among the poor, and
many teachers who have by their lives and their pre-
cepts touched the hearts of those they influence with
this only true gospel of service.

Thus, although Pandora has opened her old box
and again let loose all of its evils upon mankind, we
find a new hope at the bottom, viz., personal, civic,
social, industrial, and religious morale, the acme of
healthfulness of body and soul. Like the appeal from
Philip drunk to Philip sober our appeal is now from
Mansoul sick to Mansoul well, and we must and will
believe that this appeal will be heard.


Psychology and History: Some Reasons for Predicting Their More
Active Cooperation in the Future. By Harry B. Barnes. Amer.
Jour. Psy., Oct., 1919.

This article gives a bird's-eye view of the various modern writers
who have interpreted history from a psychological, and more specifi-
cally from a psychanalytic point of view.

It might be supplemented by G. P. Gooch : History and Hta-
torians in the Nineteenth Century (Lond., Longmans, 1913) ; E. D.
Adams: The Power of Ideals in American History (New Haven,
Yale TT. Press, 1913) ; J. H. Robinson: The New History (N. Y.),
Macmillan, 1912) ; J. F. Shotwell : The Interpretation of History
(Amer. Hist. Rev., 1912-13, pp. 692 et seq.)

France and the Next War. A French View of Modern War. By
Com. J. Colin. Lond., Hodder and Stoughton, 1914. 316 pp.

Like nearly all the works of French writers everything here
centers from the battle itself. This is a careful psychological study,
especially of the Napoleonic wars, stressing morale from the stand-
point of the battle.

Industrial Good-Will: The Human Side of the Labor Problem. By
J. R. Commons. N. Y., McGraw-Hill, 1919. 213 pp.

In place of the old commodity theory determined solely by de-
mand and supply, and the newer machinery theory which is supported
by the efficiency movement, the writer pleads for a new good-will
method which shall recognize human instincts and desires, which if
thwarted always make trouble. We have come out of the war the
greatest industrial power in the world, and where other natious
are bankrupt we are creditors. But we shall throw away all of these
advantages if we cannot establish industrial good-will.

Les Etudes sur le Combat. By Ardant Du Picq. Paris, Hachette,


Until Marshal Foch's book appeared, this has been probably the
most characteristic presentation of the psychology of the actual face-
to-face combat, which the French make central in their war theory
and teaching, just as the German works tend to center about ma-
neuvers and tactics.



Psychology of War. By LeRoy Eltinge. Fort Leavenworth, Kans.,
Press of the Army Service Schools, 1918. 126 pp.
This is a very effective book and widely read by officers, based
to some extent on Le Bon's principles. The psychology of the crowd
and mass is discussed, and there are excellent chapters on panic in
war, and on the psychology of infantry combat In an appendix he
discusses the causes of war, which bottom on the increase of popu-
lation and economic pressure, and this, to the author, shows that war
is inevitable.

The Principles of War. By General Ferdinand Foch. Tr. by J. de

MorinnL N. Y., 1918. 372 pp.

Here we have the principles of Foch the Teacher which he has
lived up to. The whole work is sown with references to morale,
which is the force that most needs to be economized, that is regu-
lated by intellectual discipline, that is affected by strategy. The
last three chapters culminate, like all French works, in the battle

Morale. By Harold Goddard. New York, G. H. Doran Co., 1918.

118 pp.

This is largely a reprint of articles but a most stimulating boob
for soldiers. The preliminary morales are health, gregariousness,
and humor. The major are pugnacity, adventure, work, communal
labor, justice; while the composite morales include, pride, victory,
sport, fatalism, and reason. Then comes the supreme morale, which
is that of creation. Sex and Morale and Morale and Reconstruction,
are also included.

Morals and Morale. By Luther H. Gulick, M. D., with an Introduc-
tion by Raymond B. Fosdick. Association Press, 1919. 192 pp.
This book was practically finished before the author's death, and
has been brought down to date by the most competent of all au-
thorities. Dr. Gulick studied the sex problem at the front, and the
last half of his book is made up of appendices, starting with the
messages of President Wilson and Secretary Baker and containing
the important documents which show just what our government has
done for sex in the army. This is the best and most comprehensive
work on the subject

The Metaphysical Theory of the State. By L. T. Hobhouse. N. Y.,

Macmillan, 1918. 156 pp.

This is an admirable statement of the Hegelian theory of the
state and its various ramifications with a criticism of this view,
which the author thinks contributed so much to the Prussian ideal of
the state as absolute. One should read in this connection H. J. Laski's
Authority in the Modern State (New Haven, Yale U. Press, 1919).
See, too, W. Willoughby's Prussian Political Philosophy (N. Y.,
Appleton, 1918) ; Ernest Parker: Political Thought in England from
Herbert Spencer to the Present Day. (Lond., Williams, 1915).

Morale and Its Enemies. By William Ernest Hocking. New Haven,

Yale Univ. Press, 1918. 200 pp.

The author was at the front for a short time during the summer

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Online LibraryG. Stanley (Granville Stanley) HallMorale, the supreme standard of life and conduct → online text (page 24 of 25)