Geoffrey Chaucer.

The Tale of the Man of lawe ; the Pardoneres tale ; the Second nonnes tale ; the Chanouns yemannes tale : from the Canterbury tales online

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at all particular as to the sense in which the words might be used.
Here, for example, nails are mentioned between heart and blood ; in the
quotation from Wyclif in the note to 1. 651, we find mention of 'bones,
sides, nails, and arms,' followed by 'any member of Christ's body.' Still
more express is the phrase used by William Staunton (see note to 1. 474
above) that ' God's members' include ' his nails/ On the other hand,
in Lewis's Life of Pecock, p. 155 [or p. 107, ed. 1820], is a citation from
a MS. to the effect that, in the year 1420, many men died in England
'emittendo sanguinem per iuncturas et per secessum, scilicet in illis
partibus corporis per quas horribiliter iurare consueuerunt, scilicet,
per oculos Christi, per faciem Christi, per latera Christi, per sanguinem
Christi, per cor Christi preciosum, per clauos Christi in suis manibus et
pedibus.' A long essay might be written upon the oaths found in our
old authors, but the subject is, I think, a most repulsive one.

1. 652. Here Tyrwhitt notes 'The Abbey of Hailes, in Glocester-
shire, was founded by Richard, king of the Romans, brother to Henry
III. This precious relick, which was afterwards called " the blood of
Hailes," was brought out of Germany by the son of Richard, Edmund,
who bestowed a third part of it upon his father's Abbey of Hailes,
and some time after gave the other two parts to an Abbey of his
own foundation at Ashrug near Berkhamsted. Hollinshed, vol. ii.
p. 275.' 'A vial was shewn at Hales in Glocestershire, as containing
a portion of our blessed Saviour's blood, which suffered itself to be
seen by no person in a state of mortal sin, but became visible when
the penitent, by his offerings, had obtained forgiveness. It was now
discovered that this was performed by keeping blood, which was
renewed every week, in a vial, one side of which was thick and opaque,
the other transparent, and turning it by a secret hand as the case
required. A trick of the same kind, more skilfully executed, is still
annually performed at Naples.' Southey, Book of the Church, ch. xii.
He refers to Fuller, b. vi. Hist, of Abbeys, p. 323 ; Burnet, i. 323,
ed. 1 68 1. See also the word Hales in the Index to the works published
by the Parker Society ; and Pilgrimages to Walsingham and Canterbury
(by Erasmus), ed. J. G. Nichols, 2nd ed. 1875, p. 88.


1. 65 3. 'My chance is seven ; yours is five and three.' This is an allusion
to the particular game called hazard, not to a mere comparison of throws
to see which is highest. A certain throw (here seven} is called the
caster's chance. This can only be understood by an acquaintance with
the rules of the game. See the article Hazard in Supplement to Eng.
Cyclopaedia, or in Hoyle's Games. Cf. Man of Lawes Prologue, B 124 ;
Monkes Tale, B 3851. Compare ' Not unlike the use of foule gamesters,
who having lost the maine by [i.e. according to] true judgement, thinke
to face it out with a false oath ; ' Lyly's Euphues and his England (qu.
in Halliwell's edition of Nares, s.v. Main}.

1. 656. In the Towneley Mysteries, p. 241, when the soldiers dice for
Christ's garments, one says

'I was falsly begyled withe thise byched bones,

Ther cursyd thay be.'

On the following page (p. 242), Pilate addresses a soldier with the
words 'Unbychid, unbayn.' Unbayn (Icel. u-beinn) means, literally,
crooked ; metaphorically, perverse ; and is a term of reproach. This
suggests that unbychid could be similarly used.

The readings are: E. Cp. bicched; Ln. becched; HI. bicched', Hn.
Cm. bicche ; Pt. and old edd. thilk, thillte (wrongly). Besides which,
Tyrwhitt cites bichet, MS. Harl. 7335; becched, Camb. Univ. Lib. Dd. 4.
24 ; and, from other MSS., bicched, bicchid, bitched, bicche. The general
consensus of the MS. and the quotation from the Towneley Mysteries
establish the reading given in the text beyond all doubt. Yet Tyrwhitt
reads bicchel, for which he adduces no authority beyond the following.
' Bickel, as explained by Kilian, is talus, ovillus et lusorius ; and bicJeelen,
talis ludere. See also Had. Junii Nomencl. n. 213. Our dice indeed
are the ancient tessera (KV&OI) not tali (dffrpayaXoi) ; but, both being
games of hazard, the implements of one might be easily attributed
to the other. It should seem from Junius, loc. cit., that the Germans
had preserved the custom of playing with the natural bones, as they
have different names for a game with tali ovilli, and another with tali

I find in the Tauchnitz Dutch Dictionary * Bikkel, cockal. Bikkelen,
to play at cockals.' Here cockal is the old name for a game with four
hucklebones (Halliwell), and is further made to mean the hucklebone
itself. The same Dutch Dictionary gives ' Bikken, to notch (the mill-

In Wackernagel's Altdeutsches Handworterbuch, we find ' Bickel,
Pickel, Spitzhacke ; Wiirfel,' i.e. (i) a pick-axe ; (2) a die. Also
' Bickelspil, Wiirfelspiel ; ' i.e. a game at dice. Wackernagel refers the
etymology to the verb bicken or picJten, to pick or peck, which is clearly
the same as the Dutch bikken, to notch.
We may safely conclude (t) that the reading bicched is correct;


(2) that the English term bicched boon is equivalent to the Dutch bikkel,
Ger. bickel, as far as the general sense is concerned, since they both
relate to things employed in games of chance. Nevertheless, despite
their apparent similarity of form, there seems to be no etymological
connection between them, but they were named for quite different
reasons. The Du. bikkel may be referred to the verb bikken, to notch,
also to pick, peck, or mark ; so that the original sense of biltJcel was
'pick-axe'; however, it afterwards acquired the sense of 'huckle-bone,'
and finally, that of * die/ The history of the word shews that the last
sense arose from a transference of use, and not from the fact that the die
was spotted or marked by making slight holes in its surface. But the Eng.
bicched appears to have had the meaning of * accursed ' or * execrable ' ;
see the New English Dictionary, where it is shewn that it was applied to
other things besides dice ; as, for example, to a basilisk, a body, a burden,
and to the human conscience. It is evidently an opprobrious term, and
seems to be derived from the sb. bitch (M. E. bicche] opprobriously used.
Hence the bicched bones two refer to ' the two accursed pieces of bone '
that are used in playing at hazard.

I add a few more references by way of confirming the derivation of
the Dutch bikkel.

Hexham's Dutch Dictionary (ed. 1658) gives : * Een Bickel, ofte
[or] Pickel, a hucklebone, or a die. Bickel, a pounce, or a graver.
Bickelen, ofte Pickelen, to play at dice. Bickelen, ofte Bicken, to cutt,
pink, or engrave. Een Bickeler, ofte Bicker, a stone-hewer, a stone-
carver, or a cutter. Bicken, to cut or carue.' The Icel. pikka means
both to pick and to prick. The A. S. picung means a stigma, or mark
caused by burning. The German Pickel is explained by Heinsius as
' ein kleines Fleck, ein kleines Geschwiir auf der Haut ; ' and pickeln, he
says, is sanft picken, mit etwas Spitzigem leise beriihren.' In Kuttner
and Nicholson's German Dictionary I find * Picken, to peck with the
bill, as birds do. Ein Vogel, der sich picket, a bird that picks, pecks,
or proins itself.* This last throws a clear light on apiked in Chaucer's
Prologue, 1. 365.

1. 66 1. The Pardoner now takes up the tale in earnest, beginning
abruptly. The 'three rioters' have not been previously mentioned,
though the word riot occurs in 1. 465.

1. 662. Pryme, about nine o'clock ; see notes to Non. Pr. Tale, 35 ;
and to Group B. 2015 (SirThopas). Here it means the canonical hour
for prayer so called, to announce which bells were rung.

1. 664. A hand-bell was carried before a corpse at a funeral by the
sexton. See Rock, Church of Our Fathers, it. 471 ; Grindal's Works,
p. 136.


1. 666. That oon of them, the one of them ; the old phrase for ' one of
them.' Kjiaue, boy.

1. 667. Go bet, lit. go better, i.e. go quicker; a term of encourage-
ment to dogs in the chase. So in the Legend of Good Women (Dido,
1. 288) we have

'The herde of hartes founden is anon,

With " hey ! go bet ! prick thou ! let gon, let gon ! " '
Halliwell says ' Go bet, an old hunting cry, often introduced in a more
general sense. See Songs and Carols, xv ; Shak. Soc. Pap. i. 58 ;
Chaucer, C. T. 12601 [the present passage]; Dido, 288; Tyrwhitt's
notes, p. 278; Ritson's Anc. Pop. Poetry, p. 46. The phrase is men-
tioned by [Juliana] Berners in the Boke of St. Alban's, and seems
nearly equivalent to go along? It is strange that no editor has per-
ceived the exact sense of this very simple phrase. Cf. ' Keep bet my
good,' i.e. take better care of my property ; Shipmannes Tale, third
line from the end.

1.679. This pestilence, during this plague. Alluding to the Great
Plagues that took place in the reign of Edward III. There were four
such, viz. in 1348-9, 1361-2, 1369, and 1375-6. As Chaucer probably
had the story from an Italian source, the allusion must be to the first
and worst of these, the effects of which spread nearly all over Europe,
and which was severely felt at Florence, as we learn from the descrip-
tion left by Boccaccio. See note to Piers Plowman, B. v. 13 (Clar.

1. 684. My dame, my mother; as in Piers Plowman, B. v. 37.

1. 695. Auow, vow ; to make auow is the old phrase for to vow.
Tyrwhitt alters it to a vow, quite unnecessarily ; and the same alteration
has been made by editors in other books, owing to want of familiarity
with old MSS. It is true that the form vow does occur, as, e.g. in
P. Plowm. B. prol. 71 ; but it is no less certain that avow occurs also, and
was the older form ; since we have oon auow (B. 334), and the phrase
'I make myn avou,' P. Plowman, A. v. 218 ; where no editorial sophistica-
tion can evade giving the right spelling. Equally clear is the spelling
in the Prompt. Parv. ' Avowe, Votum. Awowyn, or to make awowe,
Voveo.' And Mr. Way says ' Auowe, veu; Palsgrave. This word
occurs in R. de Brunne, Wiclif, and Chaucer. The phrase " performed
his auowe" occurs in the Legenda Aurea, fol. 47,' Those who are
familiar with MSS. know that a prefixed a is often written apart from
the word ; thus the word now spelt accord is often written ' a corde ; '
and so on. Hence, even when the word is really one word, it is still
often written 'a uow,' and is naturally printed a vow in two words,
where no such result was intended. Tyrwhitt himself prints min
avow in the Knightes Tale, 1. 1379, anc * again this avow in the same,
1. 1556; where no error is possible. See more on this word in my



note to 1. i of Chevy Chase, in Spec, of Eng. 1394-1579. I have
there said that the form vow does not occur in early writers ; I should
rather have said, it is by no means the usual form. For the etymology,
see the Glossary.

1. 698. Brother, i.e. sworn friend; see Kn. Tale, 273, 289. In 1. 704,
yboren brother means brother by birth.

1. 709. To-rente, tare in pieces, dismembered. See note to 1. 474

1. 713. This 'old man' answers to the romito or hermit of the Italian text.
Note an old (indefinite), as compared with the olde (definite) in 1. 714.

1.715. Tyrwhitt, in his Glossary, remarks ' God you seel 7751.
God him seel 4576. May God keep you, or him, in his sight! In
Troilus, ii. 85, it is fuller : God you save and see I ' Gower has ' And
than I bidde, God hlr seel 9 Conf. Amant. bk. iv (ed. Chalmers, p. 116,
col. 2, or ed. Pauli, ii. 96). Cf. ' now loke the owre lorde !' P. Plowman,
B. i. 207. See also 1. 766 below.

1. 727. This is a great improvement upon the Italian tale, which
represents the hermit as fleeing from death. 'Fratelli miei, io fuggo la
morte, che mi vien dietro cacciando mi.'

1. 731. Leuemoder, dear mother Earth.

1. 734. Cheste. Mr. Jephson (in Bell's edition) is puzzled here. He
takes cheste to mean a coffin, which is certainly the sense in the Clerk's
Prologue, E. 29. The simple solution is that cheste refers here, not to
a coffin, but to the box for holding clothes which, in olden times, almost
invariably stood in every bedroom, at the foot of the bed. 'At the
foot of the bed there was usually an iron-bound hutch or locker, which
served both as a seat, and as a repository for the apparel and wealth of
the owner, who, sleeping with his sword by his side, was prepared
to protect it against the midnight thief; ' Our English Home, p. 101.
It was also called a coffer, a hutch, or an ark. This makes the sense
clear. The old man is ready to exchange his chest, containing all
his worldly gear, for a single hair-cloth, to be used as his shroud.

1. 743- In the margin of MSS. E., Hn., and Pt. is the quotation
'Coram canuto capite consurge,' from Levit. xix. 32. Hence we must
understand Agayns in 1. 74 3> to mean before, or in presence of.

1. 748. God be with you is said, with probability, to have been the
original of our modern unmeaning Good bye I Go or ride, a general
phrase for locomotion ; go here means walk. Cp. ' ryde or go,' Kn.
Tale, 493. Cf. note to 1. 866.

1. 771. The readings are : E. Hn. Cm. an .viij. ; Ln. a .vij. ; Cp. Pt.
HI. a seuen. The word eighte is dissyllabic ; cf. A. S. eahta, Lat. octo.
Wei ny an eighte busshels = very nearly the quantity of eight bushels.
The mention of florins is quite in keeping with the Italian character of
the poem. Those coins were so named because originally coined at


Florence, the first coinage being in 1252; note in Gary's Dante, In-
ferno, c. xxx. The value of an English florin was 6s. Sd. ; see note
to Piers Plowman, ii. 143 (Clar. Press). There is an excellent note
on florins in Thynne's Animadversions on Speght's Chaucer, ed.
Furnivall, p. 45.

1. 781. In allusion to the old proverb ' Lightly come, lightly go.'
Cotgrave, s.v. Fleute, gives the corresponding French proverb thus :
' Ce qui est venu par la fleute s'en retourne avec le tabourin ; that the
pipe hath gathered, the tabour scattereth ; goods ill gotten are com-
monly ill spent.' In German 'wie gewonnen, so zerronnen.'

1. 782. Wende, would have weened, would have supposed. It is the
past tense subjunctive.

1. 790. Doon vs honge, lit. cause (men) to hang us ; we should now
say, cause us to be hanged. ' The Anglo-Saxons nominally punished
theft with death, if above 120*. value; but the criminal could redeem his
life by a ransom. In the 9th of Henry I. this power of redemption was
taken away, 1 108. The punishment of theft was very severe in England,
till mitigated by Peel's acts, 9 and 10 Geo. IV. 1829.' Haydn, s.v. Theft.

1. 793* To draw cuts is to draw lots ; see Prologue, 835, 838, 845.
A number of straws were held by one of the company ; the rest drew
one apiece, and whoever drew the shortest was the one on whom the lot
fell. The shortest straw was the cut, i.e. the one cut short ; cf. Welsh
cwtau, to shorten ; cwta, short ; cwtws, a lot. In France the custom
was reversed ; the lot fell on him who drew the longest ; so that their
phrase was ' tirer la longue paille/

1. 797. So in the Italian story* rechi del pane e del vino/ let him
fetch bread and wine.

1. 806-894. Here Chaucer follows the general sense of the Italian
story rather closely, but with certain amplifications.

1. 807. That oon, the one ; thai other, the other.

1.819. Conseil, a secret; as in P. Plowman, B. v. 168. We still
say ' to keep one's own counsel.'

1. 844. So the Italian story * II Demonio . . . mise in cuore a costui,'
&c. ; the devil put it in his heart.

1. 848. Leue, leave. ' That he had leave to bring him to sorrow.'

1. 851-878. Of this graphic description there is no trace in the Italian
story as we now have it. Cf. Rom. and Juliet, v. i.

1. 860. Al so, as. The sense is as (I hope) God may save my soul.
That our modem as is for a/s, which is short for a/so, from the A. S.
eall-swd, is now well known. This fact was doubted by Mr. Singer,
but Sir F. Madden, in his Reply to Mr. Singer's remarks upon Havelok
the Dane, accumulated such a mass of evidence upon the subject as to
set the question at rest for ever. It follows that as and also are
doublets, or various spellings of the same word,

M 2


1. 865. Sterue, die ; A. S. steorfan. The cognate German sterben
retains the old general sense. See 1. 888 below.

1. 866. Goon a paas, walk at an ordinary foot-pace ; so also, a litel
more than paas, a little faster than at a foot-pace, Prol. 825. Cotgrave
has ' Aller le pas, to pace, or go at a foot-pace ; to walk fair and
softly, or faire and leisurely.' Nat but, no more than only ; cf. North of
England nobbut. The time meant would be about twenty minutes at

1. 888. In the Italian story ' amendue caddero morti,' both of them
fell dead.

1.889. Avycen, Avicenna; mentioned in the Prologue, 1. 432. Avi-
tenna, or Ibn-Sina, a celebrated Arabian philosopher and physician,
born near Bokhara A.D. 980, died A.D. 1037. His chief work was a
treatise on medicine known as the Canon (' Kitab al-Kanun fi'1-Tibb,'
that is, ' Book of the Canon in Medicine'). This book, alluded to in
the next line, is divided into books and sections ; and the Arabic word
for * section* is in the Latin version denoted "by fen, from the Arabic
fann, a part of any science. Chaucer's expression is not quite correct ;
he seems to have taken ca non in its usual sense of rule, whereas it is
really the title of the whole work. It is much as if one were to speak of
Dante's work in the terms ' such as Dante never wrote in any Divina
Commedia nor in any canto.' Lib. iv. Fen I of Avicenna's Canon
treats 'De Venenis.'

1. 895. Against this line is written, in MS. E. only, the word
'Auctor;' to shew that the paragraph contained in 11. 895-903 is a
reflection by the author.

1. 897. The final e in glutonye is preserved by the csesural pause ; but
the scansion of the line is more easily seen by supposing it suppressed.
Hence in order to scan the line, suppress the final e in glutonye, lay the
accent on the second u in luxurie, and slur over the final -ie in that
word. Thus

O glut | ony* | luxii ] Tie and has | ardrye II

1. 904. Good men is the common phrase of address to hearers in old
homilies, answering to the modern ' dear brethren.' The Pardoner,
having told his tale (after which Chaucer himself has thrown in a
moral reflection), proceeds to improve his opportunity by addressing
the audience in his usual professional style ; see 1. 915.

1. 907. Noble, a coin worth 6s. 8J., first coined by Edward III. about
1339. See note to P. Plowman, B. iii. 45 (Clar. Press).

1. 908. So in P. Plowman, B. prol. 75, it is said of the Pardoner that
he ' raughte with his ragman [bull] rynges and broches.'

1. 910. Cometh is to be pronounced Cornth, as in Prol. 839 ; so also in
1. 925 below.

1. 920. Male, bag ; see Prol. 694.


1. 935. The first two syllables in perauenture are to be very rapidly
pronounced ; it is not uncommon to find the spelling peraunier, as in
P. Plowman, B. xi. 10.

1. 937. Which a, what sort of a, how great a, what a.

1. 945. Ye, for a grote, yea, even for a groat, i.e. 40?.

1. 946. Have 7, may I have ; an imprecation.

1. 947. So theech, a colloquialism for so thee ich, so may I thrive
The Host proceeds to abuse the Pardoner in not very decent terms.

1. 962. Ryght enough, quite enough; ryght is an adverb. Cf* 1. 960.


For general remarks on this Tale, see the Preface.
PROLOGUE. This consists of twelve stanzas, and is at once divisible
into three parts.

(1) The first four stanzas, the idea of which is taken from Jehan de
Vignay's Introduction to his French translation of the Legenda Aurea.
This Introduction is reprinted at length, from the Paris edition of 1513,
in the Originals and Analogues published by the Chaucer Society,
pt. ii. p. 190.

(2) The Invocation to the Virgin, in stanzas 5-11; see note to
11. 29, 36.

(3) An Envoy to the reader, in stanza 12 ; see note to 1. 78.

Line I. Jehan de Vignay attributes the idea of this line to St. Bernard.
He says' Et pour ce que oysiuete est tant blasmee que sainct Bernard
dit qu'elle est mere de truffles [mother of trifles], marrastre de vertus : . .
et fait estaindre vertu et nourrir orgueil,' &c. Chaucer says again, in
his Persones Tale (de Accidia) 'And though that ignorance be the
mother of alle harmes, certes, negligence is the norice. 1

1. 2. Ydelnesse, idleness ; considered as a branch of Sloth, which was
one of the Seven Deadly Sins. See Chaucer's Persones Tale, De

1. 3. Chaucer took this idea from the Romaunt of the Rose; see
11. 528-594 of the English version, where a lover is described as
knocking at the wicket of a garden, which was opened by a beautiful
maiden named Idleness. He afterwards repeated it in the Knightes
Tale, 1. 1082 ; and again in the Persones Tale (de Accidia) ' Than
cometh ydelnesse, that is the yate [gate] of all harmes. . . . Certes
heuen is yeuen to hem that will labour, and not to ydel folke.'

1. 4. To eschue, to eschew ; the gerund. The sentence really begins


with 1. 6, after which take the words to eschue; then take 11. 1-3,
followed by the rest of 1. 4 and by 1. 5.

1. 7. Jehan de Vignay's Introduction begins thus : ' Monseigneur sainct
hierosme dit ceste auctorite " Fays tousiours aucune chose de bien, que
le dyable ne te trouue oyseux." ' That is, he refers us to St. Jerome for
the idea. We are reminded, too, of the familiar lines by Dr. Watts
* For Satan finds some mischief still
For idle hands to do.'

1. 8. Cf. Persones Tale (de Accidia) 'An idel man is like to a place
that hath no walles, theras deuiles may enter on euery side.'

1. 14. Cf. Pers. Tale (de Accidia) 'Ayenst this roten sinne of accidie
and slouthe shulde men exercise hemself, and use hemself to do good
werkes;' &c. 'Laborare est orare' was the famous motto of St.

1. 15. Though men dradden neuer, even if men never feared.

1. 17. Roten, rotten; Tyrwhitt's text reads rote of, i.e. root of.
Yet roten seems right ; observe its occurrence in the note to 1. 14 above.

1. 19. 'And (men also) see that Sloth holds her in a leash, (for her) to
do nothing but sleep, and eat and drink, and devour all that others
obtain by toil.' The reading hir refers to Idleness, which, as I have
before explained, was a branch of Sloth, and was personified by a
female. See notes to 11. 2 and 3 above. Tyrwhitt has hem, which
is not in any of our seven MSS.

1. 21. Compare Piers Plowman, B. prol. 21, 22

'In settyng and in sowyng swonken ful harde,
And wonnen that wastours * with glotonye destruyeth.'

1. 25. After the legende, following the Legend; i.e. the Legenda
A urea. A very small portion is wholly Chaucer's own. He has
merely added a line here and there, such as 11. 489-497, 505-511, 535,
536. At 1. 346 he begins to be less literal; see notes to 380, 395, 443.

1. 2 7. St. Cecilia and St. Dorothea are both depicted with garlands.
Mrs. Jameson tells us how to distinguish them in her Sacred and
Legendary Art, 3rd ed. 591. She also says, at p. 35 'The wreath
of roses on the brow of St. Cecilia, the roses or fruits borne by
St. Dorothea, are explained by the legends.' And again, at p. 36
'White and red roses expressed love and innocence, or love and
wisdom, as in the garland with which the angels crown St. Cecilia.'
Red was the symbol of love, divine fervour, &c. ; white, of light, purity,
innocence, virginity. See 11. 220, 244, 279. The legend of St. Dorothea
forms the subject of Massinger's Virgin Martyr.

1. 29. Virgines must be a trisyllable here; such words are often
shortened to a dissyllable. The word thou is addressed to the Virgin
Mary. In the margin of MSS. E. and Hn. is written ' Inuocatio
ad Mariam.'


1. 30. Speaking of St. Bernard, Mrs. Jameson says ' One of his most
celebrated works, the Missus est, was composed in her honour [i.e. in
honour of the Virgin] as Mother of the Redeemer ; and in eighty
Sermons on texts from the Song of Solomon, he set forth her divine
perfection as the Selected and Espoused, the type of the Church on
earth;' Legends of the Monastic Orders, 2nd ed. p. 144.

See a further illustration of the great favour shewn by the Virgin
to St. Bernard at p. 142 of the same volume ; and, at p. 145, the
description of a painting by Murillo, quoted from Stirling's Spanish
Painters, p. 914. See also Dante, Paradise, xxxi. 102.

1. 32. Confort of us wrecches, comfort of us miserable sinners ; see

Online LibraryGeoffrey ChaucerThe Tale of the Man of lawe ; the Pardoneres tale ; the Second nonnes tale ; the Chanouns yemannes tale : from the Canterbury tales → online text (page 16 of 30)