Julius Caesar.

Cæsar's Commentaries on the Gallic and civil wars: online

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hominis. Idem.

Lacer, or laceris, etc., Caesar in his second book on Analogy.

Is homo makes the compound idem, except that Caesar, in
his second book on Analogy, asserts that we should use idem
in the singular, iidem in the plural. But this practice is not
generally observed. Idem.

From the same writers, without distinguishing the book,
C. Caesar, a weighty authority in the Latin language, says that
we should write all words of this class (the datives of the fourth
declensions) without the letter i. Gellius, 4, 16.

Hie et hcec Samnis, hujus Samnitis. Priscian, book 6.

Caesar on Analogy, prefers partum to partium. Charisius,
book 1.



My opinion is, that we should follow the Latin declension,
as far as euphony permits. I would not use Calypsonem as
the accusative of Calypso, as we use Junonem as the accusa-
tive of Juno, although C. Caesar, following the ancients,
declines it in this manner. Quintilian, 4, 5, 63.

Marcus Tullius and Caius Caesar used mordeo memordi,
pungo pepugi, and spendeo spepondi. Gellius, 7, 9.

Caius Caesar says that neuter nouns ending in I, in the
nominative singular, assume the same form as nouns ending
in the letter e : for instance, animali and puteali, in the dative
and ablative. Ckarisius, book 1.

Aplustre. Pliny says that Caesar decided that all nouhs of
the neuter gender which end in e are the same in the ablative
as in the dative singular. Charisius, book 1.

Caesar says that neuter nouns in ar are the same in the
dative and the ablative, as we learn from Pliny. Idem.

Jubar. Pliny says that Caesar, among other precepts, gave
the following one, that neuter nouns, en ling in ar in the nomi-
native, make the dative and ablative singular in i ; but that
jubar and far are exceptions so this rule ; for we usejubari in
the dative, jubar e in the ablative, and farri in the dative, farre
in the ablative. Charisius, book 1.

The form has not been adopted which Caesar lays down for
the feminine ; for instance, puppis, restis, pelvis, and in like
manner cani and cane in the ablative. Idem.

What sort of a syllable can be made out of three Hi joined
together? The last must not be considered a vowel, which
was Caesar's opinion, who was well acquainted with grammar ;
it is also supported by Victor. Priscian, book 1.

V, placed as a consonant, has the same sound in all Latin
words as the Acolic digamma F, for which Caesar wished
to write this F ; although this appeared correct, yet the ancient
custom prevailed. Priscian, book 1. .

Hcec pollis, pollinis ; so, Charisius. But Probus and Caesar
declined it, hoc pollen, pollinis. Priscian, book 6.

Besides, Caesar declines pubis,puberis ; Probus pubes,puberis ;
others, puber, puberis, Idem.


Although Caesar is favored by analogy in deriving ens from
the verb sum, es, est. Idem, book 18.

Remember that the termination in the singular is lutum and
macellum ; although Ennius says macella, and Caesar luta.
From Caper.

It is a question whether we ought to write lacrumce or
lacrimce, maxumus or maximus, and similar words. Teren-
tius Varro lias recorded that Caesar was accustomed both to
write and pronounce words of this sort with an i, and that it
became a general custom on account of the authority of so dis-
tinguished a man. Cassiodorus, from Annceus Cornutus on

For mancupium, aucupium, and manubice, have been differ-
ently spelled, since C. Csesar wrote these with the letter ', as
appears from his inscriptions. Velius on Orthography.

Was Marcus Tullius a less distinguished orator because ho
was also most strict in his grammar ; and in the case of his
son, as we learn from his letters, rigorously exacted from him
that he should speak with propriety ? Or did the books that
Caesar wrote on Analogy injure his power. Quintilian, 1,
Y, 34.



Caesar himself has a very acute judgment ; and as Servius
your brother, whom I consider to have been very well versed in
literature, could easily say, " This verse belongs to Plautus, or it
does not," because his ears are familiarized to the different
styles of the different poets, and 'the habit of reading : so I
hear that Caesar while compiling his volumes of witty sayings,
if any thing was brought to him as mine, which really did not
belong to me, used to reject it : and he does so now the more
because some of his intimate friends almost live with me.
But in a conversation on different subjects many expressions
are used, which perhaps appeared to them with whom I was in
conversation devoid neither of learning or wit. These are
mentioned along with the rest of our proceedings. So he him-
self ordered. Thus it happens, that if he should hear any
thing else of me, he thinks that he ought not to pay attention
to it. Cicero ad Fam. 9, 16.



Some treatises likewise pass under his name said to have
been written by him when he was a boy, or a very young man,
as the Encomium of Hercules, a tragedy entitled (Edipus,
and a collection of sayings ; all of which Augustus forbade to
be published. Suetonius, c. 56.


When Julius Caesar was carrying on one of his campaigns
in Gaul, he was taken prisoner by the enemy and hurried
along, when one of them recognizing him ran up and
insultingly said, Cecos Caesar, 1 which signifies in the Gallic
language, let him go : and thus it occurred that he escaped.
Caesar himself says this in one of his journals where he records
his good fortune. Servius, Virgil, Ae. 11, 743.

We do not know the source from which Servius derived this story.
There was a learned debate concerning the meaning of the expression,
which is attributed to a GauL Le Brigant, in his Dissertation sur les Celtes
gives it as his opinion that we should read Cetos Caesar, for Cheto Caesar,
Chto Caesar, behold Caesar. On the contrary, De la Tour d'Auvergne Corret,
says that we ought to read sk6 Caesar, that is, slay Caesar. Le Brigant sub-
sequently in a letter to a friend, came to the conclusion that we ought to re-
turn to the meaning that Servius gives, and conjecture that Caesar did not
hear him distinctly, for the enemy must have said, losk Caesar, let Caesar go.


On the other hand, Julius Caesar, in the 16th book of the
Auspices, denies that an assembly can be convened on market-
days ; in other words, denies that business can be transacted
with the people, and therefore that the elections can not be
held on market-days. Macrobius, Sat. 1, 16.


Csesar in the Auguralia : if the sheep was without blemish.
Pris. book 6.

1 Some read Cetos Caesar; others, Caesar Caesar.



Caesar when he was young seems to have preferred Strabo as
his model, out "of whose oration for the Sardinians he has
transcribed some things word for word into his Divination.
Suetonius, c. 55.


For as Julius Caesar borrowed from the Egyptian school the
motions of the stars, on which he left some learned treatises ;
so he borrowed from the same system the plan of prolonging
the time of the termination of the year according to the course
of the sun. Macrobius, Saturn. 1, 16.

Now there were of these astronomers three sects, namely,
the Chalcidians, the Egyptians, and the Greeks. To which
there may be added a fourth which, among us, Caesar the
dictator first instituted, who reduced each year to the course
of the sun, which was previously in advance of it. Pliny,
18, 25.

According to Caesar, these are the notable stars which are
significant, and do rule that quarter, which is between the
winter solstice, and the rising of the western wind, favonius.
Upon the third day before the calends of January, the dog-
star sets in the morning. According to Caesar's account,
the Dolphin rises in the morning the day before the ides
of January, and the next Fidicula, upon which day the star
Sagitta sets in the evening in Egypt. Now with regard
to the entrance of the new spring, which is from the rising
of the said wind to the equinox in March, Caesar sets down
for it the time which, for three days together, is variable and
inconstant weather, viz., fourteen days before the calends of
March, also eight days before the said calends upon the sight
of the first swallow, and the morrow, after, upon which day
the star Arcturus appears in the evening. In like manner
Caesar has observed, that the said wind begins to blow three
days before the nones of March, just with the rising of Cancer.
Caesar has observed, that -the star Scorpio rises upon the
ides of March, so fatal to himself. The spring equinox seems
to be always past the eighth day before the calends of April,
from which day forward, according to Caesar's calculation, the
calends of April are significant, as in them the star Vergiliw


_ins to rise and appear in the morning; however, in
Attica, and the parts thereabouts, the said star seems to set
or be hidden in the evening upon the third day before the
nones of April ; and similarly in Boeotia the day after ; but,
according to Caesar and the Chaldeans, on the nones of April.
According to Caesar, the constellation Libra sets in Italy the
sixth day before the ides of April, and portends heavy rain.
The fourteenth day before the calends of May, the Hyades (a
violent constellation causing tempests both by land and sea)
set in the evening in Egypt, but in Attica two days before,
and in Italy, according to Caesar, the day before, and are signifi-
cant for three days together. According to Caesar, they rise in
the morning the sixth day before the nones of May, and also
the rainy Capella, the eighth .day before the ides of May.
Pliny, 18, 26.

According to Caesar, the day after the rising of Vergilice, the
setting of the star Arcturus, in the morning, becomes signifi-
cant ; and the rising of Fidicula the third day before the ides
of May, and the setting of Capella twelve days before the ca-
lends of June and the setting of the Dog-star in Attica ; the day
after Orion's Sword begins to set. The third day before the
nones of June, according to Caesar, Aquila begins to rise in As-
syria, and appear in the evening ; and on the eleventh day be-
fore the same calends, the Sword of Orion begins to set, accord-
ing to Caesar. Pliny, 18, 27.

Among other stars which rule the season from the solstice
to the setting of Fidicula, six days before the calends of June
(according to Caesar), Orion rises. On the thirteenth day
before the calends of August, Aquila sets in Egypt in the
morning, and then the forerunners of the Etesian winds begin,
which Caesar thought was felt in Italy the tenth day before the
calends : on which day Aquila is known to rest and go out of
sight in the region of Attica in the morning. The royal star
seated in the breast of Leo, according to Caesar, merges in the
morning, the third day before the calends of August. Pliny,
18, 28.


He wrote a work in poetry.

Now none of the Latin writers wrote any book on this sub-
ject except Julius Caesar : and even this he borrowed from the


work of another, Julius Firmicus. Aratus, 1 a most accomplished
poet, wrote a treatise in Greek on the number of the stars ; 2
Caesar did the same in Latin, as also Tullius, that glory of elo-
quence. These only gave their names and dates of their rising
but did not give the authority of their influences : so that they
appear to me to have shown merely their knowledge of language,
being inspired, not by any knowledge of astrology, but rather
by a poetic vein. Julius Firmicus. 8, 5.


He has left behind him likewise two books of 'Analogy, and
as many under the title of "Anti-Cato," and a poem, too, entitled
" The Journey." Of which he compiled the first two in the
passage of the Alps, as he was returning to his army from hold-
ing the Assizes in Hither Gaul ; and the other about the time
of the battle of Munda ; and the last, during the four and twenty
days he was upon the expedition from Borne to Further Spain,
Suetonius, c. 56.

The wild cabbage has also three leaves, and is celebrated in
the verses of the deified Julius and the military jokes ; as they
told him in reproach, while finding fault with the parsimony of
his rewards, that they lived on wild coleworts at Dyrrachium,
But this is the Cyma sylvestris. Pliny, 19, 18.

Donatus, in his Life of Terence, brings forward these verses under the
name of Julius Caesar.

Thou too, Meander I divided into two, art placed in the
first rank, and deservedly thou lover of pure language. Would
that the true spirit of a^comic poet were added to the gentle
flow of your writings ; that your merit might be as transcendent,

1 Aratus was a Greek poet, born at Sili, at Cilicia. At the request of
Antigonus Gonatus, son of Demetrius Poliorcetes, he composed an astro-
nomical poem, entitled, Phcenomena, treating of the heavenly bodies.
He wrote also another poem, named Diosemata. It is to Aratus that
St. Paul alludes in the twenty-eighth verse of the seventeenth chapter
of the Acts. He flourished about 270 years B.O.

* The Delphin Commentator asserts that the allusion is not here to
Julius Caesar, or Germanicus, the renowned conqueror of Arminius, which
is the generally received opinion, but to Domitian. In support of this
he quotes Statius, to prove that Domitian was addressed by the title of
Germanicus, and the following passage from Quintilian : " To them we
have given the title of poets, because the care of governing the world has
taken off Germanicus Augustus from the pursuit of his favorite studies,
the gods having thought it but little to make him the greatest of poets."


and rank as high as that of the Greek poets ; and that you did
not fail in that. I am grieved, and I lament that this one thing
is \vanting to you, Terence.

Some attribute the following Epigram to Caius Julius Co3sar; others to

While a Thracian boy was sporting on the Hebrus, bound with
ice, he by his weight broke the waters frozen with the cold.
While the lower part of his body was swept away by the rapid
river, the smooth ice cut off his tender head. When his bereaved
mother found it, and lodged it in an urn she said, " I brought
forth this for the flames, and the rest for the water."

And also this distich : " Feltria condemned to the rigor of
eternal snows, thou land in which I ne'er again must dwell. Fare-
well," was falsely ascribed to Caesar, although some say that it
is preserved on parchment, others on stone. They say also that
one of Caesar's decrees was found at Viterbium, in Etruria, of
which the following is a copy : We, Caius Julius Caesar, give
orders, that Marcus Tullius Cicero, on account of his surpassing
virtues and singular mental powers, shall be safe and uninjured
throughout the whole world which has been subjected by our
arms and prowess. C. Jabolenus.


Ointments are named from the place in which they are pro-
duced, as Telinum of which Julius Caesar mentions, saying, " and
we anoint our body with the sweet ointment of Telinum." This
was made in the island of Telos, which is one of the Cyclades.
Isidorus Orig. 4, 12.

Strabo makes Teloa an island of the Sporades, therefore we ought to
read in Isidorus, either Delino, and Delo, or ex Sporadibua.

In Caesar, and Calvus, and Catullus we read, "When now
you shall be yellow ashes," (cinis fueris). Ifonius in voce

Hail ! thou that was first called Father of thy Country, that
first won in the garb of peace a triumph and the laurel for lan-
guage, then the parent of eloquence and Latin literature : and
(as Caesar, the Dictator, formerly your enemy described you)
thou that hast gained a laurel greater than all triumphs, in pro-
portion as it is a more noble achievement to advance so far the



limits of the Roman genius, than those of the Roman empire.
Pliny, 7. 30.

Cicero says, " re vendita iterum empta" from which it is evi-
dent that we can not say " venita" but either " venundata" or
" vendita" like Cicero, C. Caesar : possessiones redimi, eas postea
pluris venditas. Diomedes, book 1.

The esseda was a sort of wagon or chariot, from which the
Gauls were accustomed to fight. Caesar in his third book to
Cicero is our authority ; " he has many thousand horse, and
men that fight from the war-chariot."

From this circumstance, those gladiators who fight on horse-
back are called " essedarii" Junius Phylargyrius on the Georg.

Augustus also, in the letters which he wrote to Caius Caesar,
blames him for preferring the use of calidum to caldum (per-
haps in his books on Analogy), not that the latter is bad Latin, but
because it is affected, and as he himself signified by a Greek
term "frivolous." Quintilian, 1, 6, 19.

The inhabitants of Castile also, are called by Csesar venales.
Pliny, If. N., iii. 3.

"Whatever new occurs (and I expect a great deal) I beg you
will not fail to write. Among other things, whether this is
true about Sextus ; l but above all about our friend Brutus ;
of whom Caesar used to say (as I heard from him with whom
I have been), that " it is of great importance what he writes :
for whatever he wishes he wishes ardently." He took notice
of this when he spoke for Deiotarus at Nice, " that he seemed
to speak with great vehemence and freedom." Likewise (for
I like to write every thing as it occurs), very lately, when I
was at his house by desire of Sextius, and sat down till I was
called, he said, " Can I doubt of my being greatly hated when
Marcus Cicero is obliged to wait, and can not get an audience
at his own convenience ? Yet, if any body is gracious it is he :
nevertheless, I doubt not that he hates me bitterly." Cicero to
Atticus, 14, 1.

He said that Caesar had observed to him, upon the occasion
of my being kept waiting, when I went to him at Sextius's re-
quest : Can I now be so foolish as to suppose that this good-

1 He alludes to Sextus, the surviving son of Pompey the Great, who
Was at that time preparing for war in Sicily.


natured man \vill bo friendly to me, after be has been kept so
long waiting for my convenience ?" Cicero to Atticus.

Upon which being transported with joy he could not forbear
boasting in a full house a few days after, that he had, in spite of
his enemies, and to their great mortification, got all he desired,
and should for the future play upon them at pleasure, and some
one insultingly replying " that that would not be very easy for -
a woman to do," he answered as if in jest, " that Semiramis had
formerly reigned in Assyria, and the Amazons had formerly
held a great part of Asia." Suetonius, 22.

Asinius Pollio says, that Caesar, upon viewing the vanquished
and slaughtered enemy in the field of Pharsalia, used these very
words : " They would have it so ; I, Caius Caesar, after all my
noble exploits should have been condemned, if I had not appeal-
ed to the army for assistance." Suetonius, 30.

And coming up with his troops on the banks of the river
Rubicon, which was the boundary of his province, he stood
musing for some time on the greatness of his attempt ; and then
turning to those about him said : " We may still retreat, but
if we once pass this little bridge, we must make our way by
force of arms." Suetonius, 31.

While he was demurring upon the matter there happened
something very strange. A person of surpassing size and beauty.
* * Upon which Caesar cried out " Let us march whither divine
prodigies and the perverseness of our enemies call us. The die
is now cast," says he. Suetonius, 32.

He directed his march to Rome, and, after addressing the sen-
ate on the state of the republic, went to attack a very strong
army of Pompey, which was in Spain, under the command of
three lieutenants, M. Petreius, L. Afranius, and Marcus Varro,
declaring among his friends, before he set out, " that he was
going against an army without a general, and should return
from it against a general without an army." Suetonius, c. 34.

And chancing to fall upon his landing, he gave a lucky turn
to the omen by crying ont, " I hold thee fast, Africa." Sueto-
nius, c. 59.

Caesar used to say, that he adopted the same system against
an enemy that a majority of the physicians use against diseases
of the body, namely, conquering them by famine rather than
the sword. From Strat, 4, 7, 1.

He was accustomed to boast " that his soldiers could fight


well even when perfumed ;" and he was accustomed to call them
in speeches, not by the name of soldiers, but the kinder name
of fellow-soldiers. Suetonius, c. 67.

They bore want and other hardships to such a degree that
Pompey, when blockaded in the neighborhood of Dyrrachium,
upon seeing a sort of bread made of a herb, upon which they
lived, said he had to do with wild beasts. Suetonius, chap. 68.

He advanced some of his friends, though of very mean ex-
traction, to the highest post in the government. And when he
was censured for it he openly declared, " That if he had availed
himself of the services of robbers and assassins, in the defense
of his honor, he would have made them the same requital.
Suetonius, c. 72.

And being asked why he had divorced his wife ? " Because,"
says he, " I would have my family not only clear of all crime,
but suspicion too." Suetonius, c. 74.

On the field of Pharsalia he shouted out " to spare the citi-
zens." Suetonius, c. 75.

And to be convinced of the truth of the remark of Caesar the
Dictator, " that the recollection of cruelty was a miserable pro-
vision for old age." Amm. Marcel.

He was guilty of the late extravagance in his public con-
versation, as Titus Ampius informs us. He said, "The com-
monwealth was nothing but a name, without substance, or so
much as the appearance of any ; that Sylla was an illiterate
fellow to lay down the dictatorship."

That men ought to be more cautious in their conversation
with him, and look upon what he said as law.

And he proceeded to such a degree of arrogance, that when
a soothsayer brought him word that the entrails of a victim
opened for sacrifice were without a heart, he said that the en-
trails would be more favorable when he pleased, and that it
ought not to be looked upon as an ill omen if a beast did want
a heart. Suetonius, c. 77.

When Pontius Aquila, one of the tribunes of the commons,
did not rise up to him, as in his triumph he passed by the place
where he sat, he was so angry with him that he cried out,
" Wilt thou, tribune Aquila, take the commonwealth out of my
hands ?" And for some days he never promised any thing un-
less with this proviso, " If Pontius Aquila will allow me to do
it." Suetonius, c. 78.


He replied to the people when saluting him by the title of
king, " that he was Caesar, not a king." Suetonius, c. 79.

Of which class we have heard that C. Caesar, while yet a
young man, made the following witty remark : " If you sing,
you sing badly; if you read, you sing." Quintilian, 1, 8.

There is a twofold method of depreciating, according as a
person would diminish favor or boasting. As Caius Caesar
said to Pomponius, when showing a wound which he had
received in the mouth in the Sulpician sedition, which he
boasted he had suffered while fighting for Caesar. You never
will look back again in your flight. Or an accusation urged
as Cicero. Quintilian, 6, 3.

There is also the fiction from irony, which Caius Caesar
used. For when a witness said that the accused had en-
deavored to wound the inside of his thigh, and it was easy
to refute him, from the circumstance of his attacking that
part of the body in particular. " What could he do," said
Caesar, " when he had a helmet and coat of mail on ?" Quinti-
lian, 91.

Dolabella, at my request, obtained the rights of citizenship
from Julius Caesar for Demetrius Mega, a Sicilian, in which
affair I bore a part. Therefore he is now called Publius
Cornelius. And when Caesar, on account of some mean per-
sons who sold his kindness, ordered the tablet to be torn
down, on which the names of those whom he had presented
with the rights of citizenship were engraved, Caesar said to
the same Dolabella, while I was listening, " That he had
nothing to fear for Mega; that his kindness would be con-
tinued to him." Cicero ad Fam. 13, 36.

And when the day of election was coming on, and Caesar's
mother attended him to the door with tears in her eyes, he
embraced" her and said, " To-day, mother, you will see your

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