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from error. But it can no longer be declared to
be the result of a later intentional misrepresentation,
made in order to conceal the dependence of Jainism
on Buddhism. It is no longer possible to dispute
its authenticity with regard to those points which
are confirmed by independent statements of other
sects, and to assert, for example, that the Jaina
account of the life of Yard ham ana, which agrees
with the statements of the Buddists, proves nothing
as regards the age of Jainism because in the late
fixing of the canon of the Svetambaras in the sixth
century after Christ it may have been drawn from
Buddhist works. Such an assertion which, under
all circumstances, is a bold one, becomes entirely
untenable when it is found that the tradition in
question states correctly facts which lie not quite
three centuries distant from Vardhamana's time,
and that the sect, long before the first century of
our era kept strict account of their internal affairs 4 .
Unfortunately the testimony to the ancient history
of the Jainas, so far as made known by means of
inscriptions, terminates here. Interesting as it would
be to follow the traces of their communities in the
later inscriptions, which become so numerous from
the fifth century A.D. onwards and in the description
of his travels by Hiuen Tsiang, who found them

4 See Weber's and Earth's opinions quoted above in note I, p. 23.


spread through the whole of India and even beyond
its boundaries, it would be apart from our purpose.
The documents quoted suffice, however, to confirm
the assertion that during the first five centuries
after Buddha's death both the statements of Buddhist
tradition and real historical sources give evidence
to the existence of the Jainas as an important
religious community independent of Buddhism, and
that there are among the historical sources some
which entirely clear away the suspicion that the
tradition of the Jainas themselves is intentionally

The advantage gained for Indian history from
the conclusion that Jainism and Buddhism are two
contemporary sects having arisen in the same
district, is no small one. First, this conclusion shows
that the religious movement of the sixth and fifth
centuries B.C. in eastern India must have been a
profound one. If not only one, but certainly two,
and perhaps more reformers, appeared at the same
time, preaching teachers, who opposed the existing
circumstances in the same manner, and each of
whom gained no small number of followers for their
doctrines, the desire to overthrow the Brahmanical
order of things must have been generally and deeply
felt. This conclusion shows then that the transfor-
mation of the religious life in India was not merely
the work of a religious community. Many strove to
attain this object although separated from one another.
It is now recognisable, though preliminarily, in one


point only, that the religious history of India from
the fifth century B.C. to the eighth or ninth A.D.
was not made up of the fight between Brahmanism
and Buddhism alone. This conclusion allows us,
lastly, to hope that the thorough investigation of the
oldest writings of the Jainas and their relations with
Buddhism on the one hand and with Brahmanism
on the other will afford many important ways of
access to a more exact knowledge concerning the
religious ideas which prevailed in the sixth and
fifth centuries B.C., and to the establishment of
the boundaries of originality between the different


(Note p. 44).

Copies of the mutilated inscriptions referred to,
were published by General Sir A. Cunningham in
his Archaological Survey Reports, vol. Ill, plates
xiii xv. Unfortunately they have been presented
from 'copies' and are therefore full of errors, which
are due for the most part, doubtless, to the copyist
and not to the sculptor. It is not difficult, however,
in most cases under consideration here, to restore
the correct reading. Usually only vowel signs are
omitted or misread and, here, and there, consonants
closely resembling one another as va and cha, va,
and dha, ga and sa, la and na are interchanged.

The formulae of the inscriptions are almost uni-
versally the same. First comes the date, then follows
the name of a reverend teacher, next, the mention
of the school and the subdivision of it to which
he belonged. Then the persons, who dedicated the
statues are named (mostly women), and who be-
longed to the community of the said teacher. The
description of the gift forms the conclusion. The
dialect of the inscriptions shows that curious mixture
of Sanskrit and Prakrit which is found in almost all
documents of the Indo-Skythian kings, and which


as Dr. Hoernle was the first to recognise was one
of the literary languages of northern and north-
western India during the first centuries before and
after the commencement of our era.

In the calculation of dates, I use the favourite
starting point for the era of the Indo-Skythian
kings, which unfortunately, is not certainly deter-
mined, and assume that it is identical with the Saka
era of 78 '/ 4 A.D. The rule of these princes could
not have fallen later: in my opinion it was some-
what earlier '. I give here transcripts and restorations
of such inscriptions as mention Jaina schools or

1. The inscription which is the most important
for my purpose and at the same time one of the
best preserved, is Sir A. Cunningham's No. 6, plate
xiii, which was found on the base of a Jaina image
(Arch. Sur. Rep. vol. Ill, p. 31). The copy compared
with a rubbing gives the following reading, (the
letters within parentheses are damaged):

L. i. Siddham sam 20 grama I di 10 -f- 5 ko(ti}yato
ganato ( Va}niyalo kulato V(ai}r(i)to sakato Sirikato

2. (bha)ttito vachakasya Aryya-Sahghasihasya nir(v}-
varttanam Dattilasya Vi .-

3. lasya ko(thu}bi(ki}ya Jayavalasya Devadasasya
Nagadinasya cha Nagadinaye cha (ma]tii .

4. sra(vi}kaye (D)i-

1 What follows is from the author's later and fuller paper in
Wiener Zeitschrift fur die gunde des Morgenlandes^ Bd. I, S. 1 70 f .,
but abridged. Ed.



5. (na]ye danam . i

6. Varddhamana pra-

7. tima

The lacuna in line 2, after Dattilasya, probably
contained the word duhituye or dhutuye and part
of a male name of which only the letter vi is visible.
In 1. 3, possibly kothabiniye is to be read instead of
kothubikiye. As there is room for one more letter
at the end of the line, I propose to read matuye.
In 1. 5, Dinaye would stand for Dattayah and be
the genitive of a female name Dinna or Datta,
which has been shortened bhamavat. There can be
no doubt that the word srt, or siri, which is re-
quired, has stood before Vardhamana. With these
restorations the translation is as follows:

"Success! The year 20, summer (month] I, day
15. An image of glorious Vardhamana, the gift
of the female lay-disciple Dina [i. e. Dinna or Datta],
the [daughter] of Dattila, the wife of,
the mother of Jay aval a [Jayapala], of Deva-
dasa and Nagadina \_i.e. Nagadinna or Naga-
datta] and of Nagadina [i.e. of Nagadinna or
Nagadatta] - - (this statue being] the nirvartana 2
of the preacher Aryya-Sahghasiha [i..e. Arya-

2 The word nirvartana has the meaning of 'in obedience to
the order', or 4n consequence of the request'. It occurs again in
the Prakrit form nivatanam below, in No. 10 (pi. xiv) and it
has stood in No. 4, and at the end of 1. 2 of No. 7, where the
rubbing has nirva. . It is also found in the uext : Arch. Sur. Rep.
vol. XX, pi. v, No. 6.


Sanghasirhha], out of the Kotiya school, the
Vaniya race, the Vairi branch, the Sirika

The inscription given Arch. Sur. Rep. vol. XX, plate
v, No. 6 reads, according to an excellent rubbing :

L. i. Namo Arahamtanam namo Siddhana sam
6o 3 + 2

2 - S ra 3 di 5 etaye purvaye Rarakasya Aryaka-

3. sishya Atapikogahabaryasya nirvartana chatu-
varnasya samghasya

4. ya. dinna patibha\bho?\ga I (?) \ (?) Vaihikaya
datti |

"Adoration to the Arhats, adoration to the
Siddhas! The year 62, the summer (month] 3,
the day 5 ; on the above date a ya . was given to
the community, which includes four classes, as an
enjoyment (or one share for each) (this being) the
nirvartana of Atapikogahabarya, the pupil of
Arya-Kakasaghasta (Arya-Karkasagharshita), a
native of Kara (Radha). The gift of Vaihika (or,

2. With the inscription No. 6 of the year 20, No. 4
(plate xiii) agrees; it was also found on a Jaina
pedestal. With better readings from a rubbing of
the first side only, I propose for the other portions,

3 In reading the first figure as 60, I follow Sir A. Cunningham.
I have never seen the sign in another inscription. The characters
of the inscription are so archaic that this date may refer to an
earlier epoch than the Indo-Skythian.


of which I have no rubbings, the following emen-
dations, 1. I, Vaniyato kulato, sakhato; 1. 2, ku-
tumbiniye; I also note that the lacuna in line 2,
3* and 4 th sides, would be filled exactly by ye sri-
Vardhamanasya pratima karita sarvasattva. The
former existence of the first and last seven letters
may be considered certain. My restoration of the
whole is,

L. i (ist side) Siddham maharajasya Kanishkasya
rajye samvatsare navame [9] (2nd side) . . mase pratha
i divase 5 a-(y&)\syam\ purvv\a\ye Kotiyato ganato
Vaniya\to\ (4 th ) \ku\lato Vairito sakato vachaka-

2. (ist side) \sya\ \N\aganamdisa ni\rvd\r\ta\nam
Brah[md\ . . . [dhu-(2^}tuye\ Bhattimitasa kutu\m\bi-
\n\i\ye\ Vikata-(y&)[ye sri Vardhamanasya pratima
karita sarva- (4*h) satva\nam hita-

3. \sukhay e\ ;

and the translation : "Success ! During the reign
of the great king Kanishka, in the ninth year, 9,
in the first month, i, of..., on the day 5, on
the above date [an image of glorious Vardhamana
has been caused to be made] for the welfare [and
happiness] of [all created beings] by Vikata, the
house- wife ofBhattimit a(Bhattimitra) and [daughter
of] Brahma... (this statue being) the nirvartana
of the preacher Naganarhdi, out of the Kotiya
school (gana), the Vaniya line (kula), (and) the
Vairi branch (sakka)."

If we now turn to the Kalpasutra 4 , we find that

* Sac. Bks. East, vol. XXII p. 292.


Sutthiya or Susthita, the eighth successor o f
Vardhamana, founded the Kautika or Kodiya
gana, which split up into four sakhas and four
kulas. The third of the former was the Vajri
or V a i r i , and the third of the latter was the
Vaniya or Vanijja. It is evident that the
names of the gana, kula, and sakha agree with
those mentioned in the two inscriptions, Kotiya
being a somewhat older form of Kodiya. But it
is interesting to note that the further subdivision
of the Vairi sakha the Sirika bhatti(rika
bhakti) which inscription No. 6 mentions, is not
known to the Kalpasutra. This is a gap such as
may by be expected to occur in a list handed down
by oral tradition.

3. The Kotika gana is again mentioned in the
badly mutilated inscription No. 19, plate xv. A
complete restoration is impossible.

L. I. Samvatsare po va sya kutu-

bani . vadanasya vodhuya

2. K\otiyat6\ ganato \Prasna\uaha\na\kato kulato
Majhamato sakhato . . . sa nikaye bhati galae tha-

It may, however, be inferred from the fragments
of the first line that the dedication was made by
a woman who was described as the wife (kutumbini]
of one person and as the daughter-in-law (vadhu]
of another. The first part of line 2, restored as
above gives "in the congregation of .... out of
the Kotiya school, the Prasnavahanaka line


and the Ma j ha ma branch " The restoration

of the two names Kotiya and Prasnavahanaka
seems to me absolutely certain, because they ex-
actly fill the blanks in the inscription, and because
the information in the Kalpasutra (S. B. E. vol.
XXII, p. 293) regarding the Madhyama sakha
points in that direction. The latter work tells us
that Priyagantha, the second pupil of Susthita
and Supratibuddha, founded a sakha, called
Madhyama or Majhima.

As our inscriptions show that Professor Jacobi's
explanation of the terms gana, kula and sakha 3 is
correct and that the first denotes the school, the
second the line of teachers, and the third a branch
which separated from such a line, it follows that
the sakhas named in the Kalpasutra without the
mention of a gana and kula, must belong to the
last preceding gana and derive their origin from
one of its kulas. Hence the Madhyama sakha
doubtless was included in the Kautika gana, and
an offshoot of one of its kulas, the fourth of which
is called Prasnavahanaka or Panhavahanaya.
The correctness of these inferences is proved by
Rajasekhara's statement regarding his spiritual
descent at the end of the Prabandha kosha, which
he composed in Vik. sam 1405. He informs us that
he belonged to the K o t i k a gana, the P r a s n a-
v a h a n a kula, the Madhyama sakha. the H a r-

* S. B. E. vol. XXII, p. 288, note 2.


shapuriya gachha and the Maladhari samtana,
founded by the illustrious Abhayasuri.

For the last words of 1. 2 I do not dare to
propose an emendation; I merely note that the gift
seems to have consisted of pillars, thabani , i. e.

4. The Kotiya gana seems finally to be mentioned
in pi. xiii, No. 2, where the copy of line i, 2nd
side may be corrected as,

Siddha sa 5 he i di io-\-2 asy a purvvaye Kot(iya}.

5. Names of an older gana and of one of its
kulas occur in No. 10 plate xiv, where the copy,
which is faulty, may allow the following partial

L. i . Sa 4.0 -\- j gra 2 di 20 etasya purvvaye
Varane gane Petidhamikakulavachakasya Rohanadi-
sya sisasya Senasya nivatanam savaka- Da

2 pashanavadhaya Giha . . ka . bha . .

prapa \di\na . . ma ta . . . .
which I translate

"The year 47, the summer (month) 2, the day
20, on the above date a drinking fountain was

given by , the .... of the lay-disciple Da

(this being) the nivatana of Sena the pupil of
Rohanadi (Rohanandi) and preacher of the Peti-
dhamika (Praitidharmika) line, in the Varan a

Varane must be a mistake for the very similar
word Charane. The second kula of this gana which,
according to the Kalpasiitra (S. B. E. vol. XXII,


p. 291) was founded by rigupta, the fifth pupil
ofArya Su hast in, is the Pritidharmika (p. 292).
It is easy to see that a similar name is hidden in
the compound Petivamikakutavachakasya 'of the
preacher of the Petivamika line' ; and an in-
scription excavated by Dr. Fiihrer at Mathura men-
tions the Petivamika (kula) of the gana. With
the second line little can be done: if the letters
prapa are correct and form a word, one of the objects
dedicated must have been a drinking fountain.

6. The inscription No. 20, plate xv offers likewise
slightly corrupt and mutilated names of a. gana, a kula
and a sakha, mentioned in the Kalpasutra. In the li-
thographed copy lines 3 7 are hopeless and there is
no rubbing to help. The word thitu 'of a daughter'
in line 6, and the following ma , uya which is pro-
bably a misreading of matuye 'of the mother' show
that this dedication also was made by a female.
The last four syllables vato maho are probably the
remnant of another namaskara namo bhagavato
Mahavirasya. As regards the proper names, Aryya
Rehiniya is an impossible form; but on comparison
with the next inscription to be mentioned, it is
evident that the stone must have read Aryyodehi-
kiyato or Aryyadehikiyato gand\to\ 8 . According to the
Kalpasutra (S. B. E. vol. XXII, p. 291) Arya-Rohana
was the first pupil ofArya Suhastin and founded
the Uddeha gana. The latter split up into four
sakhas and into six kulas. The name of its fourth

Wiener Zeitschr. /. d. Kunde &< Morgenl.. Bd. II, S. 142 f.


sakha, Purnapatrika, closely resembles espe-
cially in its consonantal elements that of the in-
scription, Petaputrika, and I do not hesitate in
correcting the latter to Ponapatrika which would
be the equivalent of Sansk. Paurnapatrika.
Among the six kulas is the Parihasaka, and
considering the other agreements, I believe it pro-
bable that the mutilated name read as Puridha , ka
is a misreading of Parihaka. We may emend the
first two times and read as follows,

L. i. Siddhd\jn\ namo arahato Mahavir\a\sya de-
vanasasya \ rajna Vasudevasya samvatsare 90 -J- 8
varshamase 4. divase 10 -\- I etasya.

2. purvv\a\y\e\ Aryyo-D\e\h\i\kiyato gana\to\
P\a\vi\liasa\k\a\kula\to\ P\on\ap\a\trikat\o\ sakato ga-
n\i\sya Aryya-Devadatta\sya\ na

3. ryya-Kshemasya

4. prakagirine

5. kihadiye prajd

6. tasyaPravarakasyadhitu Varancusyagatvakasya
ma\t\uya Mitra(?}sa datta gd

7. ye . . \namo bhaga\vato mah\avirasya\
and the translation (so far) will be,

"Success! Adoration to the Arhat Mahavira, the
destroyer (?) of the gods. In the year of king Va-
sudeva, 98, in the month 4 of the rainy season,

on the day 1 1 on the above date

.... of the chief of the school (ganin) Aryya-D e-
v a d a t a (Devadatta) out of the school (gand) of
the Aryya-Udehikiya (A r ya-Udd ehikiy a),


out of the Parihasaka line (kula}, out of the
Ponapatrika (Paurnapatrika) branch (sakha)" 7
These and many other statements in the in-
scriptions, about the teachers and their schools are
of no small importance in themselves for the early
history of the Jainas. The agreement of the above
with the Kalpasutra can best be shown by placing
the statements in question against one another. The
inscriptions prove the actual existence of twenty of
the subdivisions mentioned in the Sthaviravali of
the Kalpasutra. Among its eight ganas we can
certainly trace three, possibly four the U d d e h i k a ,
Varan a, Vesavadiya (?) and Kodiya.


I. Kottiya (Kodiya) Gana

P7 I

Bramadasika kula Uchchenagari sakha

Thaniya kula Va'iri, Vairiya sakha

P[anha]vahu[naya]ku[la] Majhama sakha

The Sthaviravali of the Kalpasutra (Sac. Bks. of

1 At a later date Dr. Buhler added other proofs from inscriptions
of the authenticity of the Jaina tradition, in the Vienna Oriental
Journal, vol. II, pp. 141 146; vol. Ill, pp. 233 240; vol. IV,
pp. 169 173, 3133185 vol. V, pp. 175 180; and in Epigra-
phia Indica, vol. I pp. 371 397; vol. II, pp. 195212, 311.
The paragraphs given above are chiefly from his first paper in the
Vienna Oriental Journal (vol. I, pp. 165 180), which appears
to be an extended revision of the long footnote in the original
paper on the Jainas, but it is here corrected in places from readings
in his later papers. J.B.



the East, vol. XXII, p. 292) states that Susthita and
Supratibuddha founded the -

Kotiya or Kautaka Gana

I ~

1 . Bambhalijja

2. Vachchhalijja

3. Vaniya or Vanijja

4. Panhavahanaya
or Prasnavahanaka


1 . Uchchanagari

2. Vijjhahari

kulas 3. Vajri sakhas

4. Majjhimaka

5. Majjhima

scholar of the two teachers),
(founded by Priyagantha the second

Inscriptions: -

2. Varana Gana




Aryya Hatikiya , m

Pusyamitriya kulas sakhas

Aryya-Chetiya Haritamalakadhi


The Kalpasutra states that Srigupta of the Harita-
gotra founded the Charana gana, which was divided
into four sakhas and into seven kulas:



i. Vachchhalijja
2. Ptidhammiya
3. Halijja
4. Pusamtttyja
5. Malijja
6. Arya-Chedaya
7. Kanhasaha


kulas Gavedhuka



3. Aryya-Udekiya Gana

Nagabhutikiya i , ,^^a I KUlaS

Petaputrika sakha.


The Kalpasutra says Arya-Rohana of the Kasyapa
gotra founded the

Uddeha Gana


I. Nagabhuya
2. Somabhuta
3. Ullagachchha (or Ardrakachchha ?)
4. Hatthilijja
5. Nandijja
6. Parihasaka

kulas Sp



Inscriptions :

4. [Vesavadiya Gana] 8
[Me]hika kula

The Kalpasutra : Kamarddhi of the Kundala gotra
founded the Vesavatika gana which was divided into
four sakhas, and into four kulas:

Vesavatika Gana

Ganika Sravastika

Maighika ( . Rajjapaliya , ,

Kamarddhika kulas Antarijjiya ^ sakhas '

Indrapuraka / Khemalijjiya

The resemblance of most of these names is so
complete that no explanation is necessary.

8 Epigraphia Indica^ vol. I, pp. 382, 388.

For the above lists see Wiener Zeitschr. Bd. IV, S. 316 ff.
and Kalpasutra in S. B. E. vol. XXII, pp. 290 f.


The mythology of the Jainas, whilst including
many of the Hindu divinities, to which it accords
very inferior positions, is altogether different in
composition. It has all the appearance of a purely
constructed system. The gods are classified and sub-
divided into orders, genera, and species; all are
mortal, have their ages fixed, as well as their abodes,
and are mostly distinguished by cognizances chihnas
or lanchhanas. Their Tirthakaras, Tirthamkaras, or
perfected saints, are usually known as twenty-four
belonging to the present age. But the mythology
takes account also of a past and a future age or
renovation of the world, and to each of these aeons
are assigned twenty-four Tirthakaras. But this is not
all : in their cosmogony they lay down other conti-
nents besides Jambud vipa-Bharata or that which
we dwell in. These are separated from Jambudvipa by
impassable seas, but exactly like it in every respect
and are called Dhatuki-kanda and Pushkara-
a r d d h a ; and of each of these there are eastern and
western Bharata and Airavata regions, whilst of Jam-


budvipa there is also a Bharata and an Airavata re-
gion: these make the following ten regions or worlds:

1. Jambudvipa-bharata-kshetra.

2. Dhatuki-khanda purva-bharata.

3. Dhatuki-khanda paschima-bharata.

4. Pushkararddha purva-bharata.

5. Pushkaravaradvipa paschima-bharata.

6. Jambudvipa airavata-kshetra.

7. Dhatuki-khanda purva-airavata.

8. Dhatuki-khanda paschima-airavata.

9. Pushkarardhadvipa purva-airavata.
10. Puskararddha paschima-airavata.

To each of these is allotted twenty four past,
present and future Atits or Jinas, making in all
720 of this class, for which they have invented
names: but they are only names 1 .

Of the Tirthakaras of the present age or avasar-
pini in the Bharata-varsha of Jambudvipa, however,
we are supplied with minute details: their names,
parents, stations, reputed ages, complexions, atten-
dants, cognizances (chihna) or characteristics, etc.
and these details are useful for the explanation of
the iconography we meet with in the shrines of
Jaina temples. There the images of the Tirthakaras
are placed on highly sculptured thrones and sur-
rounded by other smaller attendant figures. In
temples of the Svetambara sect the images are
generally of marble white in most cases, but often

1 See Ratnasagara, bh. II, pp. 696 705.



black for images of the 19 th, 20^, 22^ and
Jinas. On the front of the throne or asana are
usually carved three small figures: at the proper
right of the Jina is a male figure representing the
Y a k s h a attendant or servant of that particular Jina ;
at the left end of the throne is the corresponding
female or Yakshini, Yakshi or Sasanadevi;
whilst in a panel in the middle there is often
another devi. At the base of the seat also, are placed
nine very small figures representing the navagraha
or nine planets; that is the sun, moon, five planets,
and ascending and descending nodes.

In the Jaina Puranas, legends are given to ac-
count for the connexion of the Yakshas and Yakshis
with their respective Tirthakaras: thus, in the case
of Parsvanatha, we have a story of two brothers
Marubhuti and Kamatha, who in eight suc-
cessive incarnations were always enemies, and were
finally born as Parsvanatha and Sambaradeva
respectively. A Pashanda or unbeliever, engaged in
the panchagni rite, when felling a tree for his fire,
against the remonstrance of Parsvanatha, cut in
pieces two snakes that were in it ; the Jina, however
restored hem to life by means of the panchamantra.
They were then re-born in Patala-loka as Dharanen-
dra or Nagendra-Yaksha and Padmavati- Yakshini.
When Sambaradeva or Meghakumara afterwards
attacked the Arhat with a great storm, whilst he was

1 2 4

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