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these allusions to his contemporaries can be given ; the reader will

readily supply omissions. And first as to Shakespeare :

Glouce-ttei'. Suspicion always haunts the guilty mind ;

The thief doth fear each bush an officer.

K. Henry. The bird that hath been limed in a bush,

With trembling wings misdoubteth every bush. — 3 K. Hen. VI. v. 6.

' The MS. is not in the handwriting of Bp Corbet. I have compared it
with an autograph letter of the Bishop's in the British Museum.

Another " E. C." appears in W. Bosworth's The Cliast and Lost Lovers.
Mr Furnirall referred to the book for me, and forwarded me the following,
which seems worthy of attention : —

" The Chast and Lost Lovers, Lively shadowed in the persons of Arcadius
and SejJha, and illustrated with the severall stories of Ilccmon and Antlgotie,
Eram'w and Amissa, Phaun and SnpjjJio, Delithason and Verlsta: Being a
description of severall Lovers smiling with delight, and with hopes fresh as
their youth, and fair as their beauties in the beginning of their Affections,
and covered with Blood and Horror in the conclusion. To this is added the
Contestation betwixt Bacchus and Diana, and certain Sonnets of the Author
to AVRORA. Digested into three Poems, by W.ill. Bosn-orth, Gent.

Me qnoque

Impnne volare, ^' sereno
Calliope dedit ire coelo.
London, Printed by F. L. for Laurence Blaikloch, and are to be sold at his
shop at Tanple-Bar, 1651."

8vo. A in 8 unpaged ; B, C, D, E, F, G, H, I, 127 pages, and last page
blank (Brit. Mus. press-mark E. !f^).

The prose Epistle Dedicatory 'To the true Lover of all good Learning, the
Honourable Lohn Finch, Esq.' is signed K. C, and says that the Poems are
' the work of a young Gentleman of 19 years of Age, who, had he lived,
might have been as well the Wonder as the Delight of the Arts, and been
advanced by them amongst the highest in the Temple of Fame.'

The prose address ' To the Reader ' is also signed R. C, and contains a
hit at Ben Jonson, which may identify its writer with the author of Times'
MTiistle, and the Satire against Jonson. Speaking of Bosworth and his work,
R. C. says :

" The strength of his fancy, and the shadowing of it in words, he taketh
from Mr Marlow in his Hero and Leander, whose mighty lines l\Ir Benjamin
Johnson (a man sensible enough of his own abilities) was often heard to say,
that they were Examples fitter for admiration than for parallel, you shall
find our Author every where in this imitation."



XX INTRODUCTION.

"With tliis compare

" He, tliougli lie had the murderous liand to s.pill
Another's blood, himself yet durst not kill,
Aud "was afraid of others. Whatever stirs
He judgeth to be men and officers
Come to attach him, and, his sight unstable,
Takes every bush to be a constable." — T. Whistle, p. 108.

The same idea occurs on p. 94 : —

" Each bush doth fright him, and each flying bird.
Yea, his own shadow, maketh him afeard,"
Marston's Scourge of Villanie Avas also familiar to our author : —

" Infectious blood, ye gouty humours, q\;ake,
Whilst my sharp razor doth incision make."

Mardon's Works, iii. 274, ed. J. 0. Ilalliwell

" Let ulcer'd limbs and gouty humours quake
Whdst with my pen I do incision make."— T. W. 2/19, 20.

Marston has

" Camphire and lettuce chaste
Are clean cashier'd, now sophi ringoes eat,
Candi'd potatoes are Athenians meat.
Hence, holy thistle, come sweet marrow pie.
Inflame our backs to itchin luxury.
A crab's bak'd guts, a lobster's biitter'd thigh,
I hear them swear is blood of venery." — Works, iii. 257.^

Compare "with the above,

" Provocatives to stir up appetite
To brutish lust and sensual delight
;Must not be wanting ; lobsters' butter'd thighs,
Artichoke, marrow-bone, potato-pies.
Anchovies, lambs' artificially drest stones,
Fine jellies of decocted sparrows' bones.
Or if these fail, th' apothecary's trade
Must furnish them Avith rarest marmalade,
Candi'd eringoes and rich marchpane stuff.



AVith allegant, the blood of venery

Which strengthens much the back's infirmity." ^ — 2'. W. p. 87.

' " Virginius vow"d to keep lii.s maiden-head,

And eats chaste lettice, and drinks poppyseed,
And smells on camphor fasting." — Hall's Satires, iv. 4.
" Letuce seede being often vsed to be eaten a long space, drietli vp the
natural seede, and putteth away the desire to Lecherie." — Lyte's Dodoeas, f.
573 (1578).

* Ben Jonson, £cery Man out of his Humour, ii. 1, has " Diving into the



INTRODUCTION. XXl

jMarlowG was charged M'itli lioLling atlieistical oi)inions, and it
would almost seem that " E. C." had him in view in the opening of
the first Satire. The lines

" "Which by religion dost not set a straw,
Devis'd, thou think'st, but to keep fools in aAve" {T. W. p. 5)

seem to be another form of one of the opinions " of one Christofer

Marlj-e," namely, " That the first beginning of religion was only to

keep men in awe."^ Marlowe's Doctor Faustus was published, in

quarto, in 1604, and again in 1616. The Times^ Whistle^ contains

a reference to the story of this Play, although it may be said the story

Avas common enough for " R. C." to have got it elsewhere. The whole

scene in which Faust cuts his arm, and writes the agreement with

his blood, is too long for insertion here, an extract must suffice : —

" Faiist. Lo, Mephistophilis, for love of thee,
I cut mine arm, and with my proper blood
Assure my soul to be gi-eat Lucifer's,
Chief lord and regent of perpetual night !
View here the blood that trickles from mine arm,
And let it be propitious for my wish.

Mepli. But, Faustus, thou must
Write it in a manner of a deed of gift.

Favsf. Ay, so I Avill. [TFyi^es;.] But, Mephistophilis,
My blood congeals, and I can write no more."

The mention of Tamburlaine^ will at once call the reader's mind
to INIarlowe's Tamhurlaine the Great.

fat capons, drinking your rich wines, feeding on larks, sparrows, potato-pies,
and such good unctuous meats."

Howel, writing from Alicant, says : " I have bin here now these three
months, and most of my food have bin grapes and bread, Avith other roots,
which have made me so fat, that I think if you saw me you would hardly
know me, such nourriture these deep sanguin Alicant grapes give." — Fam, Let.
p. 35, ed. 1678.

And John Taylor, Works, folio, 1630 (Spenser Society's Eeprint) : " The
Taste plays the Bawd with both Art and Nature, and searcheth through the
Earth, Seas, and Skies for variety of temptation ; poore and innocent Lamb-
stones, Potatoes, Eringoes, Crabs, Scallops, Lobsters, Wilkes, Cockles, Oysters,
Anchoues and Caucare [Qy. Caut'are], Cock-sparrowes, Coxcome-pyes, ....
doe waite upon the Taste." — f. 259.

" [He] eates more Lobsters, Artichokes, and Crabs,
Blew roasted Egges, Potatoes, Maskadine,
Oysters, and pith that growes i' th' Oxes Chine." — lb. f. 509.
See also Howel's FdmUlar Letters, p. 215.

' See Dyce's iLirloive, p. 389. * p. 53. ' p. 25.



XXU INTllODUCTION.

TliG Prologue to Hall's Satires lias been partly quoted already,

another portion of it may fitly come in here : —

" Envy Avaits on my hack, Truth on my side ;
Envy will he my page, and Truth my guide.
Envy the margent holds, and Truth the line :
Truth doth approve, hut Envy doth repine.
For in this smoothing age who durst indite
Hath made his pen an hired parasite,
To claw the back of him that beastly lives.
And pranck base men in proud superlatives.
Wlience damned Vice is shrouded quite from shame.
And crown'd with Virtue's meed, immortal name !
Infamy dispossess'd of native due,
Ordain'd of old on looser life to sue :
The Avorld's eye-bleared with those shameless lies,
Mask'd in the show of meal-mouth'd poesies.
Go, daring Muse, on with thy thankless task^
And do the ugly face of Vice unmask :
And if thou canst not thine high Hight remit,
So as it might a lowly satire fit.
Let lowly satires rise aloft to thee :
Truth be thy speed, and Truth thy patron be."

That a similar spirit to this animated "E. C." may be seen by
reading his introductory lines on the second page of tins volume.

The references to Jonson's "WTitings are numerous. Compare the
Sordido in Every Man out of liis Humour, with R. C.'s Sordido,^
and especially jMisotochus,^ and the effect of fine clothes in the same
Play,^ with the character of Moros"* and the closing lines of our
author's second Satire,^ and it Avill be seen at once how closely they
coincide. Carlo in this Play*' says, " Love no man ; trust no man ;
speak ill of no man to his face ; nor Avell of any man behind his
back. Salute fairly on the front, and wish them hanged upon turn.
Spread yourself upon his bosom publicly, whose heart you would
eat in private. These be principles, think on them."

And R. C,

" Another's mind by hate distempered is,
Malicing whom in show he seems to kiss.
This bare affection causeth dismal strife,
Despoileth honour and destroyeth Hfe.

' pp. 26, 27. ' p. 99. ' Act ii. 1 ; iii. 3. ^ p. 28.

* p. 30. ^ Every Man, &c., iii. 1.



INTRODUCTION. Xxiii

Yet in these days 'tis coiinted policy

To use dissimulation ; villany

IMasked under friendship's title (worst of hate)

Makes a man live secure and fortunate.

These mankind haters, bloodj'-minded slaves,
"Which all the world with horrid murders fill,
Laughing on those whom they intend to kill."^

There is evidence too that The Puritan had been seen by the
author, but it is only necessary to mention the fact.

I do not think any apology will be required for putting
these Satires before the few scholars who are interested in the
literature of the Shakesperean age. Some casual readers there may
be, who will fail to see any advantage in having such books within
reach — "precisians," they are unwilling to have their senses polluted
Avith the rough language and the pictures, drawn by contemporary
hands, of the vices of their covmtrymen. For such these Satii'es are
not published — they can pass by on the other side, and leave this
book to its fate. It is too much the fashion now-a-days to shut our
eyes to vice and crime and oppression ; to turn our faces from the
dark and squalid portions of our cities, toAvns, and villages ; to en-
deavour to hide all the wickedness and misery under which so many
groan, to drive them from the garish light of day, and, compelling
them to He in secret and avoid offending our eyes, to turn with self-
righteous complacency to the world, and say, ' See hoAv bright and
hol)^ all things are ! A'ice and misery are not seen in our streets,
they do not exist. "\Ve manage things better now. A man may
walk on the village green, in the beautiful country lanes, in the
great streets of our great cities, and see nothing to offend the eye,
hear nothing to grate upon the ear. Our "writers tell us of nothing
but what is pleasant, — of our advances in education, of the improve-
ments which are made on every side.' Yes, it is quite true. "NYe
don't like to see vice and misery, we prefer to Avalk blindfold, and to
be ignorant of such things ; but is not the difference between the
vices of men two hundred and fifty years ago and the vices of men
now, simply a difference of dress 1 Then vices were clothed in

' p. 94.



XXIV INTRODUCTION.

fustian, and -were not always hidden from tlie light ; now, wo clothe
them in broadcloths and silks, and indulge in them secretly.

I do not apprehend that any one reading these Satires will be
the worse for the reading. They need no apology from me. If they
do, then must all who have spent their talent on the Playwrights
and Satirists of the time of Elizabeth, James I., and Charles I. have
erred more deeply than I can have done. The whole Literature is
tainted with a certain coarseness, and to condemn one Avriter is to
condemn all. But let no man despise it and think it poor or bad
because it is unlike our own. " It is refreshing to look out of our-
selves sometimes, not always to be holding the glass to our own
peerless perfections ; and as there is a dead wall which always inter-
cepts the prospect of the future from our view (all that we can see
beyond it is the heavens), it is as well to direct our eyes now and
then without scorn to the page of history, and repulsed in our at-
tempts to penetrate the secrets of the next six thousand years, not
to turn our backs on auld lang syne ! " ^ I do not apologize for add-
ing to this literature. The reader must judge whether I have done
well or ill, and by his judgment willingly I abide.

In this volume there is much that is interesting historically,
such as the drinking scenes, the tobacco-smoking customs, the ale-
house haunting on Sundays, the manner in which the Puritan was
spoken of by the orthodox Churchman. These, and the hints illus-
trative of the atheism, infidelity, and apostasy which were common
then (as well as now), give a value to the book which each reader
will estimate for himself. Of the moral and religious tone which
runs tlirough the whole of it I cannot speak too highly. In our
Dramatists and others this is too often overlaid, or lost altogether.
ISTot so here. Is there a sin, a vice, a crime described ? the denun-
ciation of its certain punishment is sure to follow, and that in terms
so plain that they who run may read.

The preface to the minor poems in this volume is curious.
What occurred to prevent the Satires " and this piece of poetry

alsoe soe sodainlie thrust into the prosse " from being given

to the world, at present is a mystcrj', and A\'ill probably remain one
' W. Ilnzlitt ; Lectures, &c.



INTRODUCTION. XXV

for some time to come. Wlietlier tlie "subsequent endeavours"

spoken of ever came to anything is also unknown. The "judicious

Catoes" and barking INIomists of the time had had their fling at

E. C.,' and had planted a thorn in his side. His retort calls to mind

Ben Jonson's lines : —

" Perhaps, upon the rumour of their speeches,
Some grieved friend will whisper to me ; Crites,
Men speak ill of thee. So they be ill men.
If they spake worse, 'twere better : for of such
To be dispraised, is the most perfect praise,
What can his censure hurt me, whom the world
Hath censured vile before me 1 " -

These poems display the fancies and beliefs which were common at
the time they were -written. Few of them are without interest of
some kind, the best probably being that commencing on page 137.

Of the poetical merits of " E. C." nothing need be said. The
book is in the reader's hands. Let it speak for its author. One ex-
tract must suffice here : —

" Latro did act a damned villainy,
Adding black murder to his robbery,
Yet cause 'twas closely done he might conceal it,
For save himself none living could reveal it.
But see the just revenge for this offence ; —
After the deed, his guilty conscience
Torturing his soul, enforc'd him still to think
The act disclosed, and he in danger's brink.
He thought the birds still in their language said it ;
He thought the whistling of the wind bewrayed it ;
He called to mind that murder was forbidden,
And though a while it could not long be hidden.
Distract in mind, and fearfull in his place,
Having no power to call to God for grace,
The devil doth suborne him to despair,
Tells him 'tis pity he should breath this air
Which hath been such a villain ; thrusts him on
To work his own death and confusion.
He, though he had the murderous hand to spill
Another's blood, liimseK yet durst not kill,
And was afraid of others. What e'er stirs
He judge th to be men^ and officers

' See also the poem Ifi Momvm, p. 152.
^ Cynthia's Revels, iii. 2.



XXVI INTRODUCTION.

Come to attach him, and his sight unstable
Takes every bush to be a constable.
Thus plagued and tortured with despair and fear,
Out must the fact, he can no more forbear ;
For which, according to the course of law,
Death's heavy sentence on him he doth draw.
And being brought unto the place of death.
There in despair yields up his latest breath.

Thus each affection like a tyrant reigns
Over man's soul, which letteth loose the reins
Unto selfe will, in which so slavish state,
Man's sense captived, his reason subjugate.
Makes the soul clogg'd, a massy lump of sin,
Which following his creation should have been,
Like his Creator, pure."— T. W. p. 108,

I have taken no Hberties with my MS. other than those ex-
plained in the footnotes. For the punctuation and the use of the
h}^hen in some of the compound words, as well as the use of
Capital letters, I am answerable. I hope it will be found that I
have avoided mistakes as much as it is possible to do, and I beUeve
the reader may rest assured that every reading, and every word,
which bears a pecuHar look is as it stands in my original. I should
have preferred to modernize the spelling throughout, but the laws of
the E. E. T. S. allow of no such tampering with texts, and it is
right they should not. Once begin, and the reader is never sure
that his author's ijpsisshna verba are before him.

I have added to this brief introduction a few notes illustrative of
tlie text, and at the end of the volume a glossary of words and
phrases, which is intended not only to assist the general reader, but
to save any future Lexicographer the trouble of wading through the
volume for an example of the use of any word, plu-ase, or proverb.
Of the use of proverbs and phrases these Satires contain many
examples.

The most pleasing of my duties remains to be done. To thank
the Dean^ (too late, alas ! for him to hear) and Chapter of Canterbury
for so generously placing the MS. in my hands to copy and use at
my own home. And to express the many obligations under which
I rest to the Eev. Canon Robertson, Librarian of the Canterbury

' Dr Alford.



IXTRODUCTIOX. XXVU

Cathedral Library, to J. Payne Collier, J. 0. Ilalliwell, W. Eodliam
Donne, F. J. Furnivall, W. Carew Hazlitt, and Dennis Hall, Esqrs.,
and my brother, B. Harris Cowper, who have been kind enough to
read my proofs, and to afford me many valuable hints and sug-
gestions, as well as to express their satisfaction that I had under-
taken to sec these Satires through the press.

Joseph jM. Cowteu.

Davington Hill, Faversliam,
March 21, 1871.



NOTES.



Puritans and Puritanism. Page 4. At this day it is scarcely pos-
sible to conceive the amount of obloquy which was heaped upon these
men. No vice was deemed too horrible for them to commit — they were
in all things considered the very incarnation of hypocrisy. Iii spite of
the oppressions under which they bowed they became, as our author
says, so numerous that they encumbered the Church, and stuck as a dis-
ease within her bowels (p. 10). It is unnecessary to reproduce the
taunts and abuses which are scattered up and down the literature of this
period. The reader curious in such matters will find enough in the
works of Taylor the Water-Poet, Bp Corbet's Poems, The Puritan, and
elsewhere.

As to their numbers we may quote Taylor: "Item, he told that
there were a great many Puritans in England, and that they did now so
disturb the quietness of the Commonwealth that it was now almost
turned topsy-turvy." — The Liar, 164:1, p. 5.

Broivnism. p. 4. Robert Brown, the founder of the Sect of Brown-
ists, was born in 1549. He was educated at Cambridge, and, wliile a
young man, obtained the mastership of the Free-School of St Olave's,
Southwark, and became chaplain to the Duke of Norfolk. In 1571 he was
cited to appear before Parker to answer for his opinions. The influence
of Norfolk saved him for this time. Subsequently Brown abandoned
the views of the Puritans for those of the Separatists. For preaching
against bishops and church ceremonies he asserted that he was commit-
ted to thirty-two prisons. Soon after 1580 he found it prudent to go to
Holland, but in 1584 lie was stirring up strife in Scotland. He returned
to the Church of England, but not much to his or her credit, as the re-
mainder of his life seems to have been spent at Achurch, near Oundle
(the living of which he accepted as the price of his conformity), in idle-
ness, occasionally varied by beating his wife, not " as his wife, but as a
curst old woman." For an almost contemporary account of him see
Taylor's Cluster of Coxcomhes, 1G42.

Anahajitisls. p. 9. (See Glossary.) The following is from Taylor's



NOTES. XXIX

account of Anahaptlsts of these latter times (pub. lG-42) : On the 29th
April in the 32ud Henry VIII. one Mandeville and one Collins (both
Anabaptists) were examined in St Margaret's Church at the Ilili in
Southwark, and there they were condemned and judged to be burnt
as heretics, which was executed on them accordingly in tlie highway
between Southwark and Newington.

In 1574 one man and ten women were judged to be burnt for being
Anabaptists, but after much suit made, one woman recanted, and all
the rest were banished. In the same year four carried faggots and did
penance at Paul's Cross, and recanted, but two Dutchmen were burnt in
Smithfield for being Anabaptists. " And in these our days the said
Anabaptistical sect is exceeding rife, for they do swarm here and there
without fear of either God or man, Law or order." — ^1 Cluster of Cox-
combes (1642), p. 4.

Howel " could be content to see an Anabaptist go to hell on a
Brownist's back." — Farn. Letters, ed. 1678, p. 255a.

The Family of Love. p. 9. This sect, often called Familists, had
its rise in Holland about the year 1550. Thirty years later the Familists
appeared in England. They pretended to a more than ordinary sanctity.
They asserted that none were of the number of the elect but such as
were admitted into their family, and that all the rest were reprobate.
They held that it was lawful for them to swear to an untruth before a
magistrate or before any other person who was not of their society, for
their own convenience. The originator of this sect was Henry Nicholas
of Leyden, who made certain blasphemous pretensions that he partook
of the Divinity of God. Their numerous books were ordered by Eliza-
beth to be burnt.i

The Familists are often referred to in language far from com-
plimentary.

Those who care to know in what estimation they were held by the
orthodox may refer to Taylor's A Bawd, The Vcrtue of a Jayle, etc., and
his Apology for Private Preaching.

In 1574, five Englisnmen of the sweet sect called The Family of
Love did penance at Paul's Cross, and there confessed and detested their
wicked and damnable heresies. — A Cluster of Coxcombes (1642), p. 4.

Amsterdam, p. 11. No place seems to have been held in such vile
repute as Amsterdam. Of course the gossiping Howel has something
to say about it. Writing from Amsterdam, in 1617, he says : " The
ground here, which is all for the most part twixt marsh and moorish,
lies not only level but to the apparent sight of the eye far lower than
the sea, which made the Duke of Alva say that the inhabitants of this
country were the nearest to hell (the great Abyss) of any people on

Earth One of the chiefest parts of his [the native's] Litany

is From the Sea, the Spaniard, and the Devil, the Lord deliver me." —
Fam. Letters, ed. 1678, p. 8.

Two years later he writes, " I am lodged in a Frenchman's house

' See Hook's Ch. Diet.



XXX NOTES.

(at Amsterdam) who is one of the deacons of our English Brownists
here ; 'tis not far from the Synagogue of the Jews, who have free and
open exercise of their religion here. I believe in this street where I
lodge there be well near as many religions as there be houses ; for one
neighbour knows not, nor cares not much, what religion the other is of,
so that the number of conventicles exceeds the number of churches here.

The dog and rag Market is hard by, where every Sunday

morning there is a kind of public mart for those commodities, notwith-
standing their precise observance of the Sabbath." — lb. p. 10.

" The pure reformed Amsterdammers,
Those faithful Friday feasting capon crammers."

Taijlor, Works, folio, lG30,f. 402 (Spenser Society's Rep.\

In his Brood of Cormorants, speaking of " A Separatist," he writes :
" If in lesser room they may be cramm'd,
And live and die at Amster and be dam'd." — Worhs, f. 485.
" Let Amsterdam send forth her brats,
Her fugitives and runagates ;
Let Bedlam, Newgate and the Clink
Disgorge themselves into this sink."
A Poem on New England, Inecl. Misc., privately printed, 1870.

Sleeping in Church, p. 15.

" Men sleep in church, sure their brains are addle,
Sly Satan lulls them, and doth rock the cradle :
"When men thus do no ill, 'tis understood.

The devil hinders them from doing good." — Taylor, \Vorl-s, f 351.
See also News from Hell, Hull, and HalUfax, etc., p. 46, and Ilowel's


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