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engaged in the Kayotsarga austerity standing im-
movable, exposed to the weather much in the way



64 THE INDIAN SECT OF THE JAINAS.

that Mara attacked Sakya Buddha at Bodh-gaya,
Dharanendra's throne in Patala thereupon shook,
and the Naga or Yaksha with his consort at once
sped to the protection of his former benefactor.
Dharanendra spread his many hoods over the head
of the Arhata and the Yakshihi Padmavati held a
white umbrella (sveta chhatri] over him for protec-
tion. Ever after they became his constant attendants,
just as Sakra was to Buddha. The legend is often
represented in old-sculptures, in the cave-temples at
Badami, Elura, etc., and the fignre of Parsva is
generally carved with the snake-hoods (Seshaphani)
over him 2 .

Other legends account for the attachment of each
pair of asanadevatas to their respective Jinas.

The Svetambaras and Digambaras agree generally
in the details respecting the different Tirthakaras ;
but, from information furnished from Maisur, they
seem to differ as to the names of the Yakshinis
attached to the several Tirthakaras, except the first
and last two ; they differ also in the names of several
of the Jinas of the past and the future aeons. The
Digambaras enlist most of the sixteen Vidyadevis

2 Cave Temples^ pp. 491, 4965 Arch. Sur. Westn. India^ vol. I,
p. 25 and pi. xxxvii 5 vol. V, p. 495 Transactions. R. As. Soc. vol. I,
p. 435. At Ranpur in Godwar, in the temple of Rishabhanatha is
a finely carved slab representing Parsvaoatha in the Kayotsarga
position, attended by snake divinities, Archit. and Scenery in Gu-
jarat and Rajputana^ p. 21. The story has variants: conf. Ind.
Ant. vol. XXX, p. 302.



THE INDIAN SECT OF THE JAINAS. 65

or goddesses of knowledge among the Yakshinis,
whilst the other sect include scarcely a third of them.

These Vidyadevis, as given by Hemachandra,
are (i) Rohini; (2) Prajnapti; (3) Vajrasrihkhala;
(4) Kulisankusa probably the Ankusa-Yakshi of
the Svetambara fourteenth Jina; (5) Chakres vari ;
(6) Naradatta or Purushadatta; (7) Kali or Kalika;
(8) Mahakali; (9) Gauri; (10) Gandhari; (n) Sarva-
stramahajvala; (12) Manavi; (13) Vairotya; (14) Ach-
chhupta; (15) Manasi; and (16) Mahamanasika.

The images of the Tirthakaras are always re-
presented seated with their legs crossed in front
the toes of one foot resting close upon the knee
of the other; and the right hand lies over the left
in the lap. All are represented exactly alike except
that Parsvanatha, the twenty-third, has the snake-
hoods over him; and, with the Digambaras, Suparsva
the seventh, has also a smaller group of snake hoods.
The Digambara images are all quite nude; those
of the Svetambaras are represented as clothed, and
they decorate them with crowns and ornaments.
They are distinguished from one another by their
attendant Yakshas and Yakshinis as well as by their
respective chihnas or cognizances which are carved
on the cushion of the throne.

All the Jinas are ascribed to the Ikshvaku family
(kula) except the twentieth Munisuvrata and twenty-
second Neminatha, who were of the Harivarhsa race.

All received diksha or consecration at their native
places; and all obtained jndna or complete enlighten-

5



66 THE INDIAN SECT OF THE JAINAS.

ment at the same, except Rishabha who became a
Kevalin at Purimatala, Nemi at Girnar, and Mahavira
at the Rijupaluka river; and twenty of them died-
or obtained moksha (deliverance in bliss) on Sameta-
ikhara or Mount Parsvanatha in the west of Bengal.
But Rishabha, the first, died on Ashtapada supposed
to be atrunjaya in Gujarat; Vasupujya died at Cham-
papuri in north Bengal; Neminatha on mount Girnar;
and Mahavira, the last, at Pavapuri.

Twenty-one of the Tirthakaras are said to have
attained Moksha in the Kayotsarga (Guj. Kausaggd]
posture, and Rishabha, Nemi, and Mahavira on the
padmasana or lotus throne.

For sake of brevity the following particulars for
each Arhat are given below in serial order viz.:

(1) The vimana or vahana (heaven) from which
he descended for incarnation.

(2) Birthplace, and place of consecration or diksha.

(3) Names of father and mother. (4) Complexion.

(5) Cognizance chihna or lanchhana.

(6) Height; and (7) Age.

(8) Diksha-vriksha or Bodhi tree.

(9) Yaksha and Yakshini, or attendant spirits.

(10) First Ganadhara or leading disciple, and first
Arya or leader of the female converts.

I. Rishabhadeva, Vrishabha, Adinatha or
Adisvara Bhagavan : (i) Sarvarthasiddha; (2) Vinit-
tanagari in Kosala and Purimatala; (3) Nabhiraja by
Marudeva; (4) golden varna; (5) the bull, vrisha,
balada; (6) 500 poles or dhanusha\ (7) 8,400,000



THE INDIAN SECT OF THE JAINAS. 67

purva or great years; (8) the Vata or banyan tree;
(9) Gomukha and Chakresvari; (10) Pundarika and
Brahmi.

II. Ajitanatha: (i) Vijayavimana; (2) Ayodhya;
(3) Jitasatru by Vijayamata; (4) golden; (5) the
elephant gaja or hasti; (6) 450 poles; (7) 7,200,000
purva years; (8) Sala the Shorea robusta; (9) Maha-
yaksha and Ajitabala: with the Digambaras, the
Yakshini isRohini-yakshi; (10) Sirhhasena and Phalgu.

III. Sambhavanatha: (i) Uvarimagraiveka ; (2)
Savathi or Sravasti ; (3) Jitari by Senamata ; (4) gol-
den; (5) the horse, asva, ghoda; (6) 400 poles;
(7) 6,000,000 purva years; (8) the Prayala Bucha-
nania latifolia; (9) Trimukha and Duritari (Digam-
bara Prajfiapti); (10) Charu and Syama.

IV. Abhinandana: (i) Jayantavimana ; (2) Ayo-
dhya; (3) Sambararaja by Siddhartha; (4) golden; (5)
the ape, plavaga, vanara or kapi; (6) 350 poles; (7)
5,000,000 purva years; (8) the Priyangu or Panicum
italicum ; (9) Nayaka and Kalika, and Digambara
Yakshesvara and Vajrasrihkhala; (10) Vajranabha
and Ajita.

V. Sumatinatha: (i) Jayantavimana; (2) Ayo-
dhya; (3) Megharaja by Mangala; (4) golden; (5) the
curlew, krauncha, (Dig. chakravakapaksha the
Brahmani or red goose) ; (6) 300 poles ; (7) 4,000,000
purva years; (8) Sala tree; (9) Turhburu and Maha-
kali (Dig. Purushadatta) ; (10) Charama and Kasyapi.

VI. Padmaprabha: (i) Uvarimagraiveka; (2)
Kausambi; (3) ^ridhara by Susima; (4) red (rakta}\



68 THE INDIAN SECT OF THE JAINAS.

(5) a lotus bud padma, abja, or kamala-, (6) 250
poles; (7) 3,000,000 purva years; (8) the Chhatra
(Anethum sowa ?) ; (9) Kusuma and yama (Dig.
Manovega or Manogupti) ; (10) Pradyotana and Rati.

VII. Suparsvanatha: (i) Madhyamagraiveka; (2)
Varanasi; (3) Pratishtharaja by Prithvi; (4) golden 3 ;

(5) the swastika symbol ; (6) 200 poles; (7)2,000,000
purva years ; (8) the irisha or Acacia sirisha ; (9) Ma-
tahga and Santa; Digambara, Varanandi and
Kali; (10) Vidirbha and Soma.

VIII. Chandraprabha: (i) Vijayanta; (2) Chan-
drapura; (3) Mahasenaraja byLakshmana; (4) white
dhavala, subhra; (5) the moon chandra or sasi;

(6) 150 poles; (7) i, 000,000 purva years; (8) the Naga
tree ; (9) Vijaya and Bhrikuti : Digambara Syama
or Vijaya and Jvalamalini; (10) Dinna and Sumana.

IX. Suvidhinatha or Pushpadanta: (i) Anata-
devaloka ; (2) Kanandinagari ; (3) Sugrivaraja by Rama-
rani; (4) white; (5) the Makara (Dig. the crab edi};
(6) 100 poles; (7) 200,000 purva years; (8) the Sali;
(9) Ajita and Sutaraka: Digambara Ajita and
Mahakali or Ajita; (10) Varahaka and Varuni.

X. ^italanatha: (i) Achyutadevaloka; (2)Bhadra-
pura or Bhadilapura; (3) Dndharatha-raja by Nanda;
(4) golden; (5) the rivatsa figure: (Dig. Sri-vriksha
the ficus religiosa) ; (6) 90 poles; (7) 100,000 purva
years; (8) the Priyangu tree; (9) Brahma and Asoka
(Dig. Manavi); (10) Nanda and Sujasa.

3 The Digambaras describe the colours of the seventh and twenty-
first Jinas as marakada or emerald coloured.



THE INDIAN SECT OF THE JAINAS. 69

XI. Sreyamsanatha or Sreyasa: (i) Achyuta-
devaloka; (2) Simhapuri; (3) Vishnuraja by Vishna; (4)
golden; (5) the rhinoceros khadga , genda: (Dig.
Garuda); (6) 80 poles; (7) 8,400,000 common years;

(8) the Tanduka tree; (9) Yakshet and Manavi:
Digambara Isvara and Gauri; (10) Kasyapa and
Dharani.

XII. Vasupujya: (i) Pranatadevaloka ; (2) Cham-
papuri ; (3) Vasupujya by Jaya ; (4) ruddy rakta,
Guj. ratun; (5) the female buffalo mahishz, pada\
(6) 70 poles; (7) 7,200,000 common years; (8) the
Patala or Bignonia suaveolens; (9) Kumara and
Chanda (Dig. Gandhari); (10) Subhuma and Dha-
rani.

XIII. Vimalanatha: (i) Mahasaradevaloka ; (2)
Kampilyapura; (3) Kntavarmaraja by Syama; (4) gol-
den; (5) a boar sdkara, varaha; (6) 60 poles; (7)
6,000,000 years; (8) the Jambu or Eugenia jambolana;

(9) Shanmukha and Vidita (Dig. Vairoti); (10) Man-
dara and Dhara.

XIV. Anantanatha or Anantajit: (i) Pranata-
devaloka ; (2) Ayodhya; (3) Simhasena by Suyasah or
Sujasa; (4) golden; (5) a falcon syena (Dig. bhalluka
a bear); (6) 50 poles; (7) 3,000,000 years; (8) the
Asoka or Jonesia asoka; (9) Patala and Ankusa
(Dig. Anantamati); (10) Jasa and Padma.

XV. Dharmanatha:(i) Vijayavimana ; (2) Ratna-
puri; (3) Bhanuraja by Suvrita; (4) golden; (5) the
thunderbolt vajra\ (6) 45 poles; (7) 1,000,000 years;
(8) Dadhiparna tree (Clitoria ternatea?); (9) Kinnara



70 THE INDIAN SECT OF THE JAINAS.

and Kandarpa (Dig. Manasi); (10) Arishta and
Arthasiva.

XVI. antinatha: (i) Sarvarthasiddha; (2) Gajapura
or Hastinapuri; (3) Visvasena by Achira; (4) golden;
(5) an antelope mriga, haratia, hulle; (6)40 poles;

(7) 100,000 years; (8) the Nandi or Cedrela toona;
(9) Garuda and Nirvani (Dig. Kimpurusha and Ma-
hamanasi); (10) Chakrayuddha and Suchi.

XVII. Kunthunatha:(i) Sarvarthasiddha; (2) Gaja-
pura; (3) Surarajaby Srirani; (4) golden; (5) a goat
chhaga or aja; (6) 35 poles; (7) 95,000 years;

(8) the Bhilaka tree; (9) Gandharva and Bala (Dig.
Vijaya); (10) Samba and Damini.

XVIII. Aranatha: (i) Sarvarthasiddha; (2) Gaja-
pura; (3) Sudarsana by Devirani; (4) golden; (5) the
Nandyavarta diagram, (Dig. Mina the zodiacal
Pisces); (6) 30 poles; (7) 84,000 years; (8) Amba or
Mango tree; (9) Yaksheta and Dhana (Dig. Kendra
and Ajita; (10) Kumbha and Rakshita.

XIX. Mallinatha: (i) Jayantadevaloka; (2) Ma-
thura; (3) Kumbharaja by Prabhavati; (4) blue mla\
(5) a jar kumbham, kalasa or ghata; (6) 25 poles;
(7) 55>ocx> years; (8) Asoka tree; (9) Kubera and Dha-
ranapriyca (Dig. Aparajita); (10) Abhikshaka and
Bandhumati.

XX. Munisuvrata, SuvrataorMuni:(i) Aparajita-
devaloka; (2) Rajagriha; (3) Sumitraraja by Pad-
mavati; (4) black syama, asita; (5) a tortoise
kurma; (6) 20 poles; (7) 30,000 years; (8) the
Champaka, Michelia champaka; (9) Varuna and



THE INDIAN SECT OF THE JAINAS. "Jl

Naradatta,(Dig. Bahurupini); ( i o) Malli and Pushpavati.

XXI. Naminatha, Nimi or Nimesvara : ( i ) Pranata-
devaloka; (2) Mathura; (3) Vijayaraja by Viprarani;
(4) yellow; (5) the blue water-lily nilotpala, with
the Digambaras, sometimes the Asoka tree; (6) 15
poles; (7) 10,000 years; (8) the Bakula or Mimusops
elengi; (9) Bhrikuti and Gandhan, (Dig. Chamundi) ;
(10) Subha and Anila.

XXII. Neminatha or Arishtanemi: (i) Aparajita;
(2) Sauripura (Prakrit Soriyapura) and Ujjinta or
Mount Girnar; (3) Samudravijaya by Sivadevi; (4)
black syama; (5) a conch, sankha; (6) 10 poles;
(7) looo years; (8) the Vetasa; (9) Gomedha and
Ambika: with the Digambaras, Sarvahna and Kush-
mandini; (10) Varadatta and Yakshadinna.

XXIII. Pars van at ha: (i) Pranatadevaloka ; (2)
Varanasi and Sameta-Sikhara ; (3) Asvasenaraja by
Vamadevi; (4) blue nila\ (5) a serpent sarpa;
(6) 9 hands; (7) 100 years; (8) the Dhataki or Grislea
tomentosa; (9) Parsvayaksha or Dharanendra and
Padmavati; (10) Aryadinna and Pushpachuda.

XXIV. Sri-Maha vira, Vardhamana or Vira,
the Sramana: (i) Pranatadevaloka; (2) Kundagrama or
Chitrakuta, and Rijupaluka ; (3) Siddhartharaja, Srey-
ansa or Yasasvin by Trisala Videhadinna or Priyaka-
rini; (4) yellow; (5) a lion kesari-simha; (6) 7 hands
or cubits; (7) 72 years; (8) the sala or teak tree;
(9) Matarhga and Siddhayika; (10) Indrabhuti and
Chandrabala.

The Tirthakaras may be regarded as the dii



72 THE INDIAN SECT OF THE JAINAS.

major es of the Jainas 4 , though, having become Siddhas,
emancipated from all concern, they can have no
interest in mundane affairs. They and such beings
as are supposed to have reached perfection are
divided into fifteen species:

1. Tirthakarasiddhas ;

2. Atirthakarasiddhas ;

3. Tirthasiddhas;

4. Svalihgasiddas;

5. Anyalingasiddhas ;

6. Strilihgasiddhas ;

7. Purushalihgasiddhas ;

8. Napurhsakalihgasiddhas ;

9. Grihalihgasiddhas ;

10. Tirthavyavachchhedasiddhas ;

11. Pratyekabuddhasiddhas;

12. Svayambuddhasiddhas ;

13. Ekasiddas;

14. Anekasiddhas;

15. Buddhabodhietasiddhas 5 .

But the gods are divided into four classes, and
each class into several orders : the four classes are :

I. Bhavanadhipatis, Bhavanavasins or
Bhaumeyikas, of which there are ten orders,
viz.

1. Asurakumaras;

2. Nagakumaras;

* For an account of the ritual of the Svetambara sect of Jainas,
see my account in the Indian Antiquary, vol. XIII, pp. 191 196.
5 Jour. Asiat. IXme Ser. torn. XIX, p. 260.



THE INDIAN SECT OF THE JAINAS. 73

3. Taditkumaras or Vidyutkumaras ;

4. Suvarna- or Suparnaka-kumaras ;

5. Agnikumaras;

6. Dvipakumaras (Divakumaras);

7. Udadhikumaras;

8. Dikkumaras ;

9. Pavana- or Vata-kumaras ;

10. Ghanika- or Sanitakumaras.

11. Vyantaras or Vanamantaras, who live
in woods are of eight classes :

1. Pisachas; .4. Rakshasas; 7. Mahoragas;

2. Bhutas; 5. Kimnaras; 8. Gandharvas.

3. Yakshas; 6. Kimpurushas ;

III. The Jyotishkas are the inhabitants of;

1. Chandras or the moons;

2. Suryas or the suns;

3. Grahas or the planets;

4. Nakshatras or the constellations;

5. Taras or the hosts of stars.

And IV. The V a i m a n i k a gods are of two orders:
(i) the Kalpabhavas, who are born in the hea-
venly Kalpas; and (2) the Kalpatitas, born in
the regions above the Kalpas.

(i) The Kalpabhavas again are subdivided
into twelve genera who live in the Kalpas after
which they are named; viz,

1. Saudharma; 5. Brahmaloka;

2. Isana; 6. Lantaka;

3. Sanatkumara; 7. Sukra or Mahasukla;

4. Mahendra; 8. Sahasrara;



74 THE INDIAN SECT OF THE JAINAS.

9. Anata (Anaya); n. Arana;

10. Pranata (Panaya); 12. Achyuta.

(2) The Kalpatitas are subdivided into (a)
the Graiveyakas, living on the upper part of the
universe; and (b] the Anuttaras or those above
whom there are no others.

(a) The Graiveyakas are of nine species, viz.

1. Sudarsanas; 6. Somanasas;

2. Supratipandhas; 7. Sumahkasas;

3. Manoramas; 8. Priyankaras;

4. Sarvabhadras; 9. Adityas or Nandikaras.

5. Suvisalas;

And (b) the Anuttara gods are of five orders : viz.

1. Vijayas; 4. Aparajitas;

2. Vaijayantas; and 5. Sarvarthasiddhas .

3. Jayantas;

These Anuttara gods inhabit the highest heavens
where they live for varying lengths of time as the
heavens ascend; and in the fifth or highest the
great Vimana called Sarvarthasiddha they all live
thirty-three Sagaropamas or periods of unimagiable
duration. Still all the gods are mortal or belong to
the samsara.

Above these is the paradise of the Siddhas or
perfected souls, and the Uttaradhyana Sutra gives

6 Conf. Ratnasagara, bh. II, pp. 616, 617; Jour. Asiat. IXme
Ser. tome XIX, p. 259; Sac. Bks. E. vol. XLV, p. 226 f. See
also Rev. de rffistoire des Relig. torn. XLVII, pp. 3450, which
has appeared since the above was written, for "La doctrine des
etres vivants dans la Religion Jaina'V



THE INDIAN SECT OF THE JAINAS. 75

the following details of this realm of the perfected,
or the paradise of the Jainas 7 :

"The perfected souls are those of women, men,
hermaphrodites, of orthodox, heterodox, and house-
holders. Perfection is reached by people of the
greatest , smallest and middle size 8 ; on high places,
underground, on the surface of the earth, in the
ocean, and in waters (of rivers, etc.).

"Ten hermaphrodites reach perfection at the same
time, twenty women, one hundred and eight men ;
four householders, ten heterodox, and one hundred
and eight orthodox monks.

"Two individuals of the greatest size reach per-
fection (simultaneously), four of the smallest size,
and one hundred and eight of the middle size.
Four individuals reach perfection (simultaneously)
on high places, two in the ocean, three in water,
twenty underground ; and where do they go on
reaching perfection ? Perfected souls are debarred
from the non-world (Aloka); they reside on the top
of the world ; they leave their bodies here (below)
and go there, on reaching perfection.

"Twelve yojanas above the (Vimana) Sarvartha
is the place called Ishatpragbhara, which has
the form of an umbrella ; (there the perfected souls



7 See ante^ p. II, note 10; The following extract is from Sac.
Books of the East^ vol. XLV, pp. 211 213.

8 The greatest size ogahana of men s 500 dhanush or 2000
cubits, the smallest is one cubit.



76 THE INDIAN SECT OF THE JAINAS.

go). It is forty-five hundred thousand yojanas long,
and as many broad, and it is somewhat more than
three times as many in circumference. Its thickness
is eight yojanas, it is greatest in the middle, and
decreases towards the margin, till it is thinner than
the wing of a fly. This place, by nature pure, con-
sisting of white gold, resembles in form an open
umbrella, as has been said by the best of Jinas.

"(Above it) is a pure blessed place (called Sita),
which is white like a conch-shell, the an&a-stone,
and Kunda-flowers 9 ; a yojana thence is the end of
the world. The perfected souls penetrate the sixth
part of the uppermost krosa of the (above-mentioned)
yojana. There, at the top of the world reside the
blessed perfected souls, rid of all transmigration,
and arrived at the excellent state of perfection.
The dimension of a perfected soul is two-thirds of
the height which the individual had in his last
existence.

"The perfected souls considered singly egattena
(as individuals) have a beginning but no end, con-
sidered collectively puhuttena (as a class) they
have neither a beginning nor an end. They have
no (visible) form, they consist of hife throughout,
they are developed into knowledge and faith, they
have crossed the boundary of the Sarhsara, and
reached the excellent state of perfection."

Like both the Brahmans and Buddhists, thejainas

The gourd Lagenaria vulgaris.



THE INDIAN SECT OF THE JAINAS. 77

have a series of hells Narakas, numbering seven
which they name

1. Ratnaprabha ; 5. Dhumaprabha ;

2. Sarkaraprabha ; 6. Tamaprabha;

3. Valukaprabha ; 7. Tamatamaprabha 10 .

4. Pankaprabha;

Those who inhabit the seventh hell have a stature
of 500 poles, and in each above that they are half
the height of the one below it.

Everything in the system as to stature of gods
and living beings, their ages and periods of trans-
migration is reduced to artificial numbers.



The Jaina Gachhas.

About the middle of the tenth century there
flourished a Jaina high priest named Uddyotana,
with whose pupils the eighty four gachhas origin-
ated. This number is still spoken of by the Jainas, but
the lists that have been hitherto published are very
discordant. The following was obtained from a
member of the sect as being their recognised list,
and allowing for differences of spelling, nearly every
name may be recognised in those previously pu-
blished by Mr. H. G. Briggs or Colonel Miles.

10 Ratnasagara^ bh. II, p. 607 ; Jour. As. u. s. p. 263.



THE INDIAN SECT OF THE JAINAS.



The Eighty four Gachchhas of the Jainas 1 .



1. Vada *f

2. Osvala*f

3. Ahchala*

4. Jiravala *f

5. Khadatara or Kharatara

6. Lonka or Richmati *f

7. Tapa*f

8. Garhgesvara * f

9. Korantavala f

10. Anandapura f

11. Bharavali

12. Udhaviya*f

13. Gudava*t

14. Dekaiipaor Dekawa*f

15. Bhinmala f

1 6. Mahudiya*f

17. Gachhapala*f

1 8. Goshavala f

19. Magatragagada f

20. Vrihrnaniyat

21. Talara*f

22. Vikadiya*t

23. Munjhiya*f

24. Chitrodaf

25. Sachora *f

26. Jachandiya f



27. Sidhalava :s f

28. Miyanniya

29. Agamiya f

30. Maladhari*f

31. Bhavariyaf

32. Palivala*f

33. Nagadigesvara f

34. Dharmaghosha f

35. Nagapura*f

36. Uchatavala f

37. Nannavala *f

38. Sa.dera*t

39. Mandovara*f

40. ^urani *f

41. Kharhbhavati *f

42. Paecharhda

43. Sopariya *f

44. Mandaliya * f

45. Kochhipana*f

46. Jagamna*t

47. Laparavala *f

48. Vosarada*f

49. Diiivahdaniya * f

50. Chitravala *f

51. Vegada

52. Vapada



1 Those names marked* are found in Col. Miles's list Tr. R.
A. S. vol. Ill, pp. 358 f. 363, 365, 370. Those marked f ai "e in-
cluded in H. G. Brigg's list, Cities of Gujarashtra, p. 339.



THE INDIAN SECT OF THE JAINAS.



79



53. Vijahara, Vijhara*f

54. Kaupurif

55. Kachala

56. Hamdaliya f

57. Mahukara f

58. Putaliya*f

59. Karhnariseya f

60. Revardiya * f

61. Dhandhukaf

62. Tharhbhanipana *

63. Pamchivalaf

64. Palanpura*

65 . Gamdhariya * f

66. Veliyaf

67. Sadhapunamiya

68. Nagarakotiya *f



69. Hasora*t

70. Bhatanera * f

71. Janahara*f

72. Jagayana *

73. Bhimasena*f

74. Takadiya f

75. Kamboja*f

76. Senataf

77. Vaghera*f

78. Vahediya*

79. Siddhapura *f

80. Ghoghari*f

8 1. Nigamiya

82. Punamiya

83. Varhadiyaf

84. Namila. f



CONTENTS.

THE INDIAN SECT OF THE JAIN AS, by Dr. J. G. BUHLER. p. i.
Appendix: Epigraphic testimony to the con-
tinuity of the Jaina tradition ,,48.

SKETCH OF JAINA MYTHOLOGY, by J. BURGESS . . 61.



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