Julius Caesar.

The first six books of Caesar's Commentaries on the Gallic war, adapted to Bullions' Latin grammar; online

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Entered according to Act of Congress, in the year 1845, by

in the Clerk's Office of the Southern District of New- York.



Cjesar is usually, and with great propriety, among the first books
put into the hands of pupils commencing the study of Latin. In
adapting a portion of this work, as well as the Latin Reader, to his
Latin Grammar, the chief object of the Editor has been to lead the
student, in the beginning of his course, to a minute and thorough
acquaintance with the principles of the language. The text of Ou-
dendorp has been generally followed. For the sake of convenience,
and also because, with many, Caesar is the first book studied after
the Grammar, the Introduction on the Latin Idioms prefixed to the
Latin Reader has been prefixed here also. To this as well as to
the Grammar reference is constantly made at the foot of the page,
for the purpose of explaining and illustrating principles as they
occur; and if the pupil will only take the pains to examine these
references as he proceeds, he will gradually, and with comparative-
ly little l^or, become so familiar with the grammatical structure
and idioms of the language that his future progress will be much
more rapid and pleasant than it can be without such a course of

To the text copious notes have been added, for the purpose of ex-
plaining more particularly some constructions of the language, — aid-
ing the pupil in the selection of an appropriate term, or, in giving
variety to his expression, — and, in some cases, of assisting him to
apprehend more clearly the meaning of the author. These, together
with the references to the Introduction and Grammar above speci-
fied, contain such and so much assistance as an industrious and intel-
ligent pupil, at this stage of his progress, in preparing his les-
sons, may be supposed to need from his teacher; so that by a proper
use of this work, both the teacher will be relieved in a great mea-
sure from that labor, and interruption of other duties which the ren-




dering of this assistance would require, and the pupil will have
always at hand the assistance needed. These notes are taken chiefly
from Dymock's Csesar, Glasgow edition. A few have been added
from other sources.

The Vocabulary or index at the end of the work is abridged from
the same author, and contains various and important information
respecting the persons and places mentioned in the text, and also
respecting many things belonging to the antiquities and polity of the
Romans and their method of conducting military operations. In
this part several wood cuts have been introduced to aid the pupil in
forming correct ideas of some of the engines and operations of war,
as they existed in the days of Caesar.

The map of Ancient Gaul has been prepared with special refer-
ence to this work, and exhibits the divisions of that country, with
the names of nations, tribes, and towns, mentioned by Caesar, as
they existed in his time, so far as their position can be ascertained
from authentic sources. The modern names of the same places
will be found, generally, by consulting the Index.

A correct pronunciation as it regards quantity should be attended
to from the beginning. In order to aid the pupil in forming correct
habits in this too much neglected part of study, the quantity of the
penult syllable has been marked in all words of more than two syl-
lables, except where the penult vow^l is followed by two conso-
nants or a double consonant, in which case it is always long; or
where the penult vowel is followed by another vowel, in which case
it is almost always short; or when the syllable being common, that
is, either short or long, there is no danger of the quai^ity being
given wrong. In words of two syllables there is little danger of
wrong pronunciation, and if, in words of more than two syllables,
the quantity of the penult is correctly given, there is little danger
of error elsewhere.

With a view to render the work as full as was deemed necessary,
and at the same time to bring the price so low as to make it more
generally accessible, only the first six books of the Commentaries
on the Gallic war have been taken. These contain all that portion
of this author usually read in academies and schools, and to have
taken more would only have increased the size and the price of the
book without any corresponding benefit to the purchaser.

The Editor takes this opportunity to renew his grateful acknow-
ledgements to the many learned men, and instructors of youth, for


the favor with which his humble labors have been received by them,
and for the many important suggestions communicated, by which he
has been enabled to add essentially to their value and usefulness.
A Greek Reader adapted to the Greek Grammar is now preparing,
and will be published as speedily as possible.

Albany Academy, )
February 26, 1845. J



In the text, the references to the Grammar generally will be
found at the places indicated, in all the editions. Those marked
§ 140, 1, 1st, 2d, 3d, 4th, will be found in editions previous to the
last of 1844, at § 145, Obs. 5, 1st, 2d, 3d, 4th: And those marked
§ 140, 2, 3, 4, 5, will be found under § 140, Obs. 1, 2d, 3d, 4th,
and 5 th.




1. A sentence is such an assemblage of words as makes
complete sense; as, Man is mortal.

2. Sentences are of two kinds, simple and compound.

3. A simple sentence contains but one subject and one
verb ; as, Life is short. Time Jlies.

4. A compound sentence contains two or more simple sen-
tences combined ; as, Life^ which is short, should he well

5. In the combining of words to form a sentence, observe
carefully the following

General Principles of Syntax.

1. In every sentence there must be a verb in the indica-
tive, subjunctive, imperative, or infinitive mood, and a sub-
jectj expressed or understood.

2. Every adjective, adjective pronoun, or participle, must
have a substantive expressed or understood with which it
agrees, § 98 and § 146.*

3. Every relative must have an antecedent or word to
which it refers, and with which it agrees, ^ 99.

4. Every nominative has its own verb expressed or under-
stood, of which it is the subject, ^^ 100, 101, 102. Or is
placed after the' substantive verb in the predicate, ^ 103.

5. Every finite verb ; i. e., every verb in the indicative,
subjunctive or imperative mood, has its own nominative,
expressed or understood, §§ 101, 102, and when the infini-
tive has a subject it is in the accusative, § 145. The infini-
tive without a subject does not form a sentence or proposi-
tion, ^ 143.

6. Every oblique case is governed by some word, express-
ed or understood, in the sentence of which it forms a part.

• The references are to the sections in the Latin Grammar,



Resolution or Analysis.

Every simple sentence consists of two parts, the subject
and the predicate, ^ 94, 6. 7. 8. In analyzing a sentence,
it is necessary to distinguish between the Grammatical sub-
ject and predicate, and the Logical subject and predicate.

The G-rammatical subject is the name or thing spoken of,
without, or separated from, all modifying words or clauses,
and which stands as the nominative to the verb, or the ac-
cusative before the infinitive.

The Logical subject is the same word in connection with
the qualifying or restricting expressions, which go to make
up the full and precise idea of the thing spoken of.

The Grammatical predicate is the word or words contain-
ing the simple affirmation made respecting the subject.

The Logical predicate is the grammatical predicate com-
bined with all those words or expressions that modify or
restrict it in any way ; thus :

In the sentence, "An inordinate desire of admiration
often produces a contemptible levity of deportment;" the
Grammatical subject is ^^ desire ;^^ the Logical ^^An inordi'
note desire of admiration^ The Grammatical predicate is
^^ produces^''"' the Logical, ^''produces often a contemptible
lecity of deportment. ^^

In Latin and English, the general arrangement of a sen-
tence is the same, i. e., the sentence commonly begins with
the subject and ends with the predicate. But the order of
the words in each of these parts, is usually so different in
Latin, from what it is in English, that one of the first diffi-
culties a beginner has to encounter with a Latin sentence,
is to know how " to take it in," or to arrange it in the proper
order of the English. This is technically called constrU'
ing or giving the order. To assist in this, some advan-
tage may be found by carefully attending to the following

Directions for Beginners.
Direct. I. As all the other parts of a sentence depend
upon the two leading parts, namely, the subject or NOMI-
NATIVE, and the predicate or VEKB; the first thing to be
done with every sentence, is to find out these. In order to


1. Look for the leading verb, which is always in the
present, imperfect, perfect, pluperfect, or future of the indic-
ative, or in the imperative mood,* and usually at or near
the end of the sentence.

2. Having found the verb, observe its number and person;
this will aid in finding its nominative, which is a noun or
pronoun in the same number and person with the verb, com-
monly before it, and near the beginning of the sentence,
though not always so, § 151. R. I. with exceptions.

Direct. II. Having thus found the nominative and verb,
and ascertained their meaning, the sentence may be resolved
from the Latin into the English order, as follows :

1. Take the Vocative, Exciting, Introductory, or connect-
ing words, if there are any.


3. Words limiting or explaining it, i. e., words agreeing
with it, or governed by it, or by one another, where they
are found, till you come to the verh.

4. The VERB.

5. Words limiting or explaining it, i. e., words which
modify it, are governed by it, or depend upon it.

6. Supply everywhere the words understood.

7. If the sentence be compound, take the parts of it seve-
rally as they depend one upon another, proceeding with each
of them as above.

Direct. III. In arranging the words for translation, in the
subordinate parts of a sentence, observe the following

Rules for construing.
I. An oblique case, or the infinitive mood, is put after the
word that governs it.

Exc. The relative and interrogative are usually put before the gov-
erning word, unless that be a preposition; if it is, then after it.

n. An adjective, if no other word depend upon it or be
coupled with it, is put before its substantive ; but if another
word depend upon it, or be governed by it, it is usually
placed after it.

• All the other parts of the verb are generally used in subordinate
clauses. So, also, is the pluperfect indicative. In oblique discourse,
the leading verb is in the infinitive, § 141. Rule VI.


III. The participle is usually construed after its substan-
tive, or the word with which it agrees.

IV. The relative and its oiause, should, if possible, come
immediately after the antecedent.

V. When a question is asked, the nominative comes after
the verb ; (in English between the auxiliary and the verb.)
Interrogative words, however, such as quis, quotus, guantus,
uter, &c., come before the verb.

VI. After a transitive active verb, look for an accusative,
and after a preposition, for an accusative or ablative, and
arrange the words accordingly.

VII. Words in apposition must be construed as near
together as possible.

VIII. Adverbs, adverbial phrases, prepositions with their
cases, circumstances of time, place, cause, manner, instru-
ment, &c., should be placed, in general, after the words
which they modify. The case absolute commonly before
them, and often j&rst in the sentence.

IX. The words of different clauses must not be mixed
together, but each clause translated by itself, in its order,
according to its connection with, or dependence upon, those
to which it is related.

X. Conjunctions should be placed before the last of two
words, or sentences connected.




[The following explanations and directions are intended chiefly for reference. But
it will be of great advantage for the pupil to become familiar with them by going through
them two or three times, in course, simultaneously with his reading lessons.]

1. Before translating, every sentence should be read
over till it can be read correctly and with ease, paying spe-
cial attention to the quantity and pronunciation. The words
should then be arranged according to the preceding general
directions, and translated as they are arranged, separately
or in clusters, as may be found convenient ; always remem-
bering to place adjectives and adjective pronouns with their
substantives before translating. The sense and grammati-
cal construction being thus ascertained, the translation may
then be read over without the Latin, and due attention paid
to the English idiom. The whole sentence, whether simple
or compound, may then be analyzed as directed § 152, and
last of all, every word parsed separately as directed, ^ 153.

2. In order to arrange and translate with ease, it is neces-
sary to be familiar with, and readily to distinguish the dif-
ferent cases, genders, and numbers of nouns, pronouns,
adjectives, and participles, and to translate them correctly
and promptly, in these cases and numbers, &c. ; and also to
distinguish and correctly translate the verb in its various
moods, tenses, numbers, persons, &;c. This can be acquired
only by continual practice and drilling, which should be kept
up till the utmost readiness is attained.

3. The English prepositions used in translating the dif-
ferent cases in Latin, for the sake of convenience, may be
called SIGNS of those cases ; and in translating these, the
English definite or indefinite article is to be used as the sense
requires. The signs of the cases are as follows :

Nom. (No sign.) Ace. (No sign.)

Gen. Of. Voc. 0. or no sign.

Dat. To ox for. Abl. With, from, in, hy, he. *

* A Latin idiom, strictly speaking, is a mode of speech peculiar
to the Latin language. It is here used in a more extended sense, to
denote a mode of speech difierent from the English, or which, if ren-
dered word for word, and with the ordinary signs of cases, moods,
tenses, &c., would not make a correct English sentence.


In certain constructions the idiom of the English language
requires the oblique cases in Latin to be translated in a man-
ner different from the above. The chief of these construc-
tions are the fallowing :

mUf.. ..Tkea^^e.

1. The genitive denoting the place where, R. XXXVI., is

translated at; as, Romce, " At Rome."

2. Denoting ^r2ce, sometimes /or; as, Vendidit pluris,
"He sold it for Tnore;^'' or without a sign; as, Constttit
pluris, " It cost ?«ore.

5, the BatweM^,

1. After a verb of taking away, R. AAlX. ; the dative is
translated /roTTz ; as, Eripuit memorti, "He rescued me
from death 'j"*^ Eripttur morti, "He is rescued from
death:' R. XXXII-III. See § 123, Exp.

2. Denoting the doer after a passive verb, R. XXXtlL, it
is translated />2/; as, Vix audior ulli , "I am scarcely heard
by any one:'

3. Denoting the possessor, R. XV., Obs. 1, it is transla-
ted as the genitive ; as, jE z in mentem venit, " It came into
the mind to him,'' i. e», of Mm, or into his mind.

4. After verbs signifying " to be present," at; as, Ad-
fuit precihus, He was present at prayers. § 1 12, R. I.

6. The Ablative.

1. The ablative denoting a property or quality of another
substantive, R. VII., is translated q/*; as, Vir mird mag-
nitu dine, "A man of wonderful size.''

2. The place where, R. XXXVI. Exc, commonly at^
sometimes in. '

3. After the comparative degree, ^ 120, R. XXIV., than;
as, Dulcior melle, " Sweeter than honey."

^. Denoting the material of which a thing is made, § 128,
Obs. 2, of; as, Factus ebore, "Made of ivory:'

5. After dignus and words denoting origin; also after
opus and usus, signifying need, of; as. Dignus honors,
"Worthy of honor"


6. Denoting time how long-, sometimes in ; as, U 7io die
fecit, "He did it in rnie day ; " sometimes without a sign;
as, tfno die ahfuit, " He was absent o?2e <^ay.''

7. Time when, at, on; as, Solis oc€asu, ^^ At the set-
ting of the sun ; " Idtbus Aprtlis, " On the ides of April."

8. After verbs of depriving, § 125, of; as, Euni veste
spolidvit, "He stripped him of his garment."

Cases without Signs.

7. When the genitive, dative, or ablative, is governed by
an intransitive verb which is translated by a transitive verb
in English, (^ 38, Obs. 4»^) or by an adjective denoting like-
ness, the sign of the case is omitted; as,

1. Gen. Miserere met, Pity we.

^. Dat. Prafuit exercttui, He commanded the army.

3. " Placuit r eg i , It pleased the king.

4. Abl. Utitur fr aud e , He uses deceit.

5. '' Potitus est imp erio , Re ohiained the government .

6. Dat. Similis patri, hike his father.

Obs. But when rendered by an intransitive verb in Eng-
lish, the sign of the case must be used ; as,

7. Insidiantur nobis , They lie in wait /or tis.

8. When a verb governs two datives, by R. XIX., the
dative of the end or design is sometimes rendered without
the sign; as,

1. Est mihi voluptdti, It is to me [for] a pleasure ; i. e.,

It is [or brings] a pleasure to me.

9. The ablative absolute, R. LX., (See No. 109,) and
frequently time how long, R. XL., are without the sign; as,

1. Bellofinito, T^e M>ar being ended.

2. S <ix menslhu^ abfuit, He was absent six months.

10. When the ablative is governed by a preposition, the
English of that preposition takes the place of the sign of
the ablative, and no other will be used; thus,

1. Ah exercitu, Fromt\\e army. 4. C u m dignitdte, With dignit3^

2. E X urbe, Out of the city. 5. P r o castris, Before the camp

3. In agro, /?i the field. 6. T enus pube, t/jp fo the middle

^ , 11. In order to specify more particularly, the English idiom
sometimes requires the possessive pronouns, my, thy, his,
her, its, our, your their, (not expressed in Latin unless con-
trasted with others,) to be supplied before a noun, and espe-



cially if they refer to the subject of the sentence. The
sense will shew when this is to be done and what pronoun
is to be used; as,

1. Filius simUis patri, A son like ^is father.

2. Reverere parentesy Reverence yowr parents.

12. Nouns in apposition, {^ 97, R. I.,) must be brought
as near together as possible, and the sign of the case, when
used, prefixed to the first only ; as,

1. Nom. Cicero Orator, Cicero the orator.

2. Gen. Ciceronis oratoris, Of Cicero the orator.

3. Dat. Ciceroni oratori, To Cicero the orator,

4. Abl. Cicerone oratore, With Cicero the orator.

13. The noun in apposition is Sometimes connected with
the noun before it by the words as, being, &c. ; as,

1. Misit me c omit em , He sent me as a companion.

2. Hie puer venit , He came, when [or being] a boy.

Adjectives and Substantives.

14. In translating an adjective or adjective pronoun and
a substantive together, the adjective is commonly placed
first, and the sign of the case is prefixed to it, and not to the
noun, § 98, R. II. ; as,

1. Nom. .^Itus mons, A high mountain.

2. Gen. .dlti montis, Of a high mountain.

3. Dat. .^Ito monti, To [for] a high mountain.

4. Abl. jilto monte, With a high mountain.

15. When two or more adjectives, coupled by a conjunc-
tion belong to one substantive, they may be placed either
before or after it; as,

1. Jupiter optimus et maxtmus, Jupiter th*e best and greatest; or
Optimus et maxlmus Jupiter, The best and greatest Jupiter.

2. Viri sapientis et docti, Of a man wise and learned; or
Sapientis et docti viri, Of a wise and learned man.

16. The adjective must be placed after its substantive
when the former has a negative joined with it, or another
word in the sentence governed by it, or dependent upon it.
iSo also solus; as,

1. Dux perltus belli, A general skilled in war.

2. Filius simXlis patri, A son like his father. '

3. Poeta dignus honore, A poet worthy of honor.

4. Homines soli sapiunt, Men alone are wise.

5. .Avis tarn parum decora, A bird so little beautiful.

6. Littore non molli neque arenoso, With a shore not soft nor sandy.


17. The adjectives primus, medius, ultimus, extremus,
infimus, imus, summus, supremus, reltquus, cceter, or ccBte-
rus, and some others describing a part of an object, are
translated as substantives, with the sign of the case prefixed,
and of before the substantive following, ^ 98, Obs. 9 ; a,s,

1. Media node, In the middle of the night.

2. jld sum mum montem. To the top of the in.o\inta.m.

18. When these adjectives (No. 17,) describe the whole
and not a part only, they are translated as No. 11. ; as,

Summum bonum, The chief good.

Supremus dies, The last day.

19. An adjective without a substantive usually has a sub-
stantive understood, but obvious from the connexion, <} 98,
Obs. 5. Masculine adjectives, (if plural,) commonly agree
with homineSy or, if possessives, with amid, cives, or milites,
understood; and neuters, with factum, negotium, verbum,
tempus, &c. ; as,

1. Boni (homines) sunt rari, Good men are rare,

2. Ccesar misit suos (milttes,) Caesar sent his soldiers.

3. Codes transndvit ad suos Codes swam over to his fellow-

(cives,) , citizens.

4. Labor vincit omnia (negotia) Labor overcomes all things.

5. In posterum (tempus,) In time to come, — for the future.

6. In eo (loco) ut. In such a situation that.

20. Adjectives commonly used without a substantive, (but
still belonging to a substantive understood,) may be regard-
ed as substantives. They are such as mortdles, boni, maliy
superi, inferi, Grcecus, Romdnus, &c. (See § 98, Obs. 5,) ; as,

1. Mali oderunt bonos, The wicked hdiie the good.

2. Grce cos Romdni vicerunt, The Romans conquered the Greeks.

21. Adjective words when partitives, or used partitively,
take the gender of the noun expressing the whole, and
govern it in the genitive plural, (if a collective noun, in the
genitive singular,) § 107, Rule X. In this case verbs and
adjectives agree with the partitive as if it were a noun; as,

1. All quis philosophorumSome one of the philosophers has

dixit, said.

2- Una musdrum veniet, O ne of the muses will coxae .

3. Multi nob ilium juvenum, Many noble ijoung men.

22. The comparative degree not followed by an ablative,
or the conjunction quam, (than) is usually translated by the
positive with too or rcdktr prefixed. For explanation see
§ 120, Obs. .5.; as,


1. Iracundior est. (scil. He is ioo {or rather) passionate.


2. JE grius ferebat, He took it rather ill.

3. jiltius voldvit, He Aew too high.

Obs. In a comparison, eo or ia7ito with a comparative in
one clause, and quo or quanto in the other, may be rendered
" the ;" (See No. 44. 7. 8.) as,

4. Quo plures, eo feliciores, The more the happier.

23. The superlative degree expressing comparison, is
usually preceded by the article the in English, {§ 25,) as,

1. D ctisslmus Romanorum, The most learned of the Romans.

2. Fortissimus miles in ex- The bravest soldier in the army.


24. When the superlative does not express comparison,
but only eminence or distinction, it is translated with the
article a or a7i prefixed in the singular, and without an arti-

Online LibraryJulius CaesarThe first six books of Caesar's Commentaries on the Gallic war, adapted to Bullions' Latin grammar; → online text (page 1 of 29)