G. Stanley (Granville Stanley) Hall.

Morale, the supreme standard of life and conduct online

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when asked Pouvez-vous sijflerf replied, Pas memo
une comedie de Scribe. Momus never played such a
role as in this most tragic of wars, and when all this
material is assembled and duly explained he will be
shown to have had no insignificant part in winning it. 1
The history of fools abundantly illustrates this
principle. 2 Courts, guilds, ecclesiastics, noblemen, >
all had them. They were often licensed truth-tellers,
to be angered at whom would be a confession. Punch!
buffets and overcomes the devil. Death and the danse
macabre of skeletons in graveyards flourished during
the Great Plague. The church allowed everything to
be satirized; fools mimicked bishops, and there were

1 The Psychology of Tickling, Laughing, and the Comic. By G. S.
Hall & Ar. Allen, Amr. J. of Psychol., 9, No. 1 (Oct. 1897).

"Dr. Doran: The History of Court Fools, 1868; C. F. FISgel :
Geschichte der Hofnarren, Lpz., Siegert, 1789 ; M. A. Gazeau : Lei
Bouftons, 1892; M. Moreau: Foua et Bouffons, Paris, 1885.



mock Masses in which sausages were eaten on the
altar. A peasant girl with a doll rode backward on
an ass, aping the Holy Mother, and instead of the
Kyrie, the Gloria, and the Ite Missa Est, there were
brays and falsetto hee-haws. Sacred garments were
worn wrong-side out, and on April Fool's day Christ
was buffeted between Pilate and Herod. In Brant's
Nahrenschiff one hundred and thirteen follies were
set forth, and in Erasmus' Praise of Folly, in a sense
anticipating Pope's Dunciad, Stultitia with her court
judges everything. Hans Wurst, Pickled Herring,
Stockfish, and later Krug der Rosen ; Jean Pottage in
France; and in England, Jack Pudding, Will Som-
mers, Micklejohn, Puff, and Capperdox, enjoyed
boundless license to perform all their pranks, and
sometimes were allowed to be obscene to fortify chas-
tity by its opposite, and blasphemous in an age of or-
thodoxy, as a kind of catharsis to fix and reinforce
plenary faith. Thus it was thought laughter could
guard men against heterodoxy and vice by making
them ridiculous, perhaps somewhat as Plato thought
showing sots to the young established them in tem-
perance, and just as the freak of the Chaplin order
helps us against a sense of inferiority in ourselves.

II. Music. Why do psychologists who write on
army morale never mention music, which is one of its
most important adjuvants? Plato praised the stately
Doric and the martial Phrygian modes and would
banish from his ideal Republic the softer Lydian and
other modes as enervating. This would practically



exclude music of home, love, and nature. W. R.
Spaulding 3 gives us a glimpse of the ancient and me-
dieval role of music in war. A German committee
examined and. rejected 3,200 compositions written in
competition for a prize offered, for a fit national an-
them. So far this war has produced nothing that be-
gins to compare with Die Wacht am Rhein, which has
almost become a symbol in that country of the War of
1870, the spirit of which it so well conserves; or with
our Battle Hymn of the Republic, which expresses
the American militant spirit of our Civil War.

General J. F. Bell said: "A songless army would
lack in fighting spirit in proportion as it lacked re-
sponsiveness to music. There is no more potent force
for developing unity in an army than song." It makes
a good soldier better, and a trained soldier a more
perfect one. We read how the ennobling war songs,
Sartibre et Meuse and Pere la Victoire sustained the
French at Verdun and elsewhere. Soon after we en-
tered the war a national committee was formed, with
F. Hanmer at its head, to induce soldiers to sing.
Soon every camp had its song leader, and a school for
training these leaders was established in New York
with H. Barholt, the noted leader of community
singing at its head. Conditions were novel, and new
tracts had to be broken. A roster of musical ability
was made out by the leaders, and concerts soon

* W. R. Spaulding : Music a Necessary Part of the Soldier's Equip-
ment, Outlook, June 5, 1918 ; War in Its Relation to American Music,
Mus. Q., Ja., 1918 ; Work of the Music School Settlement in Ameri-
canizing Its Patrons, Musician, Ag., 1918.



were organized and regimental bands reenforced.

When Mr. Stiles first mounted a soap box at Camp
Devens and demanded that every private and officer
In the assembly show his teeth and smile as if this
were a drill order, his hearers were taken aback at
first and chaffed, but they soon found that he was a
good fellow, could take as well as give banter, and in
a short time he had them singing the chorus of Smile,
Smile, Smile, and their troubles, for the moment at
least, went into the "old kit-bag."

The answers of these song leaders to a question-
naire I sent them showed very great differences in rep-
ertoires and also in the favorite songs in the different
camps, but all testified to a unique hunger for music
as a feeder of the very soul and stressed its power to
key up exhausted nerves and muscles. Altogether
these reports gave overwhelming proof that music had
become no longer a luxury but a necessity for the sol-
dier. It is a great bracer on a long hike, "eyes bright-
ened, shoulders straightened, ranks closed up," etc.
It is the best safeguard against care, worry, and
homesickness. Americans tend to hide their real feel-
ings,, but their love of jocularity and extravaganzas
cannot resist the catchy lilt of such chanteys as Long
Boy. Idiotic jingles, and sometimes endless rhymes
like 'Ninety-Nine Bottles Hanging on a Wall may
make them forget fatigue near the end of a long
march. Often one group of soldiers sings for a mile or
two and then the song is taken up by another group,
and this may go on for hours. Not only are great lib-


erties often taken with both music and words but the
latter are sometimes permanently changed. Perhaps
the height of extravagance is reached in the many
songs which tell what the Sammies will do when they
get to Berlin, or to the Kaiser, Hindenburg, etc., when
they catch them. There are songs, too, of all grades
of merit and a wide range of sentiment dealing with
every petty detail of the soldier's life, which our
doughboys so love to see in a musical mirror.

Some simple songs of perhaps low musical quality
have made a very direct appeal to soldier morale.
Where De We Go From Here suggests deeds accom-
plished and a pressure of fresh demands for still
greater deeds, along with a spirit of entire subjection.
I Don't Care Where They Send Me indicates some-
thing like a fatalistic submission and obedience.
Keep the Home Fires Burning brings a vital touch in
memory with home and makes the soldier realize that
he is defending his dearest treasures. The Long, Long
Trail, which several leaders call the song of songs in
their camp, sounds a note of yearning, fate, with an
Omar Khayyam touch of pathos. Over There, and
Keep Your Head Down, Fritzie Boy are psychologi-
cally akin to the menacing gestures and shouts of sav-
age tribes working themselves up to the frenzy of at-
tack. Before some of these even Tipperary, the un-
precedented world song, has paled somewhat in pop-
ularity. In the collections of camp songs I have listed
some two-score more which seem to me must contri-
bute more or less both to unify and to fortify the soul


of the soldier. Indeed the country owes a great debt
to many composers of the second or third class of mu-
sical merit who have voiced the soldier's heart and
helped to form his will. In some camps stress is laid
upon having the soldiers join in community singing
or, vice versa, in bringing the community to the camp
for song. In France our boys have learned many songs
of our Allies and have taught them their own songs,
which has created a spirit of fraternity.

Of the five great themes of song, patriotism and
war, love, home, nature, and fun, our soldiers are
inclined to take patriotism for granted and are not
especially fond of singing about it. Even America
and The Star Spangled Banner are rather reserved
for formal occasions, and are not often called for or
spontaneously sung. A very different class of music is
wanted about the campfire than is in demand during
drill or outdoors, when music more closely associated
with action is preferred. Of these five classes, love of
friends at home, especially sweethearts, leads. In
all the history of war love has been a very fundamen-
tal note, subordinated, as it has to be, to the stress
and strain of war; and, unlike Plato, modern mili-
tary authorities have not thought it inimical to mo-
rale but a kind of compensation or vicariate for hard-
ship and battle strain. I have not found a single
American song that deals directly with going over the
top. The mind of the American soldier evades this as
something he never wishes to be reminded of until
the emergency compels him to face it. Our soldiers,



too, never sing songs of death of their own free will.
Only a few religious songs have been popular, and
half the great vogue of Onward, Christian Soldiers is
due to the fact that it is an excellent march. The
amount and degree of bathos that our boys relish
would seem to have no limit.

Thus music for us has proved not so much an art
as a bracer, and perhaps still more a diverter. Many
old songs have survived; more so, as far as I can fig-
ure out, in England with its conservative tendencies
than in any other of the Allied countries. Old songs
are often mainly nuclei of sentiment and are charged
with reminiscences vague but strongly toned with af-
feotivity. They are dear to us because of their many
associations, personal and national. Most French-
men who sing the Marseillaise remember that it was
the song of the group of Girondists before
the guillotine, which grew dim as each head
fell into the basket, only one voice finally
chanting it until the fatal knife ended it in the
middle of a note. With us the old songs natur-
ally prevailed at first because better known, and some
still persist; and while certain folk songs and even
old darky music have survived, as the war went on
these tended to be superseded by newer compositions.
Dialect, songs with dances or that involve much dra-
matic action, perhaps with costume and impersona-
tion have also had a place. Mcolai claims that war
poetry and music are always of an inferior quality,
but this war has been a prodigious stimulus to pro-



ductions, at which classicism may be inclined to sneer
but which, even if they are Philistine, get in their
good work.

We shall never fully realize the importance of mu-
sic for morale until we see clearly once and for all
that psychologically music is pw excellence the lan-
guage of the heart, feelings, moods, dispositions, sen-
timents, emotions, and attitudes; indeed of nearly
all our vast unconscious life. It is just as much so
as speech is the language of the senses and the intel-
lect and, to a less extent, of the will. Music, then, is
the organ of affectivity and hence deals with what is
more intangible and imponderable though often far
more potent, especially to the group mind, than ideas
or concepts. Even nations and races sing out their
hearts and reveal in music their deepest and most
characteristic traits. Incidentally it should be re-
membered that song gives voice to our young officers
who often so strangely lack it, so much so that to Mr.
Lloyd has been assigned the task of developing this
use of it. From this its nature, music ought to de-
velop all the classes of sentiment and feeling, and in-
directly it tends to strengthen the deeper, unconscious
instincts men have in common and to fuse souls to-

French war music has some unique features. By
the closing of the theaters and vaudevilles many Pa-
risian artists who lived by the drama were in dire dis-
tress, and some of them became ballad singers in cafe's
and on the streets and squares, and acquired both



vogue and profit. The Parisian was too tense to sit
through a play but singers of both sexes wandered
about, sang, and sold songs of their own composition.
One noted soprano produced The Marseillaise of the
Dead, which immediately had the greatest popularity.
Very many incidents of the war have thus been cast
not only into poetry but into song, like that of the boy
of seven who was killed by a German because ho
aimed a wooden gun at him. Thus every sentiment
connected with the war has been besung and many of
its tragic incidents preserved. Joseph Lee insists that
music is one of the very first things to keep soldiers
well in body and to maintain their morale at concert
pitch, and thus the French have used it. Songs with
a sectional appeal are less common in this country
than in Germany.

The German soldier music has traits all its own.
On the Whole the Teutons are more musical and also
fonder of harmony and part song. They have hardly
a trace of the American passion for beating time or
for ragtime. They are also too serious for fun. The
Germans sing about death, which the American never
does, and thrill at the very word Deutschland. They
put more Oemut than "pep" into their songs. Das
Volk Steht Anf describes in a thrilling way the awak-
ening of the people as the storm of war broke over
them, and how all became brothers and would die to-
gether if need be for the Vaterland. Erhebet Euch
von der Erde was a trumpet call to the people to
arouse, seize their arms, consecrate themselves to the


fearful chance of death, and expect help from the Ger-
man God. Das treue deutsche Herz, Kein schonerer
Tod auf dieser Welt, Du Deutschland, DCS Kriegers
Absented, Des Seemanns Los illustrate, as their titles
indicate, the serious, death-defying spirit of men ter-
ribly in earnest.

In the cultivation of music in the army we were
unfortunately far behind. The late Major F. A. Ma-
han, in an official report in 1914 by order of the Sec-
retary of War, said, "All over the world, save in our
own country, the necessity of cultivating this force
(moral force or morale) is recognized." He found
us very deficient. Four years later General Pershing
found our bands in France so small that they "failed
to serve the purpose of a moral force on the morale
of our troops at the front" and recommended (1) an
increased personnel, (2) a larger and more logical in-
strumentation, (3) a consistent method of band train-
ing. To this the Chief of Staff responded, and we
have now a United States Army Music School such as
France achieved under the influence of Napoleon and
which the British copied sixty years ago when their
Royal Military School of Music was established.
Generals Oorbin and Bell have advocated singing also
as a promoter of morale, and the chief of our army
music school, Captain A. A. Clappe, has set forth its
needs and functions in a masterly article. 4

Of poems the war has produced a prodigious num-

* Music as a Moral Force on Morale, Infantry Journal, March,



ber in all lands. It is interesting to note tliat before
the close of the second year the Germans had graded
and given prizes for the best of some fifty thousand
poems by the German children who attempted to woo
the Muse of War. The Clark Library has several
shelves of bound volumes of war poems, and a few,
although of course necessarily premature, attempts
have been made to evaluate them and select the best.
Both poetry and war stories have played an important
role in morale, though probably far less than music.

III. Reading. Every home camp had its library
and. librarians. After the first weeks, when the re-
cruits began to harden, they did considerable reading,
and it has been estimated that there were some 45,000
college men in the army.

From answers to a circular I sent to each camp
librarian it is interesting to note that despite the sur-
prising difference in camps fiction leads, with tales of
adventure and. mystery taking the first place. Kip-
ling, Doyle, McCutcheon, O. Henry, Tarkington, Op-
penheim, Haggard, London, Wells, H. B. Weight,
Mrs. Barclay's Rosary, Hornaday's The Man Who Be-
came a Savage are samples of favorites. Next to fic-
tion comes the demand for books about France, the
French language and literature, and for military sub-
jects, including engineering. Camp examinations
brought a call for other classes of books, and indeed
literature of almost every type had its patrons. Only
books for girls, indecent literature, and German prop-
aganda were barred, and the drive of December, 1917,



brought many gifts. Very little effort, however, was
made to guide reading.

My suggestion was that each camp library provide
among other literature books describing the conquest
of America by Germany, to compensate somewhat for
our distance and aloofness by bringing possibilities
home to reinforce morale. The chief of these are
H. G. Wells' The War in the Air (1917), focusing in
the battle of New York; Homer Lea's The Valor of
Ignorance (1909), describing a Japanese invasion of
our Pacific coast; J. B. Walker's America Fallen!
(1915), a very realistic story designed to check our
confidence and laisses faire; C. Moffett's The Con-
quest of America (1916) ; T. Dixon's The Fall of a
Nation (1916), a horrible tale of what might happen
here if pacifism prevailed; H. Maxim's Defenseless
'America (1915) ; and J. W. Muller's The Invasion of
America (1916). 5 While some of these works are
highly imaginative, several of them are written with
the cooperation of military and naval experts and de-
scribe events that the authors believe might actually
happen, the idea being that perusal of work of this
class would help us to realize how the French and
Belgians do feel.

Soldiers read what others do, but with much differ-
ence. It is a good sign that poetry, especially Kipling,
Alan Seeger, Tennyson, etc., were much in demand.

* On the invasion of England, see Du Manner's An Englishman's
Home (1909) ; E. Childers' The Riddle of the Sands (1903) ; Lequex's
The Coming of the Germans to England (1914) ; Redmond-Howard's
Hindcnburg's March to London (1916).



Religious reading was less than was predicted. The
American Bible Society issued in army and navy
editions, from the time we entered the war, about two
and one quarter million volumes of the Scriptures,
but despite the injunctions of President Wilson and
Ex-President Roosevelt to the soldiers to read it, there
is a great difference of opinion as to how extensively
this was done.

Few read spontaneously to fortify their spirits
either against the hardships or dangers of war; more
to clarify their convictions of the righteousness of
their cause. Hygiene, too, makes some appeal;
but, on the whole, the motive of diversion seems to ex-
ceed that of practical preparation. Reading any-
thing is a sedative. To feed the new interests aroused
by entering military life was a problem the war did
not last long enough for us to solve entirely, though
we have realized its significant aid to morale. Just
how and in what direction to stimulate reading under
training-camp conditions is a new, vast problem which
librarians have not yet solved. 6

T. W. Koch: War Libraries and Allied Studies, 287, N. Y.,
Stechert, 1918. See, too, A. T. Davies: Student Captives: An Ac-
count of the Work of the British Prisoners of ~Wor Book Supple-
ment, Leicester, Stevens, 1917.



I. The origin of pictures and posters and their functions in this
war II. Medals and other insignia of honor in the different
countries III. Museums and collections of various kinds in
different lands of mementoes of the war.

I. Morale and placards. When at the outset of
the war England was confronted with the problem of
raising a vast army as quickly as possible, the Secre-
tary of State for War, Colonel Seely, called upon Mr.
Hedley LeBas, a London publisher who had been
deeply interested in the psychology and practice of ad-
vertising and who was allowed, not without much hesi-
tation in conservative England, carte blanche to stim-
ulate enlistment in any way. Some of the best artists
were engaged, and a series of about one hundred and
fifty posters were soon conspicuously displayed all
over Great Britain with a message it was hard to
ignore. All agreed that they were a prominent if not
the chief factor in raising a volunteer army of over
three million men. When and before recruiting was
superseded by the draft the same method was applied
to war loans, and by its aid over three billion dollars
were raised in two weeks. In this country posters,
beginning with those of the Marines, have played a
great role, and many American artists Blashfield,



Kenyon Cox, Reuterdakl, Gibson, Pennell and others,
were enlisted. While our government issued only two
posters for the first Liberty Loan, private organiza-
tions flooded the country in each drive. All countries
have used them for Red Cross, food, the wounded, and
indeed every war purpose.

Art in a somewhat stricter sense has also helped
military morale by producing many notable pictures
and especially series, which have been very important
factors. 1 Raemaekers of Holland made his art a po-
tent factor for morale. He produced hundreds of
striking anti-Teutonic pictures, and was even charged
with jeopardizing the neutrality of Holland, so that
the German government is said to have sought him
with such persistence that he fled to England. 2 A few
French artists have had immense influence and vogue,
e.g., Georges Scott, w r ho had followed the Balkan cam-
paign as a reporter-illustrator and who was appointed
one of the four official painters to the French armies ;
also Lucien Jonas, whose remarkable, sometimes alle-
gorical compositions were, like those of Scott, ex-
ecuted at the front. Icart was the first successfully to
introduce the airplane, which is a new and awkward
topic for canvas. His Spirit of the Air and The De-
fense of Paris brought him into instant fame. Many
of his pictures illustrated the relations of woman to
war. Then there is Levy-Dhurmer, whose pictures are

*A. E. Gallatin's Art and the Great War (N. T., 1919), with one
hundred illustrations, well sets forth in general the r61e that art
played in the war in the various allied countries.

* The Great War: A Neutral's Indictment. One Hundred Car-
toons. By Louis Kaemaekers, Lend., The Fine Arts Society, 1916.



charming but sad, his best series being perhaps that
entitled "Mothers of the War." Poulbot has a hun-
dred pictures illustrating the effects of the war upon
children. 3 The French have used art more effectively
than any other country for mutilated soldiers. They
have also offered prizes to children for pictures,
especially those concerning food in war-times. 4

Thus the war has been a veritable inspiration to
scores of artists, and by its aid they have brought
home its terrible realities in all its details and have
also brought out, perhaps even more effectively than
poetry or music have been able to do, the ideality
always latent in it. Not until the history of this great
conflict has been written up shall we realize to what
an amazing extent art has simply been the very in-
carnation of war morale. Many of these artists have
already been decorated, and the end of the war by no
means marks the end. of their influence or of their
work, which the briefest description of some of these
masterpieces of emotional appeal, were there space
for it here, would itself show.

Closely connected with this work has been the use
of titles, slogans, and watchwords, in which the spirit
of the war has also been embodied and which are very
generally, especially in the posters, connected with
pictures. Every country has them. The following
are samples:

1 Des Qosses et des Bonhommes, Paris, 1918.

* Clark University has about 6,000 of these artistic war pictures,
including proclamations. See report of the librarian, Louis N. Wil-
son, The War Collection at Clark University Library, October, 1918.



Us ne passeront pas.

Ne Ven fait pas; on les aura.

Go on or go under.

If you cannot give a life you can save a life.

Don't lag ! Follow your Flag !

Picture of a bugler blowing. A vacant space in tlie

ranks. Legend : Fall In !
Soldier pointing to a beautiful landscape. Legend :

Isn't This Worth Fighting For?

Online LibraryG. Stanley (Granville Stanley) HallMorale, the supreme standard of life and conduct → online text (page 6 of 25)