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of 1917. The substance of this book was given in lecture courses.
The first part treats of the Foundations of Morale, and includes
chapters on why morale counts and how much, what is good morale,
its foundations instinct and feelings, knowledge and belief, realizing



the war, enmity, the purposes ot Potsdam, the mote in our own eye,
and state blindness. The second part deals with the Morale of the
Fighting Man. Here are chapters on the psychology of the soldier,
discipline, will, practice, command, morale-building forces, fear and
its control, war and women, and the longer strains of war.
Le Courage. By Louis Huot and Paul Voivenel. Paris, Alcan, 1917.

358 pp.

This is the broadest and most comprehensive treatise on the sub-
ject, its history, literature, manifestations in war and its psychology,
and sketches with great detail the inner history of a great conflict,
its beginning, acme, and end. At the apex of his excitement the
fighter's state is masochistic and he absolutely loses fear. There are
other analogies between the erethism of war and that of sex. The
author's main thesis is that courage is the triumph of the instinct of
social over individual preservation. It abounds in very acute ob-

Some of the voluminous literature on Ideal States should be in-
teresting reading to-day, e. g., C. W. Wooldridge : Perfecting the Earth
(Cleveland, Utopia Publ. Co., 1902) ; A. P. Russell: Sub Coleum: The
Sky-Built Human World (Bost., Houghton, 1893) ; R. M. Chapman:
Vision of the Future (N. Y., Metropolitan Press, 1916) ; O. Gregory:
Meccania, the Super-State (Lond., 1918) ; E. Pataud and E. Pouget :
Syndicalism and the Cooperative Commonwealth (Oxford, New In-
ternational Publ. Co., 1913) ; W. D. Howells : Through the Eye of the
'Needle (N. Y., Harper, 1907); H. G. Schuette: Athonia or The
Original Four Hundred (Manitowoc, Wis., Lakeside, 1911) ; M. I.
Swift: The Horroboos (N. Y., Liberty Press, 1911) ; R. A. Cram:
Walled Towns (Bost., Marshall, Jones, 1919); W. O. Henry: Equi-
tania (Omaha, Klopp, 1914) ; H. G. Wells: A Modern Utopia (N.
Y., Scribner, 1907); J. Miller: The Making of the City Beautiful
(1894); W. Morris: News from Nowhere (N. Y., Longmans); I.
Donnelly: Atlantis (N. Y., Harper, 1882); E. Bellamy: Looking
Backward (Bost, Houghton, 1898).

On Internationalism, as on all these topics, there is a vast litera-
ture from which it seems invidious to seek out a few. We mention,
however, W. P. Merrill: Christian Internationalism (N. Y., Mac-
millan, 1919) ; F. B. Sayre : Experiments in International Adminis-
tration (N. Y., Harper, 1919) ; F. C. Howe : The Only Possible
Peace (N. Y., Scribner, 1919) ; R. Muir: Nationalism and Interna-
tionalism (Lond., Constable, 1916) ; Rabindranath Tagore : National-
ism (N. Y., Macmillan, 1917).
The Physical Basis of Society. By Carl Kelsey. N. Y., Appleton,

1916. 406 pp.

See also World Power and Evolution. By Ellsworth Hunting-
ton. New Haven, Yale U. Press, 1919. 287 pp.
The Economic Consequences of the Peace. By J. M. Keynes. N. Y.,

Macmillan, 1920. 298 pp.

This much-read book disparages the Treaty as neglecting to deal
with the very subtle economic questions upon the exact balance of
which peace and happiness are dependent in Europe. President Wil-
son was an idealist insisting only upon his moral principles and quite
unable to cope with the subtleties of European diplomacy. America
should now cancel all debts of foreign countries to it and should lead
in raising an enormous loan, which would be paid to develop European
industries. The Treaty must be revised for Germany cannot possibly
meet all the conditions. Keynos modernizes Norman Angell's "The
Great Illusion" (1910) which insisted that the world was governed



not by political or military but by economic forces, and that no na-
tion could ever afford to destroy the industry of another. This, Keynes
says, the Treaty does for Germany.
Hier et Demain. By Gustave Le Bon. Paris, Alcan, 1918. 252 pp.

In this work the author applies his psychology of peoples and the
crowd to war before and during battle, and seeks to give a practical
application to his view that the force of the army is the force of
collectivity, a view that underlies both his The Psychology of Peoples
(N. Y., 1912. 216 pp.) and his Enlignments Psychologiques de la
Guerre Europeenne (Paris, 1916, 354 pp.)

fhe Psychology of Courage. By Herbert Gardner Lord. Boston, John
W. Luce, 1918. 164 pp.

The author is a professor at Columbia University. His book
deals with mechanism in man, the nature of courage, its simpler
and lower forms, acquired and complex mechanism in its higher
forms, courage of differing patriotisms, its ultimate foundations,
training general and special, restoration of courage when lost,
shell-shock, and an epilogue on morale.

37he Psychology of War. By John T. MacCurdy. London, Heine-
mann, 1917. 68 pp.

This treats chiefly of primitive instincts and gregariousness and
its correlation with primitive instincts. The author has made very
important contributions in the base hospitals to the knowledge and
treatment of shell shock.

The Biology of War. By G. F. Nicolai. New York, The Century Co.,
1918. 553 pp.

The author of this book, which is one of the very best the war
haa produced, was formerly Professor of Physiology in the Univer-
sity of Berlin, and suffered bitter persecution at the hand of the
German government for printing his valuable work. Part I discusses
the war instinct, war and the struggle for life, selection by means of
war, the chosen people, how war is metamorphosed and the army
transformed, the roots of patriotism, its different species, unjusti-
fiable chauvinism, the legitimate individualism of nations, and al-
truism. Part II tells how war may be abolished, describes the evo-
lution of the idea of the world as an organism and how this concep-
tion has been voiced, or rather how unsuccessful have been the at-
tempts to express it, discusses the transformations of human judg-
ment, and finally war and religion.

The author starts with a drastic arraignment of the ninety-
three German professors who signed the famous German Manifesto
of October, 1914, which prompted his book. He shows remarkable
familiarity with the history of war, but the chief thesis with
which his book concludes is that God is humanity, theology is an-
thropology, and in this way he redefines in modern form the con-
ception first set forth by Feuerbach that all modern conceptions of
God are really those of humanity ejected and projected upon the
clouds. God is Man and therefore brotherhood and peace must evict

Motives in Economic Life (Amer. Econ. Rev. Sup., Mar., 1918) ; The
I. W. W. (Atlan., Nov., 1917) ; The Technique of American In-
dustry (Atlan., Jan., 1920). By Carleton Parker.
See also the work of his pupil, Ordway Tead : Instincts in In-
dustry A Study of Working-Class Psychology (Bost., Hough ton,
1918). See, too, in the same spirit, P. S. Grant: Fair Play for the
Workers (N. Y., Moffat, Yard, 1919) ; A. Henderson: The Aims of
Labor (N. j,, Huebscb, 1919) ; Boyd Fisher: Industrial Loyalty



(Lond., Routledge, 1918) ; W. MacKenzie King: Industry and Hu-
manity (Bost., Houghton, 1918) ; R. W. Bruere: Labor and the New
Nationalism (N. Y., Harper, 1919) ; M. B. Reckitt and C. E. Bec-
hofer: The Meaning of National Guilds (Lond., Palmer, 1918) ; F.
C. Howe: The Land and the Soldier (N. Y., Scribner, 1919).
Le Comlat. By General Fercin. Paris, Alcan, 1911 301 pp.

This book begins and focuses in the combat itself but describes
the different kinds of fear m the various arms of the service, and in
the last chapter moral forces, both material and intellectual, to the
advantage of the latter.
The Psychology of Handling Men in the Army. By Joseph Peterson,

M. D., and Quentin J. David. Minneapolis, The Perine Book

Co. 146 pp.

The junior author has had ranch experience, and the book treats
mainly of competition, play, team-play, leadership, principles of
learning, health, discipline, and loyalty. The book was submitted to
the War Department which authorized its publication.
Making a Soldier. By Major-General William A. Pew. Boston.

Richard G. Badger, 1917. 220 pp.

This book consists of lectures given informally at the monthly
conferences of the Training School of the Massachusetts National
Guard. The chief topics treated are discipline, knowledge and ideals,
interest, the struggle, habits, instincts, pugnacity, education, play,
self-assertion and self-abasement, gregariousness and fear, prepared-
ness and the militia. This is a very vigorous, stimulating, and prac-
tical book.
War According to Clausewitz. Edited, with commentary, by Major-

General T. D. Pilcher. London, Cassell and Co., 1918. 257 pp.

This is a rather free translation of the first and most important
work of Clausewitz, who died in 1831. It discusses the nature and
theory of war, strategy in general, and finally the combat itself. It
is a far broader work than Bernhardi, and while it stresses greatly
what might be called the mechanics of war, it lays far more emphasis
on morale than do most recent German writers.

Psychiatric de Guerre, Etude Clinique. By A. Porot and A. Hesnard.

Paris, Alcan, 1919. 315 pp.

This is a comprehensive work treating of etiological conditions,
describing predispositions mobilized by the war, and with interesting
characterizations of psychic differences and of temperament and re-
sponses to cure by the different races engaged in the war. The clinical
section describing the psychopathic war syndromes is comprehensive
and judiciously proportionate. The evolutionary forms of the chief
psychoses and, lastly, cure are discussed in a very comprehensive way.

The New Social Order. By H. F. Ward. N. T., Macmillan, 1919.


See also E. W. Burgess : Function of Socialisation in Social
Evolution (Chic. U. Press, 1916) ; Bertrand Russell : Proposed Roads
to Freedom Socialism, Anarchism, and Syndicalism (N. Y., Holt,
1919); J. Mackaye : Americanized Socialism: A Yankee View of
Capitalism (N. Y., Boni & Liveright, 1919) ; W. S. Myers: Social-
ism and American Ideals (Princeton U. Press, 1919) ; Joseph Huss-
lein, S. J. : The World Problem: Capital, Labor and the Church (N.
Y., Kennedy, 1919) ; John Leitch : Man to Man (N. Y., Forbes, 1919).



Just now the economic power is in the hands of the few as po-
litical power used to be, and there must be a new distribution of the
former for more complete social and industrial efficiency. The test
of all institutions is what they do for the people. Personality must
not be sacrificed to property as it now is, or our industrial civilization
will devour man. Once the struggle was for land ; now it is for
capital. Property must be used for peace and not for power. In a
word, there must be democratic control of industry, a revolution of
national finance, and surplus wealth for the common good. The
author is a good representative of state socialism. The book contains
the very carefully devised program of the British Labor party and an
interesting comparison with Russian soviet.



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Online LibraryG. Stanley (Granville Stanley) HallMorale, the supreme standard of life and conduct → online text (page 25 of 25)