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14. He shall not eat food which has been bought
or obtained ready-prepared in the market.

1 5. Nor (shall he eat) flavoured food (bought in
the market) excepting raw meat, honey, and salt.

1 6. Oil and clarified butter (bought in the market)
he may use, after having sprinkled them with water.

17. Prepared food which has stood for a night,
must neither be eaten nor drunk.



5. ' As the text has avaghrata, " smelt at," it does not matter if
they smell the food from a distance.' Haradatta.

n. 'It must be understood from other Smr/tis, that brass is to
be cleaned with ashes, copper with acids, silver with cowdung, and
gold with water.' Haradatta. Manu V, 114.

12. Manu V, 115.

1 6. 'Having sprinkled them with water and purified them by
boiling ; or, according to others, mixing them with so much water
as will not spoil them.' Haradatta.

17. The Sanskrit has two terms for 'eating;' the first 'khad'



1,5,17- EATING AND FORBIDDEN POOD. 63

1 8. Nor (should prepared food) that has turned
sour (be used in any way).

19. (The preceding two rules do) not (hold good
in regard to) the juice of sugar-cane, roasted rice-
grains, porridge prepared with whey, roasted yava,
gruel, vegetables, meat, flour, milk and preparations
from it, roots and fruits of herbs and trees.

20. (Substances which have turned) sour with-
out being mixed with anything else (are to be
avoided).

21. All intoxicating drinks are forbidden.

22. Likewise sheep's milk,

23. Likewise the milk of camels, of does, of
animals that give milk while big with young, of those
that bear twins, and of (one-hoofed animals),

24. Likewise the milk of a cow (buffalo-cow or
she-goat) during the (first) ten days (after their
giving birth to young ones),

25. Likewise (food mixed) with herbs which serve
for preparing intoxicating liquors,

26. (Likewise) red garlic, onions, and leeks,



applies to hard substances, the second 'ad' to soft substances.
Manu IV, 211 ; Yagn. I, 167.

r8. Manu IV, 211; V, 9; Ya7/. I, 167.

19. Manu V, 10, 24 and 25.

20. According to Haradatta, Apastamba returns once more to
the question about sour food, in order to teach that dishes pre-
pared with curds and other sour substances may be eaten.

22. Manu V, 8 ; Y&gn. I, 170.

23. Manu V, 8, 9; Ya^. I, 170. 'Sandhini, translated by
"females that give milk while big with young," means, accord-
ing to others, "female animals that give milk once a day/"
Haradatta.

24. Maim V. 8.

26. Manu V, 5; Ya^. I. 176.



64 APASTAMBA. I, ?,, 17.

27. Likewise anything else which (those who are
learned in the law) forbid.

28. Mushrooms ought not to be eaten ; that has
been declared in a Brahma^a ;

29. (Nor the meat) of one-hoofed animals, of
camels, of the Gayal, of village pigs, of .Sarabhas,
and of cattle.

30. (But the meat) of milch-cows and oxen may
be eaten.

31. The Vafasaneyaka declares ' bull's flesh is fit
for offerings.'

32. Amongst birds that scratch with their feet for
food, the (tame) cock (must not be eaten).

33. Amongst birds that feed thrusting forward
their beak, the (heron, called) Plava, (or 6aka/abila,
must not be eaten).

34. Carnivorous (birds are forbidden),

35. Likewise the swan, the Bhasa, the Brahmawi
duck, and the falcon.

36. Common cranes and Saras-cranes (are not to

27. Haradatta observes that Apastamba, finding the list of for-
bidden vegetables too long, refers his pupils to the advice of the
Sish/as. The force of this Sutra is exactly the same as that of

I, 3. "> 3 8 -

28. Ya^Tz. I, 171.

29. The camel, Gayal, and Sarabha are mentioned as ' forbidden
animals/ -Satapatha-br. I, 2, i, 8; Aitareya-br. II, i, 8; see al*>
Weber, Ind. Stud. X, 62; Manu V, n, 18; Yav/. I, 172, 176.

32. Yagn. I, 176.

33. Manu V, 12; Ya^w. I, 172.

34. Manu V, n; Ya^. I, 172.

35. Y%. I. 172.

36. Manu V, 12 ; Yagfi. I, 172. Other commentators take the
whole Sutra as one compound, and explain it as an exception to
Sfitra 34. In that case the translation runs thus : (' Carnivorous
birds are forbidden) except the Kru#a, Krau/:a, Vardhrawasa,



1, 6, l8. EATING AND FORBIDDEN FOOD. 65

be eaten) with the exception of the leather-nosed
Lakshma//a.

37. Five-toed animals (ought not to be eaten)
with the exception of the iguana, the tortoise, the
porcupine, the hedgehog, the rhinoceros, the hare,
and the Putikhasha.

38. Amongst fishes, the A'e/a ought not to be
eaten,

39. Nor the snake-headed fish, nor the alligator,
nor those which live on flesh only, nor those which
are misshaped (like) mermen.

PRASNA I, PAFALA 6, KHAATJA 18.

1. Honey, uncooked (grain), venison, land, roots,
fruits, (a promise of) safety, a pasture for cattle, a
house, and fodder for a draught- ox may be accepted
(even) from an Ugra.

2. Harita declares, that even these (presents) are
to be accepted only if they have been obtained by
a pupil.



and Lakshmaa.' Haradatta. This translation is objectionable,
because both the Kru/^as, now called Kularn or Kiiw/fc, and the
Kraua, the red-crested crane, now called Saras (Cyrus), feed on
grain. Kru&akrauAa is a Vedic dual and stands for kruX-a-
krauw^a or kru/3/('akrauau.

37. Manu V, 18 ; Ya^/7. 1, 1 77. Putikhasha is, according to Hara-
datta, an animal resembling a hare, and found in the Himalayas.

39. Haradatta closes this chapter on flesh-eating by quoting
Manu V, 56, which declares flesh-eating, drinking spirituous liquor,
and promiscuous intercourse to be allowable, but the abstinence
therefrom of greater merit. He states that the whole chapter must
be understood in this sense.

18. i. Manu IV, 247. 'Ugra denotes either a bad twice-born
man or the offspring of a Vai^ya and of a Sudia-woman. Other
persons of a similar character must be understood to be included
by the term/ Haradatta.

[2] F



66 APASTAMBA. 1, 6, 18.



3. Or they (Brahma;/a householders) may accept
(from an Ugra) uncooked or (a little) unflavoured
boiled food.

4. (Of such food) they shall not take a great
quantity (but only so much as suffices to support
life).

5. If (in times of distress) he is unable to keep
himself, he may eat (food obtained from anybody),

6. After having touched it (once) with gold,

7. Or (having touched it with) fire.

8. He shall not be too eager after (such a way of
living). He shall leave it when he has obtained a
(lawful) livelihood.

9. (A student of the Brahmanic caste) who has
returned home shall not eat (in the house) of
people belonging to the three tribes, beginning with
the Kshatriya (i. e. of Kshatriyas, Valryas, and
Madras).

TO. He may (usually) eat (the food) of a Brah-
ma#a on account of (the giver's) character (as a
Brahmawa). It must be avoided for particular
reasons only.

4. Also this rule seems to belong to Harita, on account of its
close connection with the preceding two.

8. Haradatta quotes, in support of the last SQtra?, a passage of
the jOindogya Upanishad, I, 10, i, and one from the AYg-veda,
IV, 18, 13, according to which it would be lawful to eat even
impure food, as a dog's entrails, under such circumstances. Other
commentators explain this and the preceding three Sutras differently.
According to them the translation would run thus : ' If he himself
does not find any livelihood (in times of distress, he may dwell even
with low-caste people who give him something to eat, and) he
may eat (food given by them) paying for it with (some small gift
in) gold or with animals.' This second explanation is perhaps
preferable.

9. M?.nu IV, 218, 219, and 223.



1, 6, 18. EATING AND FORBIDDEN FOOD. 67

11. He shall not eat in a house where (the host)
performs a rite which is not a rite of penance, whilst
he ought to perform a penance.

12. But when the penance has been performed,
he may eat (in that house).

13. According to some (food offered by people)
of any caste, who follow the laws prescribed -for
them, except that of iStidras, may be eaten.

14. (In times of distress) even the food of a
6"udra, who lives under one's protection for the sake*
of spiritual merit, (may be eaten).

15. He may eat it, after having touched it (once)
with gold or with fire. He shall not be too eager
after (such a' way of living). He shall leave it when
he obtains a (lawful) livelihood.

1 6. Food received from a multitude of givers
must not be eaten,

17. Nor food offered by a general invitation (to
all comers).

1 8. Food offered by an artisan must not be
eaten,

19. Nor (that of men) who live by the use of
arms (with the exception of Kshatriyas),

11. ' If a Brahmaa who has been ordered to perform a penance,
performs a Vai-s-vadeva or other rite without heeding the order of
his spiritual teacher, then a student who has returned home ought
not to eat in his house, until the enjoined penance has been per-
formed/ Haradatta.

12. ' The use of the part. perf. pass. " performed " indicates that
he must not eat there, whilst the penance is being performed.'
Haradatta.

14. Y%. I, 166. 15. Manu IV, 223.

16. Manu IV, 209. 17. Manu IV, 209; Ya^#. I, 168.

1 8. Manu IV, 210, 215; Ya^. I, 162-164.

19. Ya^. I, 104.

F 2



68 APASTAMBA. T, 6, 18.

20. Nor (that of men) who live by letting lodgings
or land.

21. A (professional) physician is a person whose
food must not be eaten,

22. (Also) a usurer,

23. (Also) a Brahma^a who has performed the
Dikshawiyesh/i (or initiatory ceremony of the Soma-
sacrifice) before he has bought the king (Soma).

24. (The food given by a person who has per-
formed the Dikshattiyesh/'i may be eaten), when the
victim sacred to Agni and Soma has been slain.

25. Or after that the omentum of the victim
(sacred to Agni and Soma) has been offered.

26. For a Brahmarca declares, ' Or they may eat
of the remainder of the animal, after having set
apart a portion for the offering.'

27. A eunuch (is a person whose food must not
be eaten),

28. (Likewise) the (professional) messenger em-
ployed by a king (or others),

29. (Likewise a Brahmawa) who offers substances
that are not fit for a sacrifice,

30. (Likewise) a spy,

21. Manu IV, 212; Yagn. I, 162.

22. Manu IV, 210; Ya^. I, 161.

23. 'That is to say, one who has begun, but not finished a
Soma-sacrince.' Haradatta. Manu IV, 210, and Gopatha-brah-
maa III, 19.

25. Aitareya-brahmawa II, i, 9.

27. Manu IV, 211; Ya^. I, 161. .

28. The village or town messengers are always men of the
lowest castes, such as the Mahars of Maharashtra.

29. 'For example, he who offers human blood in a magic
rite.' Haradatta.

30. Haradatta explains Hri, translated by 'spy/ to mean 'a



1, 6, 19. EATING AND FORBIDDEN FOOD. 69

31. (Also) a person who has become an ascetic
without (being authorized thereto by) the rules (of
the law),

32. (Also) he who forsakes the sacred fires
(without performing the sacrifice necessary on that
occasion),

33. Likewise a learned Brahmawa who avoids
ever) body, or eats the food of anybody, or neglects
the (daily) recitation of the Veda, (and) he whose
(only living) wife is of the .Sudra caste.

PRASNA I, PAT ALA. 6, KHANDA 19.

1. A drunkard, a madman, a prisoner, he who
learns the Veda from his son, a creditor who sits
with his debtor (hindering the fulfilment of his
duties), a debtor who thus sits (with his creditor,
are persons whose food must not be eaten) as long
as they are thus engaged or in that state.

2. Who (then) are those whose food may be eaten ?

secret adherent of the Sakta sect ' (gud%aHri, .rakta//). The exist-
ence of this sect in early times has not hitherto been proved.

31. Haradatta gives the 6akyas or Bauddhas as an instance.
But it i? doubtful, whether Apastamba meant to refer to them,
though it seems probable that heretics are intended.

32. Yav*. I, 1 60.

33. 'Who avoids everybody, i.e. who neither invites nor dines
with anybody.' Haradatta.

19. i. ManuIV, 207; Yagn. I, 6i, 162. Another commentator
explains awika, translated above ' he who learns the Veda from his
son; by ' a money-lender,' and combines pratyupavish/a^ with
this word, i.e. 'a money-lender who sits with his debtor hindering
him from fulfiliing his duties.' This manner of forcing a debtor
to pay, which is also called Afarita (see Manu VIII, 49), is, though
illegal, resorted to sometimes even now.

2. ' The object of this Sutra is to introduce the great variety of
opinions quoted below.' Haradatta.



yO APASTAMBA. I, 6, 19.

3. Kava declares, that it is he who wishes to

give.

4. Kautsa declares, that it is he who is holy.

5. Varshyayawi declares, that it is every giver (of

food).

6. For if guilt remains fixed on the man (who
committed a crime, then food given by a sinner) may
be eaten (because the guilt cannot leave the sinner).
But if guilt can leave (the sinner at any time, then
food given by the sinner may be eaten because) he
becomes pure by the gift (which he makes).

7. Offered food, which is pure, may be eaten,
.according to Eka, Kimika, Ka#va, Kutsa, and
Pushkarasadi.

8. Varshyayawi's opinion is, that (food) given
unasked (may be accepted) from anybody.

9. (Food offered) willingly by a holy man may be
eaten.

10. Food given unwillingly by a holy man ought
not to be eaten.

11. Food offered unasked by any person what-
soever may be eaten,

12. ' But not if it be given after an express pre-
vious announcement ;' thus says Harita.

13. Now they quote also in a Purawa the follow-
ing two verses :



4. 'Holy' means not only 'following his lawful occupations,'
but particularly ' practising austerities, reciting prayers, and offering
burnt-oblations.' Haradatta.

10. Another commentator explains this Sutra thus : ' He need
not eat the food offered by a righteous man, if he himself does not
wish to do so.' Haradatta.

13. See Manu IV, 248 and 249, where these identical verses
occur.



I, 7, 20. FORBIDDEN FOOD | LAWFUL LIVELIHOOD. 7 I

' The Lord of creatures has declared, that food
offered unasked and brought by the giver himself,
may be eaten, though (the giver be) a sinner,
provided the gift has not been announced before-
hand. The Manes of the ancestors of that man who
spurns such food, do not eat (his oblations) for fifteen
years, nor does the fire carry his offerings (to the
gods).'

14. (Another verse from a Purawa declares) : ' The
food given by a physician, a hunter, a surgeon, a
fowler, an unfaithful wife, or a eunuch must not be
eaten.'

15. Now (in confirmation of this) they quote (the
following verse) : ' The murderer of a Brahmawa
learned in the Veda heaps his guilt on his guest, an
innocent man on his calumniator, a thief set at liberty
on the king, and the petitioner on him who makes
false promises.'

PRASNA I, PArALA 7, KHA#Z>A 20.

1. He shall not fulfil his sacred duties merely in
order to acquire these worldly objects (as fame, gain,
and honour).

2. For when they ought to bring rewards, (duties
thus fulfilled) become fruitless.

3. (Worldly benefits) are produced as accessories
(to the fulfilment of the law), just as in the case J a
mango tree, which is planted in order to obtain fruit,
shade and fragrance (are accessory advantages).

14. Manu IV, 211, 212.

15. Regarding the liberation of the thief, see Apastamba I, 9.
25, 4. A similar verse occurs Manu VIII, 317, which has caused
the confusion observable in many MSS., as has been stated in the
critical notes to the text.



72 APASTAMBA. I, 7, 2O.

4. But if (worldly advantages) are not produced,
(then at least) the sacred duties have been fulfilled.

5. Let him not become irritated at, nor be de-
ceived by the speeches of hypocrites, of rogues, of
infidels, and of fools.

6. For Virtue and Sin do not go about and say,
' Here we are ; ' nor do gods, Gandharvas, or Manes
say (to men), ' This is virtue, that is sin.'

7. But that is virtue, the practice of which wise
men of the three twice-born castes praise ; what they
blame, is sin.

8. He shall regulate his course of action according
to the conduct which in all countries is unanimously
approved by men of the three twice-born castes,
who have been properly obedient (to their teachers),
who are aged, of subdued senses, neither given to
avarice, nor hypocrites.

9. Acting thus he will gain both worlds.

10. Trade is not lawful for a Brahma^a.

11. In times of distress he may trade in lawful
merchandise, avoiding the following (kinds), that are
forbidden :

12. (Particularly) men, condiments and liquids,
colours, perfumes, food, skins, heifers, substances

20. 7. The Sulra is intended to show how the law should be
ascertained in difficult cases. Haradatta' quotes here the passage of
Ya^vz. I, 9, on Parishads, and states that the plural aryfU shows
that three or four must be employed to arrive at a decision. See
also Manu XII, 108 seq.

8. Manu I, 6.

11. This Sutra, which specifies only one part of a Vauya's occu-
pations as permissible for Brahmawas in distress, implies, according
to Haradatta, that his other occupations also, as well as those of a
Kshatriya, are permissible. Manu IV, 6 ; X, 82 ; \%. Ill, 35.

12. Manu X, 86-89; Ya^. Ill, 36-39.



T, 7, 21. LAWFUL LIVELIHOOD. 73



used for glueing (such as lac), water, young corn-
stalks, substances from which spirituous liquor may
be extracted, red and black pepper, corn, flesh, arms,
and the hope of rewards for meritorious deeds.

13. Among (the various kinds of) grain he shall
especially not sell sesamum or rice (except he have
grown them himself).

14. The exchange of the one of these (above-
mentioned goods) for the other is likewise unlawful.

15. But food (may be exchanged) for food, and
slaves for slaves, and condiments for condiments, and
perfumes for perfumes, and learning for learning.

1 6. Let him traffic with lawful merchandise which
he has not bought,

PRASNA I, FATAL A 7, KHAA T DA 21.

1. With Mu/Z^a-grass, Balba^a-grass (and articles
made of them), roots, and fruits,

2. And with (other kinds of) grass and wood which
have not been worked up (into objects of use).

3. He shall not be too eager (after such a live-
lihood).

4. If he obtains (another lawful) livelihood, he
shall leave off (trading).



1 3. The exception stated above, is given by Haradatta on the
iiuthority of Manu X, 90 ; Ya^w. Ill, 39.

15. 'From the permission to exchange learning for learning, it
may be known that it is not lawful to sell it.' Haradatta. Manu
X, 94.

21. 2. 'Since it is known that Muw^a and Balba^a are kinds
of grass, it may be inferred from their being especially mentioned
(in Sutra i) that objects made of them (may be also sold).'
Haradatta.

4. V%;7. Ill, 35.



74 APASTAMBA. I, 7, 21.



5. Intercourse with fallen men is not ordained,

6. Nor with Apapatras.

7. Now (follows the enumeration of) the actions
which cause loss of caste (Pataniya).

8. (These are) stealing (gold), crimes whereby one
becomes an Abhi^asta, homicide, neglect of the
Vedas, causing abortion, incestuous connection with
relations born from the same womb as one's mother
or father, and with the offspring of such persons,
drinking spirituous liquor, and intercourse with per-
sons the intercourse with whom is forbidden.

9. That man falls who has connection with a female
friend of a female Guru, or with a female friend of a
male Guru, or with any married woman.

10. Some (teachers declare), that he does not fall
by having connection with any other married female
except his teacher's wife.

n. Constant commission of (other) sins (besides
those enumerated above) also causes a man to lose
his caste.

12. Now follows (the enumeration of) the acts
which make men impure (Asu/fckara).

13. (These are) the cohabitation of Aryan women
with .Stidras,

14. Eating the flesh of forbidden (creatures).



5. Manu XI, 180.

6. Regarding the definition of the word Apapatra, see above, I,
5, 16, 29.

8. The crimes by which a person becomes Abhirasta are enu-
merated below, I, 9, 24, 6 seq., where an explanation of the term
will be given.

9. Regarding the ' male Gurus ' see above. By ' female Gurus '
their wives are meant.

10. I e. he need not perform so heavy a penance.



1,8,22. PENANCE; KNOWLEDGE OF THE ATMAN. 75

15. As of a dog, a man, village cocks or pigs, car-
nivorous animals,
I 6. Eating the excrements of men,

17. Eating what is left by a Sudra, the cohabita-
tion of Aryans with Apapatra women.

1 8. Some declare, that these acts also cause a man
to lose his caste.

19. Other acts besides those (enumerated) are
causes of impurity.

20. He who learns (that a man has) committed
a sin, shall not be the first to make it known to
others ; but he shall avoid the (sinner), when per-
forming religious ceremonies.

PRASNA I, PATALA 8, KHAJVDA 22.

1. He shall employ the means which tend to the
acquisition of (the knowledge of) the Atman, which
are attended by the consequent (destruction of the
passions, and) which prevent the wandering (of the
mind from its object, and fix it on the contemplation
of the Atman).

2. There is no higher (object) than the attain-
ment of (the knowledge of the) Atman.

3. We shall quote the verses (from the Veda)

20. ' That is to say, he is not to invite the sinner to dinners,
given at the occasion of religious ceremonies.' Haradatta.

22. i. The knowledge of the Vedanta and the means which pre-
pare men for the knowledge of the Atman, the ' Self, the universal
soul,' are placed in this Pa/ala at the head of the penances, because
they are most efficacious for the removal of all sin. The means
are absence of anger &c., which are enumerated I, 8, 23, 6.

2. Haradatta gives in his commentary a lengthy discussion on
the Atman, which corresponds nearly to Ankara's Introduction to
and Commentary on the first Sutra of Badarayaa.

3. According to Haradatta, the following verses are taken
from an Upanishad.



76 APASTAMBA. 1,8,22.



which refer to the attainment of (the knowledge
of) the Atman.

4. All living creatures are the dwelling of him
who lies enveloped in matter, who is immortal and
who is spotless. Those become immortal who wor-
ship him who is immovable and lives hi a movable
dwelling.

5. Despising all that which in this world is called
an object (of the senses) a wise man shall strive after
the (knowledge of the) Atman.

6. O pupil, I, who had not recognised in my own
self the great self-luminous, universal, (absolutely)
free Atman, which must be obtained without the
mediation of anything else, desired (to find) it in
others (the senses). (But now as I have obtained
the pure knowledge, I do so no more.) Therefore
follow thou also this good road that leads to welfare
(salvation), and not the one that leads into misfor-
tune (new births).

7. It is he who is the eternal part in all creatures,
whose essence is wisdom, who is immortal, unchange-
able, destitute of limbs, of voice, of the (subtle) body,

4. The spotless one &c. is the Paramatman. The spots are
merit and demerit which, residing in the Manas, the internal organ
of perception, are only falsely attributed to the Atman, the soul.'
To become immortal means ' to obtain final liberation.'

5. It seems to me that Haradatta's explanation of the words
' idam idi ha idi ha ' is wrong. They ought to be divided thus,
' idamid, iha id, iha loke.' The general sense remains the same,
and there is no necessity to assume very curious and otherwise
unknown Vedic forms.

6. The verse is addressed by a teacher to his pupil. My trans-
lation strictly follows Haradatta's gloss. But his interpretation is
open to many doubts. However, I am unable to suggest anything
better.

7. The Sutra contains a further description of the Paramatman.



I, 8. 23. PENANCE : KNOWLEDGE OF THE ATMAN. 77

(even) of touch, exceedingly pure ; he is the uni-
verse, he is the highest goal ; (he dwells in the
middle of the body as) the Vishuvat day is (the
middle of a Sattra-sacrifice) ; he, indeed, is (accessi-
ble to all) like a town intersected by many streets.

8. He who meditates on him, and everywhere
and always lives according to his (commandments),
and who, full of devotion, sees him who is difficult
to be seen and subtle, will rejoice in (his) heaven.

PRASNA I, PAFALA 8, KHANDA 23.

1. That Brahmawa, who is wise and recognises
all creatures to be in the Atman, who pondering
(thereon) does not become bewildered, and who re-
cognises the Atman in every (created) thing, shines,
indeed, in heaven.

2. He, who is intelligence itself and subtler than
the thread of the lotus-fibre, pervades the universe,
and who, unchangeable and larger than the earth,
contains the universe ; he, who is different from the
knowledge of this v;orld, obtained by the senses
and identical with its objects, possesses the highest



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