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which the water for domestic purposes is kept).

22. With the tenth and eleventh (Mantras, Balis,
offered to the herbs and trees and to Rakshodeva-
^ana, must be placed) in the centre of the house,
and the one to the east of the other.

23. With the following four (Mantras, Balis must
be placed) in the north-eastern part of the house
(and the one to the east of the other).

PRASNA II> PATALA 2, KHAA T DA 4.

1. Near the bed (a Bali must be offered) with
(a Mantra) addressed to Kama (Cupid).

2. On the door-sill (a Bali must be placed) with
(a Mantra) addressed to Antariksha (the air).

3. With (the Mantra) that follows (in the Upani-
shad, he offers a Bali) near the door.

deva, which is offered in the fire. Now follow the Bali-offerings,
which are merely placed on the ground. ' Behind the fire ' means
' to the east of the fire ' ; for the sacrificer must face the east.
2i The Mantra is, Adbhya^ svaha, 'to the Waters svaha.'

22. The Mantras are, OshadhivanaspatibhyaA svahS, 'to the
herbs and trees svaha ' ; Rakshodeva^anebhya^ svaha, ' to the
Rakshasas and the servants of the gods svaha.'

23. These four Balis are sacred to the Grthas, to the Avasanas,
to the Avasanapatis, and to all creatures.

4. 2. 'Others explain dehali, "the door-sill," to mean "the
door-case." ' Haradatta.

3. ' Others explain apidhana, " the panels of the door," to mean
"the bolt of the door.'" Haradatta. The offering is made to
Nama, ' the name, or essence of things.'



TO8 APASTAMBA. 11,2,4-



4. With the following (ten Mantras, addressed to
Earth, Air, Heaven, Sun, Moon, the Constellations,
Indra, Br/haspati, Pra^apati, and Brahman, he offers
ten Balis, each following one to the east of the pre-
ceding one), in (the part of the house called) the
seat of Brahman.

5. He shall offer to the south (of the Balis offered
before, a Bali) with a Mantra addressed to the Manes;
his sacrificial cord shall be suspended over the right
shoulder, and the (palm of his right hand shall be
turned upwards and) inclined to the right.

6. To the north (of the Bali given to the Manes,
a Bali shall be offered) to Rudra, in the same manner
as to the (other) gods.

7. The sprinkling with water (which precedes and
follows the oblation) of these two (Balis, takes place)
separately, on account of the difference of the rule
(for each case).



4. Haradatta gives two explanations of the word Brahmasadana,
' the seat of Brahman/ According to some, it is an architectural
term, designating the centre of the house ; according to others, it
denotes the place where, at the time of the burnt-oblations, the
Brahman or superintending priest is seated, i.e. a spot to the south
of the sacred fire.

5. Balis and water for the Manes are placed or poured into the
palm of the hand and thrown out between the thumb and fore-
finger. That part of the palm is, therefore, sometimes called ' the
tirtha sacred to the Manes.' See Manu II, 39.

6. ' That is to say, the sacrificial cord shall not be suspended
over the right shoulder, nor shall the Bali be thrown out between
the thumb and forefinger.' Haradatta.

7. In sprinkling around an offering to the gods, the sacrificer
turns his right hand towards the oblation and pours out the water,
beginning in the south and ending in the east. In sprinkling around
an offering to the Manes, exactly the opposite order is to be
followed.



11,2,4- THE DUTIES OF A HOUSEHOLDER. IO9



8. At night only he shall offer (the Bali to the
goblins), throwing it into the air and reciting the last
(Mantra).

9. He who devoutly offers those (above-described
Balis and Homas), according to the rules, (obtains)
eternal bliss in heaven and prosperity.

10. And (after the Balis have been performed, a
portion of the food) must first be given as alms.

11. He shall give food to his guests first,

12. And to infants, old or sick people, female
(relations, and) pregnant women.

13. The master (of the house) and his wife shall
not refuse a man who asks for food at the time (when
the VaLrvadeva offering has been performed).

14. If there is no food, earth, water, grass, and
a kind word, indeed, never fail in the house of a
good man. Thus (say those who know the law).



8. At night, i. e. before the evening meal. The Mantra is, ' To
those beings which, being servants of Vituda, roam about day and
night, desiring a Bali-offering, I offer this Bali, desirous of pros-
perity. May the Lord of prosperity grant me prosperity, svaha.'
Haradatta adds, that according to another commentator, no other
Bali but this is to be offered in the evening, and that some modify
the Mantra for each occasion, offering the Bali in the morning to
' the Bhutas that roam about during the day/ and in the evening
' to the night-walkers.' Compare for the whole section Manu III,
90-92; Ya^w. I, 102-104.

10. Manu III, 94 seq.

11. Manu III, 115: Ya^T?. I, 105.

12. Manu III, 114 ; Ya^w. I, 105.

14. Manu III, 101; Y%. I, 107. As read in the text, the
first line of the verse has one syllable in excess. This irregularity
would disappear if lrtn&, the Vedtc form of the nom. ace. plural,
were read for tr/wdni, and it seems to me not improbable that
trmani is a correction made by a Pandit who valued grammatical
correctness higher than correctness of metre.



IIO APASTAMBA. 11,2,4.

15. Endless worlds are the portion (of those
householders and wives) who act thus.

1 6. To a Brahmawa who has not studied the
Veda, a seat, water, and food must be given. But
(the giver) shall not rise (to do him honour).

1 7. But if (such a man) is worthy of a salutation
(for other reasons), he shall rise to salute him.

1 8. Nor (shall a Brahmawa rise to receive) a
Kshatriya or Vai^ya (though they may be learned).

19. If a 6udra conies as a guest (to a Brahmawa),
he shall give him some work to do. He may feed
him, after (that has been performed).

20: Or the slaves (of the Brahma^a householder)
shall fetch (rice) from the royal stores, and honour
the ^udra as a guest.

2 1. (A householder) must always wear his garment
over (his left shoulder and under his right arm).

22. Or he may use a cord only, slung over his
left shoulder and passed under his right arm, instead
of the garment.

23. He shall sweep together (the crumbs) on the
place where he has eaten, and take them away.
He shall sprinkle water on that place, turning the
palm downwards, and remove the stains (of food
from the cooking- vessels with a stick), wash them
with water, and take their contents to a clean place
to the north (of the house, offering them") to Rudra.
In this manner his house will become prosperous.

16. Manu III, 99.

18. Manu III, 110-112; Ya^. I, 107.

19. Manu loc. cit.

20. ' Hence it is known that the king ought to keep stores of
rice and the like in every village, in order to show hospitality to
.Sudra guests.' Haradatta.



II, 2, 5- THE DUTIES OF A HOUSEHOLDER. 1 1 1

24. It is declared in the Smrttls that a Brah-
mawa alone should be chosen as teacher (or spiritual
guide).

25. In times of distress a Brahmawa may study
under a Kshatriya or Vawya.

26. And (during his pupilship) he must walk
behind (such a teacher).

27. Afterwards the Brahmawa shall take prece-
dence before (his Kshatriya or Vai^-ya teacher).

PRASNA II, PATALA 2, KHA.VDA 5.

1. On the day on which, beginning the study of
the whole sacred science, the Upanishads (and the
rest, he performs the Upakarma in the morning),
he shall not study (at night).

2. And he shall not leave his teacher at once after
having studied (the Veda and having returned home).

24. Manu II, 241, 242. From here down to II, 3, 6, 2, Apa-
stamba again treats of the duties of students and teachers, a subject,
which appears to have in his eyes a greater importance than any
other. The rules given now apply chiefly to householders. It
would seem that they have been inserted in this particular place,
because the reception of a former teacher is to be described II, 3,
5, 4- 1 1, and that of a 'learned guest' II, 3, 6, 3 seq.

5. i. This rule refers to the Upakarma, to be performed yearly
by householders. In our days, too, the custom is observed, and the
whole Brahminical community change on this occasion their G'envfe
or sacrificial cords in the month of 6"rava//a. The adherents of
the various 6'akhas of the Vedas, however, perform the ceremony
on different days. According to Haradatta, the Upanishads are
named, in order to show that they are of the highest importance.
See also *Satapatha-brahmaa X, 3, 5, 12.

2. Others consider that this Sutra refers to the annual Upakarma
of the householder. In that case the translation would be, 'And
after having performed the Upakarma/ &c. Probably Apastamba
means to give a general rule, applicable both to householders and
to students who have returned home.



112 APASTAMBA. IT, ?, 5.



3. If he is in a hurry to go, he shall perform the
daily recitation of the Veda in the presence of his
teacher, and then go at his pleasure. In this manner
good fortune will attend both of them.

4. If the (former) teacher visits him after he has
returned home, he shall go out to meet him, embrace
his (feet), and he shall not wash himself (after that
act), showing disgust. He then shall let him pass
first into the house, fetch (the materials necessary for
a hospitable reception), and honour him according to
the rule.

5. If (his former teacher is) present, he himself
shall use a seat, a bed, food, and garments inferior
to, and lower (than those offered to the teacher).

6. Standing (with his body bent), he shall place
his left hand (under the water-vessel, and bending
with his other hand its mouth downwards), he shall
offer to his teacher water for sipping.

7. And (he shall offer water for sipping in this
manner) to other guests also who possess all (good
qualities) together.

8. He shall imitate (his teacher) in rising, sitting,
walking about, and smiling.



4. ' Though he may suspect that the teacher had been defiled by
the touch of a ATaWala or the like, still he shall not show disgust
nor wash himself/ Haradatta. Regarding the rule of receiving
guests, see below, II, 4, 8, 6 seq.

6. According to Haradatta, the repetition of the word aXaryam,
' the teacher,' in this Sutra, indicates that the rule holds good not
only when the teacher comes as a guest to his former pupil, but on
every occasion when he receives water for sipping.

7. 'He is called samudeta, "possessed of all (good 'qualities)
together," who is endowed with (good) birth, disposition, behaviour,
(great) learning, and a (venerable) age.' Haradatta.

8. The word syat is to be understood from Suira 5.



II, 2, 5- THE DUTIES OF A HOUSEHOLDER. 1 I 3

9. In the presence (of his teacher) he shall not
void excrements, discharge wind, speak aloud, laugh,
spit, clean his teeth, blow his nose, frown, clap his
hands, nor snap his fingers.

10. Nor shall he tenderly embrace or address
caressing words to his wife or children.

1 1. He shall not contradict his teacher,

1 2. Nor any of his betters.

13. (He shall not) blame or revile any creature.

14. (He shall not revile one branch of) sacred
learning by (invidiously comparing it with) another.

15. If he is not well versed in a (branch of) sacred
learning (which he studied formerly), he shall again
go to the (same) teacher and master it, observing
the (same) rules as (during his first studentship).

1 6. The restrictions (to be kept) by the teacher
from the beginning of the course of teaching to its
end are, to avoid cutting the hair on the body, par-
taking of meat or of oblations to the Manes, and
connection (with a woman).

17. Or (he may have conjugal intercourse) with
his wife at the proper season.

1 8. He shall be attentive in instructing his pupils
in the sacred learning, in such a manner that they

13. Haradatta states that 'speaking evil' is forbidden here once
more in order that it should be particularly avoided.

14. ' For example, he shall not say, " The Jtig-\cda. is sweet to
the ear, the other Vedas grate on the ear," or " the Taitiidya-veda
is a .Sakha consisting of leavings," or " the Brahmawa proclaimed
by Ya77avalkya is of modern origin." ' Haradatta. The second
sentence refers to the story that Ya^/avalkya vomited the Black
Ya^ur-veda, and his fellow-students, becoming partridges, picked it
up. Regarding the third sentence, see Varttika on Pawini IV, 3, 105,
and Max Muller's History of Ancient Sanskrit Literature, p. 363.

1 6. Weber, Ind. Stud. X, 42.

[2] I



114 APASTAMBA. IT, 3, 6.

master it, and in observing the restrictions (imposed
upon householders during their teaching). He who
acts thus, gains heavenly bliss for himself, his
descendants and ancestors.

19. He who entirely avoids with mind, word,
nose, eye, and ear the sensual objects (such as are)
enjoyed by the touch, the organ, or the stomach,
gains immortality.

PRASNA II, PAPALA 3, KHAJVDA 6.

1. If he has any doubts regarding the caste and
conduct of a person who has come to him in order
to fulfil his duty (of learning the Veda), he shall
kindle a fire (with the ceremonies prescribed for
kindling the sacrificial fire) and ask him about his
caste and conduct.

2. If he declares himself to be (pf) good (family
and conduct, the teacher elect) shall say, ' Agni who
sees, Vayu who hears, Aditya who brings to light,
vouch for his goodness ; may it be well with this
person ! He is free from sin.' Then he shall
begin to teach him.

3. A guest comes to the house resembling a
burning fire.

6. i. The person desirous to study addresses his teacher elect with
the following Mantra : Bhagavan maitrewa ^akshusha" parya jivena
manasanugrzMa prasida m&m adhyapaya, ' venerable Sir, look on
me with a friendly eye, receive me with a favourable mind, be kind
and teach me.' The teacher elect then asks : Kiwgotro 'si saumya,
kimjUara-A, ' friend, of what family art thou ? what is thy rale of
conduct ? '

3. The object of this Sutra is to show the absolute necessity of
feeding a guest. For, if offended, he might burn the house with
the flames of his anger.



11,3,6. THE DUTIES OF A HOUSEHOLDER. 115

4. He is called a.5rotriya who, observing the law
(of studentship), has learned one recension of the
Veda (which may be current in his family).

5. He is called a guest (who, being a vSrotriya),
approaches solely for the fulfilment of his religious
duties, and with no other object, a householder who
lives intent on the fulfilment of his duties.

6. The reward for honouring (such a guest) is
immunity from misfortunes, and heavenly bliss.

7. He shall go to meet such (a guest), honour him
according to hi-s age (by the formulas of salutation
prescribed), and cause a seat to be given to him.

8. Some declare that, if possible, the seat should
have many feet.

9. The (householder himself) shall wash the feet
of that (guest) ; according to some, two ^udras shall
do it.

10. One of them shall be employed in pouring
water (over the guest, the other in washing his
feet).

11. Some declare that the water for the (guest)
shall be brought in an earthen vessel.



4. The object of this Sutra is to complete the definition of the
term ' guest ' to be given in the following Sutra. In my translation
I have followed Haradatta's gloss. The literal sense of Apa-
stamba's words is, He who, observing the law, has studied one
recension of each (of the four) Vedas, becomes a .Srotriya.' Hara-
datta says this definition would be contrary to the current accepta-
tion of the term. That argument proves, however, nothing for
Apastamba's times.

5. Manu III, 102, 103; Ya^. I, m.

6. Ya^. I, 109; Manu III, 101.

8. Haradatta states that this is also Apastamba's opinion,
ii. According to Haradatta, Apastamba is of opinion that it
should be brought in a pot made of metal.

I 2



ii6 APASTAMBA. 11,5,6.

12. But (a guest) who has not yet returned home
from his teacher shall not be a cause for fetching
water.

13. In case a (student comes, the host) shall
repeat the Veda (together with him) for a longer
time (than with other guests).

14. He shall converse kindly (with his guest),
and gladden him with milk or other (drinks), with
eatables, or at least with water.

15. He shall offer to his guest a room, a bed,
a mattress, a pillow with a cover, and ointment, and
what else (may be necessary).

1 6. (If the dinner has been finished before the
arrival of the guest), he shall call his cook and give
him rice or yava for (preparing a fresh meal for) the
guest

1 7. (If dinner is ready at the arrival of the guest),
he himself shall portion out the food and look at it,
saying (to himself), ' Is this (portion) greater, or
this?'

1 8. He shall say, ' Take out a larger (portion for
the guest)/

19. A guest who is at enmity (with his host) shall
not eat his food, nor (shall he eat the food of a host)
who hates him or accuses him of a crime, or of one
who is suspected of a crime.

20. For it is declared in the Veda that he (who
eats the food of such a person) eats his guilt.

12. I.e. it is unnecessary to offer water for washing the feet to
a student.

15. 'Ointment, (i.e.) oil or clarified butter for anojnting the
feet.' Haradatta. Manu III, 107.

1 6. Manu III, 108.

19. Manu IV, 213; \agn. I, 162.



II, 3, 7- THE DUTIES OF A HOUSEHOLDER, I I



PRASNA II, PAFALA 3, KHA^DA 7.

1. This reception of guests is an everlasting
(6rauta)-sacrifice offered by the householder to
Pra^apati.

2. The fire in the stomach of the guest (repre-
sents) the Ahavanlya, (the sacred fire) in the house
of the host represents the Garhapatya, the fire at
which the food for the guest is cooked (represents)
the fire used for cooking the sacrificial viands (the
Dakshiwagni).

3. He who eats before his guest consumes the
food, the prosperity, the issue, the cattle, the merit
which his family acquired by sacrifices and charitable
works.

4. Food (offered to guests) which is mixed with
milk procures the reward of an Agnish/oma-sacrifice,
food mixed with clarified butter procures the reward
of an Ukthya, food mixed with honey the reward of
an Atiratra, food accompanied by meat the reward
of a Dvada^aha, (food and) water numerous offspring
and long life.

5. It is declared in the Veda, ' Both welcome and
indifferent guests procure heaven (for their host).'



7. i. 'Pra^-apatya may mean either "created by Pra^apati" or
" sacred to Pra^apati." ' Haradatta.

2. In the first Sutra the reception of guests had been compared
to an everlasting Vedic sacrifice. This analogy is traced further
in detail in this Sutra. One of the chief characteristics of a Vedic
sacrifice is the vitana, or the use of three sacred fires. Hence
Apastamba shows that three fires also are used in offering hospi-
tality to guests.

4. Regarding the Agnish/oma and the other sacrifices men-
tioned, see Aitareya-brahmawa III, 8; IV. i ; IV, 4.



1 18 APASTAMBA. TI, 3, 7.

6. When he gives food in the morning, at noon,
and in the evening, (these gifts) are the Savanas (of
that sacrifice offered to Pra^apati).

7. When he rises after his guest has risen (to
depart), that act represents the Udavasaniya ish/i
(of a Vedic sacrifice).

8. W r hen he addresses (the guest) kindly, that
kind address (represents) the Dakshi;/a.

9. \Vhen he follows (his departing guest, his steps
represent) the steps of Vishnu.

10. When he returns (after having accompanied
his guest), that (act represents) the Avabhmha,
(the final bath performed after the completion of
a sacrifice.)

1 1 . Thus (a Brahmawa shall treat) a Brahma#a,
(and a Kshatriya and a VaLsya their caste fellows.)

12. If a guest comes to a king, he shall make (his
Purohita) honour him more than himself.

13. If a guest comes to an Agnihotrin, he himself



6. The morning, midday, and evening offerings offered at the
great Vedic sacrifices are called Savanas. The object of this
Stitra is to prescribe the hospitable reception of guests at all times
of the day. and to further describe the similarity of a guest-offering
to a Vedic sacrifice.

7. Regarding the Udavasaniya ish/i, see Aitareya-brahmawa
VIII, 5. Ir is the 'concluding ish/i.'

8. Dakshirca is the reward given to priests who officiate at a
sacrifice.

9. ' The steps of Vishnu ' are three steps which the sacrificer
has to make between the Vedi nnd the Ahavaniya-fire. See Pet.
Diet. s. v.

12. 'A guest/ i.e. such a one as described above, II, 3, 6, 4
and 5.

13. An Agnihotrin is a Brahmana who offers certain daily burnt-
offerings called Agnihotra. The translation of the last clause
renders tarpayaruu, she reading of the Athaivr-veda.



IT, 3, 7. THE DUTIES OF A HOUSEHOLDER.

shall go to meet him and say to him : ' O faithful
fulfiller of thy vows, where didst thou stay (last
night) ? ' (Then he offers water, saying) : ' O faithful
fulfiller of thy vows, here is water.' (Next he offers
milk or the like, saying) : ' O faithful fulfiller of thy
vows, may (these fluids) refresh (thee).'

14. (If the guest stays at the time of the Aghi-
hotra, he shall make him sit down to the north of
the fire and) murmur in a low voice, before offering
the oblations : ' O faithful fulfiller of thy vows, may
it be as thy heart desires;' 'O faithful fuifilier of
thy vows, may it be as thy will is.; ' ' O faithful
fulfiller of thy vows, may it be as thy wish is ; '
' O faithful fulfiller of thy vows, may it be as thy
desire is.'

15. If a guest conies, after the fires have been
placed (on the altar), but before the oblations have
been offered, (the host) himself shall approach him
and say to him : ' O faithful fulfiller of thy vows,
give me permission ; I wish to sacrifice.' Then he
shall sacrifice, after having received permission. A
Brahmawa declares that he commits a sin if he sacri-
fices without permission.

1 6. He who entertains guests for one night
obtains earthly happiness, a second night gains the
middle air, a third heavenly bliss, a fourth the world
of unsurpassable bliss ; many nights procure endless
worlds. That has been declared in the Veda.

17. If an unlearned person who pretends to be



14. According to some, all these sentences must be pronounced ;
according to Haradatta, one only, which may be selected optionally.

15. Haradatta states that the Brahmaa mentioned in the text
is the Atharvaffa-brahmaa. See Atharva-veda XV, r \-iz.



1 2O APASTAMBA. II, 4, 8.

(worthy of the appellation) ' guest ' comes to him, he
shall give him a seat, water, and food, (thinking) ' I
give it to a learned Brahmawa.' Thus (the merit) of
his (gift) becomes (as) great (as if a learned Brah-
ma;/a had received it).

PRASNA II, PAFALA 4, KUANDA. 8.

1. On the second and following days of the
guest's stay, the host shall not rise or descend
(from his couch) in order to salute his (guest), if
he has been saluted before (on the first day).

2. He shall eat after his guests.

3. He shall not consume all the flavoured liquids
in the house, so as to leave nothing for guests.

4. He shall not cause sweetmeats to be prepared
for his own sake.

5. (A guest) who can repeat the (whole) Veda
(together with the supplementary books) is worthy
to receive a cow and the Madhuparka,

6. (And also) the teacher, an officiating priest,
a Snataka, and a just king (though not learned in
the Veda).

7. A cow and the Madhuparka (shall be offered)
to the teacher, to an officiating priest, to a father-
in-law, and to a king, if they come after a year has
elapsed (since their former visit).



8. a. Manu III, 117; Ya^;7. I, 105.

3. Flavoured liquids, i.e. milk, whey, &c.

4. Manu III', 1 06.

5. Manu III, 119 and 120; YOTZ. I, i to ; Weber, Ind. Stud. X,
125. A guest is also called goghna, ' cow-killer/ because formerly
a cow used to be killed on the arrival of a distinguished guest.
The rite is described by Afvalayana G;v'hya-sutra I, 24, 31-33.



11,4,8. THE DUTIES OF A HOUSEHOLDER. 121



8. The Madhuparka shall consist of curds mixed
with honey, or of milk mixed with honey.

9. On failure (of these substances) water (mixed
with honey may be used).

10. The Veda has six Aiigas (auxiliary works).

11. (The six auxiliary works are) the Kalpa
(teaching the ritual) of the Veda, the treatises on
grammar, astronomy, etymology, phonetics, and
metrics.

1 2. (If any one should contend that) the term
Veda (on account of its etymology, implying that
which teaches duty or whereby one obtains spiritual
merit) applies to the complete collection of (works
which contain) rules for rites to be performed
on the authority of precepts, (that, consequently,
the Kalpa-sutras form part of the Veda, and



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