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The times' whistle: or, A new daunce of seven satires, and other poems: online

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ilui iim^r miMl^,






§lie ®inw?s' llltijjtie:


^ 0tbt ®mmtt of Stbm Satte, m\i}

CjDmpUctr iriT g. C> #mt.









Cijarlts (KMUiirb ^onne, gi.31.,













(against shams) ...

(against pride, etc.)

(against aVxVRIce, bribery, apostasy)

(against gluttony, drunkenness, and tobacco)

(against lasciviousness)

(against the passions of the mind)

preface to certaine poems

certaine poems

glossarial index

general index
















The Prologue to Hall's Satires opens with these lines : —

" I first adventure, with fool-hardy might
To tread the steps of perilous despite.
I first adventiu-e, follow me who list,
And be the second English Satirist."

But Hall was hardly correct in his assertion that he was the first
to adventure in this perilous path, for Hake's Neives out of Powles
Churchy arde had been given to the public eighteen years before, though
without attracting the attention and obtaining the honour which
befell Hall's " tootldess satkes.''^ His chaUenge, "who'll be the
second English Sathist," was not, hoAvever, long unaccepted. In the
following year (1598) appeared Marston's Scourge of ViUanie and
The Metamorphosis of Figmalion's Image. Samuel Eowlands also
(as well as others) now began to write, and continued to add during

' Thomas Timme's Discoveric of Ten Lepers appeared in 1592. The
" Ten Lepers " are : —

1. The Schismatique. 6. The Glutton.

2. The Church-robber. 7. The Adulterer or Fornicator.

3. The Simoniac. 8. The Couetous Man.

4. The Hypocrite. 9. The Murtherer.

5. The Proud Man. 10. The Murmurer.
The full title is :—

A plaine discouerie of ten English Lepers, verie noisome and hurtfull to the
Church and common wealth : Setting before our eies the iniquitie of these
latter dayes, and indusing vs to a due consideration of our seines. Published
by Thomas Timme Minister. London, Printed by Peter Short, dwelling vpon
Bredstreet hill, &c. 1592. 4to. A to M in fours. Dedicated to Sir William
Brooke, Baron of Cobham {Uazlitt), Brit. Mus. 4103. e.


miiiy years to the satiric literature of the time. It was in vain that
the authorities endeavoured to wrest the " Ehamnusian whip " from
the hands of these poAverfid ^vriters ; it was in vain to enjoin "that
noe Satyres or Epigrams he printed hereafter." "VVhitgift and Ban-
croft might burn them, but they could not stay their re-appearance,
and the Satirist found not only materials for books in abundance,
but buyers also, and Satires continued to appear long after the
death of the "Virgin Queen," whose ministers condemned Hall's
Satires to the flames, but spared Harington's Orlando Furioso.^

The date at which the Times' Whistle was written is easily
ascertained. The Eev. H. J. Todd, who compiled the Canterbury
Catalogue, though acqirainted with the MS., was incorrect in fixing
the date "near 1598." The internal evidence is satisfactory upon
tliis point. The reference to Faux and Eavaillac'^ gives the first
clue : the former died in 1605 and the latter in 1610. Other
allusions more to the point are to Coryate's Crudities, p. 26, which
appeared in 1611, and to Dr Carrier,^ p. 52. Xow Carrier died

* See JVofcs and Queries, 3rd S. xii. 436, and Dyce's Marloive, p. xxsviii.

^ EflTaillac, a lay-Jesuit, had, it is said, watched a whole twelvemonth
for an oj^portunity to murder the king, Henry IV., and at last stabbed him as
he was on his way to the Bastile. The assassin was at once apprehended and
carefully guarded from the fury of the populace. Many consultations were
held how to punish him, some Italian physicians offering to prescribe a tor-
ment which should continue without intermission for three days. " But he
scaped only with this, his body was pulled between four horses, that one
might hear his bones crack, and after the dislocation, they were set again,
and so he was carried in a cart standing half naked, with a torch in that hand
which had committed the murder ; and in the place where the act was done,
it was cut off, and a gauntlet of hot oil was clapped upon the stump, to
stanch the blood, whereat he gave a doleful shriek. Then was he brought
upon a stage, where a new pair of boots was provided for him, half filled with
boiling oil. Then his body was pincered, and hot oil poured into the holes ;
in all the extremity of this torture he scarce showed any sense of pain, but
when the gauntlet was clapped upon his arms to stanch the flux, at which
time he was reeking with blood, he gave a shriek only. He bore up against
all these torments about three hours before he died." — Howel's Familiar
Letters, ed. 1678, p. 25.

John Taylor, in his Complaint of Christmas (1646) mentions, among
others, the following Saints: Sa'mt liaviliae, Saint Faux, Saint Garnet.

^ Benjamin Carrier, or Carier, D.D.,was the son of Anthony Carrier, a learned
and devout preacher, who caused his son to be strictly educated in the Pro-
testant religion, and afterwards in academical literature at Cambridge, where
he became a fellow of C. C. Coll., and a noted scholar and preacher. About


"before Midsummer 1G14," probably in May or the early part of
June in that year, and hence it is evident that the Satires cannot
have an earlier date than the middle of 1G14; most probably they
Avere not finished before the end of this or the beginning of the
following year.

The Poems will help us to fix the later date. In 1G16 Ben
Jonson's Works, containing his Epigrams, appeared, and to these
there is a reference in the Minor Poems.^ If " E. C." did not see
these Epigrams of Jonson's until they appeared in the "Works,"
then 1616 may be safely taken as the later date, and we are able to
fix the Satu^es and Poems as having been Avritten between Mid-
summer 1614 and the end of 1616, sufficiently near to answer every
purpose. But we know that it was the fashion then for authors to
hand about their writings in manuscript.^ There is abundant evi-
dence that Jonson did so, and presumj)tive evidence that " E. C."
had seen those Epigrams before they were given to the world.

A reference to Jonson wiU show this. His Eighteenth Epigram,
addressed " To my mere English Censiu'er," answers objections which
had been made to his new style of epigrams, and their being unlike
those of Weever and Davis. Ejngram xlix. is addressed

"To Playwright.

Playwright me reades, and still my verses clamnes ;
He sayes, I want the tongue of epigrammes ;
I have no salt ; no bawdrie he doth meane.
For wittie, in his language, is obscene.

the time when James I. came to the throne of England, Carrier published one
or more sermons, was made a Eoyal Chaplain, and one of the first Fellows of
Chelsea College, founded by Dr Matthew Sutcliff. Becoming very unsettled
in his religious opinions, he abandoned the Church of England for the Church
of Rome, and removed to Liege, where he wrote his Missive to the king, con-
taining the motives which led him to renounce Protestantism. This appeared
in October, 1614. He also published a Letter of the miserable Ends of such
as impugn the Catholic Church, which appeared in 1615. He died, according
to Auth. a Wood, befoi-e Midsummer-day, 1614, when he "concluded his last
day, putting thereby a period to the great imaginations that men of learning
had of him and his worth, and to the expectation of other booiis to be puli-
lished." For further information the reader is referred to a valuable note iu
IVofes and Queries, 4th S. vii. 130 ; Wood's Fasti Oxoii. ; and Bohn's Lnn-ndcs,
but the fullest account of Carrier which I have seen is that in Masters's History
of C. C. C. Cambridge (Camb. 1753).

' p. 132. - Dyce's Marlowe, p. 65, note.


Playwright, I loath to have thy manners knowne
In my chaste booko : professe them in thine owne."

Jonson's Works, folio, 161G.

This reads very much like an answer to that of "E. C." The lat-
ter says : —

" Peruse his booke, thou shalt not find a dram
Of witt befitting a true Epigram";

and the retort is,

" He sayes I want the tongue of epigrammes ;
I have no salt ; no bawdrie he doth meane,
For Avittie, in his language, is obscene."^

One other point as to date. The poem In Neandrem refers, no
doubt, to the visit of James I. to Cambridge. Now this visit took
place in March, 1G15, and gave rise to much good and ill-humoured
banter. Francis (afterwards Sir Francis) Xethersole was Public
Orator at the time, and, all are agreed, made something very much
like a fool of himself. But it cannot be to him that the poem refers.
Had he been " struck mute with fear " he would have been spared
such taunts as

" Xow come we to the Avonderment
Of Christendom, and eke of Kent,
The Trinity ; which to surpass.
Doth deck her spokesman by a glass :
"Who, clad in gay and silken weeds,
Thus opes his mouth, hark how he speeds.

" I Avonder what your grace doth here,
Who have expected been tAveh^e year,

' I am indebted to Mr Furnivall for the following : —

In the Sale Catalogue of Lilly's books is a copy (No. 1557) of the first
edition of Ben Jonsou"s "Workes, 1616, and

On the fly-leaf are the following verses in a cotemporary handwriting :—
" Jonson that whilome brought the guilty age
To suft'er for her misdeeds on ye stage,
Euin'd by age now cannot hold out play,
And nmst bee forc'd to throw his cards away :
For since he so ill keeps what hee earst wonne,
Since that his reputation 's lost and gone,
The age sweares she "11 no longer hold him play
"With her attention ; but without delay
"Will rise, if some fresh Gamester will not fitte,
That 's furnished with a better stocke of witte."

Catalogue, p. 160.


And this your son, fair Carolus,
That is so Jacohissimiis :
Here's none, of all, your grace refuses,
You are most welcome to our IMuscs " ;

and more to tlie same purpose.^

In A New Quaint Ballad of Camhridge, the author of wliich is

unknown, we read —

" Oxford she a Christ-church had,

To entertain the king ;
And Cambridge had a Trinity,

And scarce one wise therein.
' Most Jacob'd Charles,' did Cambridge cry,

' Thou welcome art to ixs ; '
An Oxford boy must have untruss'd.

If he had cried thus."^

In Neics out of Cambridge^ also the Trinity Oration is dwelt
upon ; but we learn in addition that Cambridge not only was guilty
of nonsense there, but of absolute failure at St Mary's, as we shall
show further on. If, then, the poem In Neandrem refers to this
event, Ave have another element in fixing the date, and the years
1614 to 1616 may be accepted as conclusive.

To the question, " Who was ' R. C ? " I am unable to give an
answer. " There were," says Mr Corser,* " several poetical authors
about this period who rejoiced in these initials, Robert Chamber-
laine, Robert Chester, Roger Cocks, Robert Copland, Roger Cotton,
Ralph Crane, Richard Crashaw, Robert Crowley, and Robert Croft,"
and to these may be added Richard Carew, Robert Carliell, and
Richard Corbet, successively Bishop of Oxford and Norwich. Several
of these may be dismissed at once — they were dead, or wrote later
than when these Satires were written; Carew, Carliell, Corbet,
Crane, and others, were alive, but to few of these can this volume be
attributed. One well-known scholar^ thinks Richard Carew was the
author ; another ® suggests Ralph Crane. But after an examination
of some of their writings I am reluctantly compelled to say I do not
think either Carew or Crane wrote the Tones' Whistle. If either

' Corbet's Poems, ed. Gilchrist, 1807, pp. 17, 18.

* Inedited Miscellanies. Privately printed, 1870. ' Ibid,

* Collectanea Anglo-Poetica, p. 231.

* J. Payne Collier, Esq. " W. Carew Hazlitt, Esq.


did, then it must be confessed that their known writings are far
inferior to these Satires. A few lines in Crane's New Year's Gift
are all that can bear comparison with any portion of tliis volume : —
His great Prouidence (neuer forsaking)

Did first excite thee to this vnder-taking
He bids thee write : rely on him, and send
Thy prayers vp, and he wiU fairely end
This thy desire."— i\^. Y. Gift, p. 2.

" Euery one
]\Ioues by his power, lines by his permission,
And can do notliing if the prohibition
Of the Almighty doe oppugne ; it lies
Only in him to end each enterprise." — T. Wliistle, p. 3.

" All such labours in his nostrils stinke,

And therfore shall prove fruitlesse : men intend,
But God it is that consummates the end." — Ih., p. 17.

There is a -svriter, who, but for one difficulty, to be mentioned
shortly, would meet all the requirements of the case, and that is
Eichard Corbet, who was at this time very active with his pen. He
was born at Ewell, in Surrey, in 1582, received the rudiments of his
education at Westminster School, and in 1598 Avas entered at Broad-
gate Hall, and in the following year was admitted a student of
Christ-Church College, Oxford. In 1 605 he graduated Master of Arts,
and became celebrated as a wit and a poet.^ A man who had the re-
putation of being a wit and a poet, and who Avas at one time found in a
tavern with the jolly fellows of his day; who at another time, and after
he was Doctor of Divinity, was seen putting off liis Doctor's gown and
putting on a leathern jacket, and singing ballads at Abingdon Cross,
certainly would not be found among the ranks of the Puritans : and
so we find him undisguisedly opposed to Abbott, at this time Arch-
bishop of Canterbury, and siding with Laud, then rising into fame.
In 1616 he Avas recommended by Convocation as a proper person to
be elected to Chelsea CoUege, of Avhich, as we have abeady seen,^
Benjamin Carrier had been a PelloAV. Even Avhen promoted to a
bishopric, Corbet could not forget, and did not choose to abandon,
some of his jovial habits, for it is said that he would sometimes take

' The Pocnis of Bichnrcl Corbet, edited by Octavius Gilchrist, 1807.
* p. X, note '.


tlie key of the wine-collar, and with his chaplain, Dr Lushington,
would go and lock himself in and he merry. Fu'st of all the Bishop
would lay down his hood, with "There lies the Doctor;" then he
would put off liis gown, with " There lies the Bishop ; " and then it
was " Here's to thee, Corhet," and, " Here's to thee, Lushington ! "
The man who could act thus would be the very man to write the linus

" Then straight into the cellar he '11 them bring —
'Tis sAveetest drinking at the very spring," ^

and to record such a journey as that to Islington to eat cream,^
described on page 83, and to be credited with writing the song in
praise of good ale, which is sometimes attributed to him.^

Corbet was certainly no " precisian." But in spite of the want
of an austerity befitting his sacred calling, and his hatred of the go-
to-meeting portion of EngHshmen, it is gratifying to find that the
merry bishop died beloved and honoured. " In no record of his life
is there the slightest trace of malevolence or t}Tanny. ' He was,'
says Fuller, ' of a coiu'teous carriage, and no destructive nature to
any Avho offended him, counting himself plentifully repaired with a
jest upon him.' Benevolent, generous, and spirited in his public
chaxacter ; sincere, amiable, and affectionate in private life ; correct,
eloquent, and ingenious as a poet ; * he appears to have deserved and
enjoyed through life the patronage and friendship of the great, and
the applause and estimation of the good."^

Such was the man ; and his character seems perfectly consistent
with the theory that he vn:ote these Satires and Poems. It now re-
mains to present portions of Corbet's acknowledged writings, that
the reader may compare them in style and sentiment with what we

' p. 60.

^ Samuel Pepys visited Islington at various times. "My father," he says
(ii. Ill), "used to carry us to Islington, to the old man's, at the King's Head,
to eat cakes and ale." " Back to Islington, and at the King's Head, where
Pitts lived, we 'light, and eat and drunk for remembrance of the old house
sake." — {lb. 121.) "Thence to Islington, and there eate and drank at the
house my father and we were wont of old to go." — {lb. 183.) " Thence to
Hackney. There light, and played at shuffle-board, eat cream and good
cherries ; and so with good refreshment home." — (ii. 133.) ' See p. xxxvii.

* J. Payne Collier, Esq., writes to me, " It is seldom one meets with such
measure and such m'^aning" as are found in the limes' Whistle.

^ 0. Gilchrist's Corbet, p. Ii.


have in this voh:mc. King James visited Cambridge, as before
stated, in 1615. IMany Oxford men were present, and among them
Corbet. ]S"ow, although Corbet declared " he had left his malice and
judgment at home, and came there only to commend," the oppor-
tunity to exercise his wit at the expense of Cambridge was too
strong for him to resist, and on his return to Oxford he composed a
ballad ''To the Tune of Bonny Nell." This ballad, and others
which appeared at the same time, make reference to the failure of
one or more who were appointed to dispute before the king, but
broke down. Corbet, in the ballad, says, —

" Xow pass we to the civil law.
And eke the doctors of the spaw,
Who all performed their parts so well,
Sir Edward Ratcliffe hore tlie hell,
Who was, by the king's own appointment,
To speak of spells, and magick ojTitment."

Corbefs Poenis, p. 20.
With this compare the following : —

" In ]^eandrem.

jSTeander, held a great ceviUian^

(Let me not say a ]\Iachiavillian)

Appointed to dispute before the king.

Struck mute w/th fear, could not say anything

Save twas ill luck ; for if he had done well

As we expected, he would hear the hell

From the whole Academie for the test,

Tis certaine he had been a knight at lest.

And made his Avife (what she hath lookt for long)

A jNIadame. Fortune, thou hast done her wrong

To hinder his once dubbing of his wife

W7»ch hath dubde him soe often in his life."

T. Wliidle, p. 134.

These extracts are given that the reader may have an opportunity
of comparing the known R. Corbet with the unkno^vn " E. C." It
is probable that the poem In Neandrem, and the following lines
from News from Cambridge,^ refer to Dr Richardson.^

' Cevillian, one versed in civil law.

^ luedited Miscellanies. Privately printed, 1870.

^ The following extract is from Nichol's Progresses,

1 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17

Online Librarygent R. C.The times' whistle: or, A new daunce of seven satires, and other poems: → online text (page 1 of 17)