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The sacred laws of the Aryas : as taught in the schools of Apastamba, Gautama, Vasishtha and Baudhayana online

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1. Some declare, that a student shall bathe after
(having acquired) the knowledge of the Veda, (how-
ever long or short the time of his studentship may
have been).

2. (He may) also (bathe) after having kept the
student's vow for forty-eight, (thirty-six or twenty-
four) years, (though he may not have mastered the

3. Some declare, that the student (shall bathe)
after (having acquired) the knowledge of the Veda
and after (the expiration of) his vow.

30. i. The bath is taken at the end of the studentship, and forms
part of the Sama vartana-ceremony. From this rite a student who
has completed his course of study derives the name Snataka, ' one
who has bathed.' See also Weber, Ind. Stud. X, 125.


4. To all those persons who have bathed (in
accordance with any of the above rules must be
shown) the honour due to a Snataka.

5. The reverence (shown to a Snataka) brings,
however, different rewards according to the degree
of devotion or of learning (possessed by the person

6. Now follow the observances (chiefly to be kept)
by a Snataka.

7. He shall usually enter the village and leave it
by the eastern or the northern gate.

8. During the morning and evening twilights, he
shall sit outside the village, and not speak anything
(referring to worldly matters).

9. (But an Agnihotri, who is occupied at home by
oblations in the morning and evening, must not go
out ; for) in the case of a conflict (of duties), that
enjoined by the Veda is the more important.

10. He shall avoid all dyed dresses,

1 1. And all naturally black cloth.

12. He shall wear a dress that is neither shining,

13. Nor despicable, if he is able (to afford it).

14. And in the day-time he shall avoid to wrap
up his head, except when voiding excrements.

15. But when voiding excrements, he shall en-
velop his head and place some (grass or the like)
on the ground.

1 6. He shall not void excrements in the shade (of
a tree, where travellers rest).

10. The rule to wear white garments is given Ya^f. I, 131 ;
Manu IV, 35.

13. Manu IV, 34.
1.5. Manu IV, 49.

94 APASTAMBA. I, u, 31.

17. But he may discharge urine on his own

1 8. He shall not void excrements with his shoes on,
nor on a ploughed field, nor on a path, nor in water.

19. He shall also avoid to spit into, or to have
connection with a woman in water.

20. He shall not void excrements facing the fire,
the sun, water, a Brahmawa, cows, or (images of)
the gods.

21. He shall avoid to clean his body from ex-
crements with a stone, a clod of earth, or with
(boughs of) herbs or trees which he has broken
off, whilst they were on the tree and full of sap.

22. If possible, he shall not stretch out his feet
towards a fire, water, a Brahma^a, a cow, (images
of) the gods, a door, or against the wind.

23. Now they quote also (the following verse) :


1. He shall eat facing the east, void faeces facing
the south, discharge urine facing the north, and
wash his feet turned towards the west.

2. He shall void excrements far from his house,
having gone towards the south or south-west.

3. But after sunset he must not void excrements
outside the village or far from his house.

4. And as long as he is impure he (shall avoid)
to pronounce the names of the gods,

18. Manu IV, 45, 46 ; Ya^. I, 137,

19. Manu IV, 56.

20. Manu IV, 48, 52; Yagn. I, 134.

22. The prohibition to stretch the feet towards a fire occurs also
Manu IV, 53; Y%. I, 137.

31. 2. Manu IV, 151; Y%. I, 16.

1,11,31. RULES FOR A SNATAKA. 95

5. And he shall not speak evil of the gods or of
the king.

6. He shall not touch with his foot a Brahmawa,
a cow, nor any other (venerable beings).

7. (Nor shall he touch them) with his hand, except
for particular reasons.

8. He shall not mention the blemishes of a cow,
of sacrificial presents, or of a girl.

9. And he shall not announce it (to the owner)
if a cow does damage (by eating corn or grass in
a field).

10. (Nor shall he call attention to it) if a cow
is together with her calf, except for a particular

1 1 . And of a cow which is not a milch-cow he shall
not say, 'She is not a milch-cow.' He must say,
' This is a cow which will become a milch-cow.'

12. He shall not call ' lucky' that which is lucky.
He shall call it ' a mercy, a blessing.'

13. He shall not step over a rope to which a calf
(or cow) is tied.

14. He shall not pass between the posts from
which a swing is suspended.

15. (In company) he shall not say, 'This person

5. Manu IV, 163.

8, 'In the section on transcendental knowledge (I, 8, 23, 5),
"speaking evil" has been forbidden, in connection with the means
of salvation. And below (Sutra 25) the (author) will declare that
the sins which destroy the creatures are to be avoided. But this
precept (is given in order to indicate that) in the case of cows and
the rest an extra penance must be performed.'' Haradatta.

12. Manu IV, 139. 13. Manu IV, 38.

14. ( Or according to others, " He shall not pass between pillars
supporting an arch." ' Haradatta.

96 APASTAMBA. I, II, 31.

is my enemy.' If he says, ' This person is my
enemy,' he will raise for himself an enemy, who
will show his hatred.

1 6. If he sees a rainbow, he must not say to
others, ' Here is Indra's bow.'

17. He shall not count (a flock of) birds.

1 8. He shall avoid to look at the sun when he
rises or sets.

19. During the day the sun protects the crea-
tures, during the night the moon. Therefore let
him eagerly strive to protect himself on the night
of the new moon by purity, continence, and rites
adapted for the season.

20. For during that night the sun and the moon
dwell together.

21. He shall not enter the village by a by-path.
If he enters it thus, he shall mutter this 7?zk-verse,
* Praise be to Rudra, the lord of the dwelling/ or
some other (verse) addressed to Rudra.

22. He shall not (ordinarily) give the residue of
his food to a person who is not. a Brahmawa. When
he gives it (to such a one), he shall clean his teeth
and give (the food) after having placed in it (the
dirt from his teeth).

1 6. Manu IV, 59.

17. ' Others explain (the Sfitra thus) : He shall not announce it
to others, if he sees (the souls of) good men falling from heaven on
account of the expenditure of their merit, (i.e.) he shall not call
attention to shooting-stars.'- Haradatta.

1 8. Manu IV, 37. 19. Manu IV, 153.

21. Manu IV, 73; Ya7*. I, 140.

22. Manu IV, 80. ' This prohibition (given in the first part of
the Sutra) refers to Sudras who are not dependents; to dependents
the following (exception applies).' Haradatta.

I, tr, 32. RULES FOR A SNATAKA. 97

23. And let him avoid the faults that destroy the
creatures, such as anger and the like.


1. Let him who teaches, avoid connubial inter-
course during- the rainy season and in autumn.

2. And if he has had connection (with his wife),
he shall not lie with her during the whole night.

3. He shall not teach whilst he is lying on a bed.

4. Nor shall he teach (sitting) on that couch on
which he lies (at night with his wife).

5. He shall not show himself adorned with a
garland, or anointed with ointments.

6. At night he shall always adorn himself for his

7. Let him not submerge his head together with
his body (in bathing),

8. And (let him avoid) to bathe after sunset.

9. Let him avoid to use a seat, clogs, sticks for
cleaning the teeth, (and other utensils) made of

10. Let him avoid to praise (himself) before his
teacher, saying, ' I have prope'rly bathed or the like.'

1 1. Let him be awake from midnight.

1 2. Let him not study (or teach) in the middle of
the night ; but (he may point out) their duties to his

13. Or (he may) by himself mentally (repeat the
sacred texts).

14. After midnight he may teach.

23. See above, I, 8, 23, 4 and 5, and Manu IV, 163.

32. i. Weber, Incf. Stud. X, 42.

2. Manu IV, 40. 5. Manu IV 7 , 72.

[2] H

98 APASTAMBA. 1,11,32.

1 5. When he has risen (at midnight, and taught)
during the third watch of the night, let him not lie
down again (saying), ' Studying is forbidden.'

1 6. At his pleasure he may (sleep) leaning (against
a pos;t or the like).

1 7. Or he may mentally repeat (the sacred texts).

1 8. Let him not visit inferior men (such as Nish-
das), nor countries which are inhabited by them,

19. Nor assemblies and crowds.

20. If he has entered a crowd, he shall leave it,
turning his right hand towards the crowd.

21. Nor shall he enter towns frequently.

22. Let him not answer directly a question (that
is difficult to decide).

23. Now they quote also (the following verse) :

24. (The foolish decision) of a person who decides
wrongly destroys his ancestors and his future hap-
piness, it harms his children, cattle, and house. ' Oh
Dharmaprahrada, (this deed belongs) not to Kuma-
lana ! ' thus decided Death, weeping, the question
(addressed to him by the ftishi).

15. I. e. if the following day is a forbidden day, e.g. an Ash/ami.
See also Manu IV, 99.

1 8. Manu IV, 60 and 61.

24. Haradatta tells the story to which the second half of the
verse alludes, in the following manner: 'A certain J?zshi had
two pupils, called Dharmaprahrada and Kumalana. Once they
brought from the forest two great bundles of firewood and threw
them negligently into their teacher's house, without looking. One
of the bundles struck the teacher's little son so that he died. Then
the teacher asked his two pupils, " Which of you two has killed
him ? " Both answered, " Not I, not I." Hereupon the teacher,
being unable to (come to a decision in order to) send away the
sinner and to keep the innocent one, called Death, and asked him.
" Which of the two has killed the boy ? " Then Death, finding
himself involved in a difficult law-question, began to weep, and


25. Let him not ascend a carriage yoked with
asses ; and let him avoid to ascend or to descend
from vehicles in difficult places.

26. And (let him avoid) to cross a river swimming.

27. And (let him avoid) ships of doubtful (solidity),

28. He shall avoid cutting grass, crushing clods
of earth, and spitting, without a particular reason,

29. And whatever else they forbid.


1 . After marriage the rites prescribed for a house-
holder and his wife (must be performed).

2. He shall eat at the two (appointed) times,
(morning and evening).

giving his decision, said, " Oh Dharmaprahrdda, not to Kumalana
(the dative has the sense of the genitive), this sin is none of
Kumalana's ! " Instead of declaring, " Dharmaprahrada, thou
hast done this," he said, " The other did pot do it." Still from
the circumstances of the case it appeared that the meaning of the
answer was, " The other has done it." " This was the decision
which he gave crying.'" The reading of the text rendered in the
translation is, dharmaprahrada na kumalanaya.
26. Manu IV, 77. 28. Manu IV, 70 and 71.

1. i. According to Haradatta, this rule is intended to refute the
opinion of those who hold that the sacred household-fire may be
kept, and the prescribed offerings therein may be performed,
either from the time of the marriage, or after the division of the
family estate, He also states that the use of the dual gr/hame-
dhino^ indicates that husband and wife must perform the rites
conjointly. Manu III, 67.

2. Haradatta thinks that this Sutra is intended to prevent
householders from having more than two meals a day, and to keep
them from gluttony. Others are of opinion that its object is to
keep householders from excessive fasting, and to make them
perform the Prandgnihotra at either meal. At the Pradgnihotra
the sacrificer eats five mouthfuls invoking successively, whilst he

H 2


3. And he shall not eat to repletion.

4. And both (the householder and his wife) shall
fast on (the days of) the new and full moon.

5. To eat once (on those days in the morning),
that also is called fasting.

6. And they may eat (at that meal) until they
are quite satisfied.

7. And on (the anniversary of) that (wedding)-day
they may eat that food of which they are fond.

8. And (on the night of that day) they shall sleep
on the ground (on a raised heap of earth).

9. And they shall avoid connubial intercourse.

10. And on the day after (that day) a Sthalipaka
must be offered.

11. The manner in which that offering must be

eats, the five vital airs. At the first mouthful he says, ' To Prilna
svaha ; ' at the second, ' To Apana svaha,' &c.
5. Asv. Gri. Su. I, 10, 2.

7. Haradatta holds that the words 'on that day' do not refer to
the days of the new and full moon, the Parvan-days, mentioned in
Sutra 4. His reasons are, first, that the permission to eat food,
of which the householder may be particularly fond, has already
been given in Sutra 6, by the term triplifi, ' satisfaction ' ; and,
secondly, that the singular ' on this day ' does not agree with the
plural ' on the Parvan-days.' Hence he comes to the conclusion
that the words 'on that day' must refer to the wedding-day,
mentioned in Sutra i, as well as to its anniversary. Haradatta is,
probably, right in his explanation, though the reasons adduced
here are very weak. A stronger reason for detaching this Sutra
from Sutra 4 will be brought forward below, under Sutra 1 1. Maha-
deva, the commentator of the Hirawyakejridharma, adopts the view
rejected by Haradatta.

8. Asv. Gri. Su. I, 3, 10.

10. A SthalTpaka is an offering at which rice cooked in a pot,, is offered in the fire A full description of this kind of
sacrifice occurs, Asv. Gri. Su. I, 10, i seq.

11. The Parvawa Sthalfpaka has been described by Apastamba


performed has been declared by (the description of
the Sthallpaka) to be performed on the days of the
new and full moon (the Parvawa).

12. And they declare (that this rite which is
known) amongst the people (must be performed)
every (year).

13. At every (burnt-offering), when he wishes to
place the fire on the altar (called Sthaw^ila), let him
draw on that (altar) three lines from west to east
and three lines from south to north, and sprinkle
(the altar) with water, turning the palm of the hand
downwards, and let him then make the fire burn
brightly by adding (fuel).

14. He shall pour out (the remainder of) this water
used for sprinkling, to the north or to the east (of
the altar), and take other (water into the vessel).

15. The water-vessels in the house shall never
be empty ; that is the duty to be observed by the
householder and his wife.

in the Grz'hya-sutra, III, 7. Again, Haradatta returns to the
question whether the words on that day (Sfltra 7) refer to the
Parvan-days, or the marriage-day and its anniversaries. He now
adds, in favour of the latter view, that the word Parvaena, ' by
the rite to be performed on Parvan-days/ by which the Sthalipaka
on Parvan-days is intended, clearly proves the impossibility to refer
the preceding rules to the Parvan-days. He adds that some,
nevertheless, adopt the explanation rejected by himself.

12. They, i.e. the Sish/as, those learned in the law. 'Another
commentator says, the rite which will be taught (in the following
Sutra), and which is known from the usage of the learned, is
constant, i.e. must be performed in every case. That it is what
the "learned" declare.' Haradatta. The latter explanation of
the Sutra is adopted by MahSdeva.

13. Asv. Gri. Su. I, 3, 1-3.

15. Haradatta states that the object of the repetition of the
words 'the householder and his wife' is to show that they


1 6. Let him not have connubial intercourse (with
his wife) in the day-time.

1 7. But let him have connection with his wife at
the proper time, according to the rules (of the law).

1 8. Let him have connubial intercourse in the
interval also, if his. wife (desires it, observing the
restrictions imposed by the law).

19. (The duty of) connubial intercourse (follows
from) the passage of a Brahmawa, (' Let us dwell
together until a son be born.')

20. But during intercourse he shall be dressed in
a particular dress kept for this purpose.

21. And during intercourse only they shall lie

22. Afterwards separate.

23. Then they both shall bathe ;


1. Or they shall remove the stains with earth or
water, sip water, and sprinkle the body with water.

2. Men of all castes, if they fulfil their (assigned)
duties, enjoy (in heaven) the highest, imperishable

3. Afterwards when (a man who has fulfilled his
.duties) returns to this world, he obtains, by virtue of

themselves must fill the water-vessels, and not employ others for
this purpose. He adds that, according to another commentator,
the object of the repetition is to show that Sutras 1 3 and 1 4 apply
not only to householders, but also to students, and that hence
students, when they offer the daily oblations of sacred fuel (above,
I, 1,4, 14 seq.), should also perform the rites taught in the pre-
ceding Sutras.

17. See Manu III, 46-48; Ya^. I, 79, 80.

18. Manu III, 45; Yagn. I, 81.

19. See Taittiriya Sawhitd II, 5, i, 5.


a remainder of merit, birth in a distinguished family,
beauty of form, beauty of complexion, strength, apti-
tude for learning, wisdom, wealth, and the gift of
fulfilling the laws of his (caste and order). There-
fore in both worlds he dwells in happiness, (rolling)
like a wheel (from the one to the other).

4. As the seed of herbs (and) trees, (sown) in
good and well-cultivated soil, gives manifold returns
of fruit (even so it is with men who have received
the various sacraments).

5. The increase of the results of sins has been
explained hereby.

6. Thus after having undergone a long punish-
ment in the next world, a person who has stolen
(the gold of a Brahmawa) or killed a (Brahmawa)
is born again, in case he was a Brahmaa as a
A'awdala, in case he wa's a Kshatriya as a Paulkasa,
in case he was a Vaisya as a Varna.

7. In the same manner other (sinners) who have
become outcasts in consequence of their sinful actions
are born again, on account of (these) sins, losing their
caste, in the wombs (of various animals).

8. As it is sinful to touch a Aawdala, (so it is also
sinful) to speak to him or to look at him. The
penance for these (offences will be declared).

9. (The penance) for touching him is to bathe,
submerging the whole body ; for speaking to him to
speak to a Brahma^a ; for looking at him to look at
the lights (of heaven).

2. 6. Manu XII, 55 ; Y$#. Ill, 206, 207. A Paulkasa is said
to be the offspring of a Nishdda and a Kshatriya woman. See the
Pet. Diet. s. v. A Vaia is a rope-dancer, or equilibrist.

7. Munu XII, 52.



1 . Pure men of the first three castes shall prepare
the food (of a householder which is used) at the
Vaisvadeva ceremony.

2. The (cook) shall not speak, nor cough, nor
sneeze, while his face is turned towards the food.

3. He shall purify himself by touching water if he
has touched his hair, his limbs, or his garment.

4. Or .Sudras may prepare the food, under the
superintendence of men of the first three castes.

5. For them is prescribed the same rule of sip-
ping water (as for their masters).

6. Besides, the (-Sudra cooks) daily shall cause to
be cut the hair of their heads, their beards, the hair
on their bodies, and their nails.

7. And they shall bathe, keeping their clothes on.

8. Or they may trim (their hair and nails) on the
eighth day (of each half-month), or on the days of
the full and new moon.

9. He (the householder himself) shall place on the
fire that food which has been prepared (by ^udras)
without supervision, and shall sprinkle it with water.
Such food also they state to be fit for the gods.

10. When the food is ready, (the cook) shall place

3. i. 'The food which is used at the Vaijvadeva, i.e. the food
prepared for the meals of the householder and of his wife.'

5. This Sutra is a Gwapaka, as it indicates that Apastamba also
recognises the different rules which are usually prescribed in the
Smr/tis for Brahmawas, Kshatriyas, Vai-ryas, and Siidras. See above,
I, 5, 16, 2.

7. Usually in bathing both Aryas and Sudras wear no dress
except the lango/f.


himself before his master and announce it to him
(saying), ' It is ready.'

11. The answer (of the master) shall be, 'That
well-prepared food is the means to obtain splendour ;
may it never fail ! '

12. The burnt-oblations and Bali-offerings made
with the food which the husband and his wife are to
eat, bring (as their reward) prosperity, (and the enjoy-
ment of) heaven.

13. Whilst learning the sacred formulas (to be
recited during the performance) of those (burnt-
oblations and Bali-offerings, a householder) shall
sleep on the ground, abstain from connubial inter-
course and from eating pungent condiments and
salt, during twelve days.

14. (When he studies the Mantras) for the last
(Bali offered to the goblins), he shall fast for one
(day and) night.

15. For each Bali-offering the ground must be
prepared separately. (The performer) sweeps (the
ground) with his (right) hand, sprinkles it with water,
turning the palm downwards, throws down (the offer-
ing), and afterwards sprinkles water around it.

1 1. Manu II, 54.

12. Balis are portions of food which are thrown before the door,
or on the floor of the house. See below, Sutra 16 seq.

13. Others explain this Sutra thus: 'After having used for the
first time these sacred formulas (which are to be recited in offering
the burnt-oblation and the Balis, the householder and his wife)
shall sleep/ &c.

i .j . Regarding the use of ekaratra in the sense of ' a (day and a)
night,' see above. The 'last' Bali-offering is that described below,
II, 2, 4, 5.

15. 'They say that the word "afterwards" is used in order to
indicate that perfumes, garlands, and other (UpaX-aras) must be
offered between (the last two acts).' Haradatta.

io6 APASTAMBA. 11,2,3.

1 6. (At the Vaisvadeva sacrifice) he shall offer
the oblations with his hand, (throwing them) into
the kitchen-fire or into the sacred (Gfzhya)-fire, and
reciting (each time one of) the first six Mantras
(prescribed in the Naraya#t Upanishad).

17. He shall sprinkle water all around both times
(before and after the oblations), as (has been de-
clared) above.

1 8. In like manner water is sprinkled around once
only after the performance of those Bali-offerings
that are performed in one place.

19. (If a seasoning) has been prepared, (the
Bali-offering should consist of rice) mixed with that

20. With the seventh and eighth Mantras (Balis

1 6. It is a disputed point wiih the commentators whether every
Brahmawa may offer the Vauvadeva in the common kitchen-fire, or
those persons only who do not keep a sacred domestic fire. The
six Mantras, which are given Taitt. Ar. X, 67, i, are: i. Agnaye
svaha, 'to Agni svaha'-; 2. Somaya svaha, 'to Soma avSha';
3. Vtivebhyo devebhya^ svaha, 'to all the gods svaha ' ; 4. Dhruvaya
bhumaya svaM, 'to Dhruva Bhfima svaha'; 5. Dhruvakshitaye svahS,
'to Dhruvakshiti svahi'; 6. A^yutakshitaye svaha, 'to Afyutakshiti
svaha.' Haradatta adds that some add a seventh formula, addressed
to Agni svish/akr/t, ' to the fire which causes the proper perform-
ance of the sacrifice,' while others leave out the second Mantra and
give that addressed to Agni svish/akr?'t the sixth place. This latter
is the order gi?en in the Calcutta edition of the TaittirJya Aranyaka.

17. 'Above, i.e. G/vhya-sutra, I, 2, 3, 8.' Haradatta. The Man-
tras recited are : i. at the first sprinkling, Adite 'numanyasva, ' Aditi
permit ' ; Anumate 'numanyasva. ' Anumati permit' ; Sarasvaty anu-
manyasva, 'Sarasvatf permit ' ; Deva Savita// prasuva, 'Divine Savitr/
permit ' ; 2. at the second sprinkling, the same as above, anva-
ma;;/stha/& and prasaviA, 'thou hast permitted,' being substituted
for anumanyasva and prasuva.

1 8. This Sutra is a restriction of Sutra 15.

20. The first six offerings constitute the Devaya^wa or Vauva-


must be offered to Dharma and Adharma) behind
the fire, and must be placed the one to the north of
the other.

2 1 . With the ninth (Mantra a Bali offered to the
waters must be placed) near the water-vessel (in

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