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and to translate, 'The father's chariot and the furniture in the
house (are) also (the share of the eldest).' This latter translation
agrees nearly with that given by Colebrooke, Digest, Book V,
Text xlviir, where this and the preceding Sutra have been joined ;
but the chariot is not mentioned. A further variation in the inter-
pretation of this Sutra occurs in Golebrooke's Digest, Book V,
Text Ixxxix, and MuaksharS, loc. cit., where the words ' the furni-
ture in the house ' are joined with Sutra 9, and the furniture is
declared to be the wife's share. Considering that Sutra 9 is again
quoted in Colebrooke's Digest, Book V, Text cccclxxii, and is not
joined with the latter part of Sutra 8, it is not too much to say that
Gagannalha has not shown any greater accuracy than his brethren
usually do.

9. The MMkshara, loc. cit., apparently takes the words 'ac-
cording to some' as referring 1 only to property received from
relations, I follow Haradatta. The former interpretation is, how-
ever, admissible, if the Sutra is split into two.

10. The .Sa"stras are, according to Haradatta, the Vedas.

11. TaittirJyd Saflzhita III, i, 9, 4.

12. 'Athipi (now also) means "and certainly." They dis-
tinguish, they set apart the eldest son by wealth : this has been
declared in the Veda in conformity with (the rule regarding) one
(heir, Sutra 6). He denies (Sutra 13) that a passage also, which



136 APASTAMBA. 11,6,14.

13. (But to this plea in favour of the eldest I
answer) : Now those who are acquainted with the
interpretation of the law declare a statement of facts
not to be a rule, as for instance (the following) :
1 Therefore amongst cattle, goats and sheep walk
together ; ' (or the following), ' Therefore the face
of a learned Brahma#a (a Snataka) is, as it were,
resplendent ; ' (or), ' A Brahma^a who has studied
the Vedas (a .Srotriya) and a he-goat evince the
strongest sexual desires.'

14. Therefore all (sons) who are virtuous in-
herit.

15. But him who expends money unrighteously,
he shall disinherit, though he be the eldest son.

1 6. No division takes place between husband and
wife.



agrees with the statement that the eldest son alone inherits, is
found in the Veda.' Haradatta. See Taittiriya Sa/hita II, 5, 2, 7.
13. Those who are acquainted with the interpretation of the
law are the Mimawsakas. The translation of the second Vedic
passage is by no means certain, as the root ribh, translated by ' to
be resplendent,' usually means ' to give a sound.' Haradatta
thinks that Apastamba means to show that the passage ' Manu
divided his wealth among his sons ' is likewise merely a statement
of facts, and cannot be considered a rule. This is probably
erroneous, as Sutras 10 and n distinctly state, that the practice
to allow the eldest alone to inherit, is forbidden by the above-
mentioned passage of the Veda.

15. Compare for this Stitra and the following one Colebrooke's
Digest, Book V, Text cccxv. The transit ion of pratipadayati,
' expends,' by ' gains,' which is also proposed by Gagannatha, is
against Apastamba's usage, see II, 5, n, 17, and below, II, 8,
20, 19.

1 6. According to Haradatta, this Sutra gives the reason why,
in Sutra i, no share has been set apart for the wife. Compare
Colebrooke's Digest, Book V, Text Ixx xix, for this Sutra and the
following two.



11,6,15. HOUSEHOLDER; INHERITANCE. 137

1 7. For, from the time of marriage, they are united
in religious ceremonies,

1 8. Likewise also as regards the rewards for
works by which spiritual merit is acquired,

19. And with respect to the acquisition of
property.

20. For they declare that it is not a theft if a
wife expends money on occasions (of necessity)
during her husband's absence.

PRASNA II, PAFALA 6, KHAJVDA 15.

1. By this (discussion) the law of custom, which
is observed in (particular) countries or families, has
been disposed of.

2. On account of the blood relations of his
mother and (on account of those) of his father
within six degrees, or, as far as the relationship is
traceable, he shall bathe if they die, excepting
children that have not completed their first year.

3. On account of the death of the latter the
parents alone bathe,

4. And those who bury them.

5. If a wife or one of the chief Gurus (a father or
A/C'arya) die, besides, fasting .(is ordained from the
time at which they die) up to the same time (on the
following day).



20. See below, II, n, 29, 3.

15. i. Customs are to be followed only if they are not opposed
to the teaching cf the Vedas and Smr/tis.

2. Manu V, 60; Ya^. I, 53; Manu V, 60; Manu V, 58;
. Ill, 3-

4. Manu V, 69 and 70.

5. Manu V, 80.



1 38 APASTAMBA. II, 6, 15.

6. (In that case) they shall also show the (follow-
ing) signs of mourning :

7. Dishevelling their hair and covering them-
selves with dust (they go outside the village), and,
clothed with one garment, their faces turned to the
south, stepping into the river they throw up water
for the dead once, and then, ascending (the bank),
they sit down.

8. This (they repeat) thrice.

9. They pour out water consecrated in such
a manner that the dead will know it (to be given
to them). Then they return to the village without
looking back, and perform those rites for the dead
which (pious) women declare to be necessary.

10. Some declare, that these same (observances)
shall also be kept in the case (of the death) of other



n. At all religious ceremonies, he shall feed
BrahmaTzas who are pure and who have (studied
and remember) the Veda.

12. He shall distribute his gifts at the proper
places, at the proper times, at the occasion of purifi-
catory rites, and to proper recipients.

13. That food must not be eaten of which (no
portion) is offered in the fire, and of which no por-
tion is first given (to guests).



7-9. Ya^-. Ill, 5, 7 seq. The Mantra to be spoken in throwing
the water is, ' I give this water to you N. N. of the family of N. N.'
The water ought to be mixed with sesamum. According to Hara-
datta those who know the correct interpretation, declare that the
word ' women' denotes in this Sutra ' the Smr/tis.' But I fear these
learned interpreters will find few adherents among those who pay
attention to the last Sfitra of this work.

n. Manu III, 128. 12. Manu III, 98.



u, 6, 15. HOUSEHOLDER; INHERITANCE. 139



14. No food mixed with pungent condiments or
salt can be offered as a burnt-offering.

15. Nor (can food) mixed with bad food (be used
for a burnt-oblation).

1 6. If (he is obliged to offer) a burnt-offering of
food unfit for that purpose, he shall take hot ashes
from the northern part of his fire and offer the
food in that That oblation is no oblation in the
fire.

1 7. A female shall not offer any burnt-oblation,

1 8. Nor a child, that has not been initiated.

19. Infants do not become impure before they
receive the sacrament called Annaprasana (the first
feeding).

20. Some (declare, that they cannot become
impure) until they have completed their first
year,

21. Or, as long as they cannot distinguish the
points of the horizon.

22. The best (opinion is, that they cannot be
defiled) until the initiation has been performed.

23. For at that (time a child) according to the
rules of the Veda obtains the right (to perform the
various religious ceremonies).

1 4. ' That (substance) is called kshara, " of pungent or alkaline
taste," the eating of which makes the saliva flow.' Haradatta.

1 5. Avaranna, ' bad food,' is explained by ' kulittha and the
like.' Kulittha, a kind of vetch, is considered low food, and eaten
by the lower castes only. The meaning of the Sutra, therefore, is,
' If anybody has been forced by poverty to mix his rice or /?al
with kulittha or similar bad food, he cannot offer a burnt-oblation
at the Vaijvadeva ceremony with that. He must observe the rule,
given in the following Sutra.

17. Manu V, 155; XI, 36.

1 8. Manu II, 171.



140 APASTAMBA. u, 7, 16.

24. That ceremony is the limit (from which the
capacity to fulfil the law begins).

25. And the Smmi (agrees with this opinion).

PKASNA II, PATALA 7, KHAA T Z>A 16.

1. Formerly men and gods lived together in this
world. Then the gods in reward of their sacrifices
went to heaven, but men were left behind. Those
men who perform sacrifices in the same manner as
the gods did, dwell (after death) with the gods and
Brahman in heaven. Now (seeing men left behind),
Manu revealed this ceremony, which is designated
by the word >5raddha (a funeral-oblation).

2. And (thus this rite has been revealed) for the
salvation of mankind.

3. At that (rite) the Manes (of one's father, grand-
father, and great-grandfather) are the deities (to
whom the sacrifice is offered). But the Brahmawas,
(who are fed,) represent the Ahavaniya-fire.

4. That rite must be performed in each month.

25. Haradatta quotes Gautama II, 1-3, on this point, and is
apparently of opinion that Apastamba alludes to the same passage.
But he is probably wrong, as all Sm/v'tis are agreed on the point
mentioned by Apastamba.

16. i . ' Intending to give the rules regarding the monthly .Srac'dha,
he premises this explanatory statement in order to praise that sacri-
fice. ' Haradatta.

2. The reading ' niforeyasa a' apparently has given great trouble
to the commentators. Their explanations are, however, gram-
matically impossible. The right one is to take ni^reyasa as a
Vedic instrumental, for ni/fareyasena, which may designate the
' reason.' If the dative is read, the sense remains the same.

3. ' The comparison of the Brah-maas with the Ahavaniya
indicates that to feed Brahmawas is the chief act at a Sraddha.'
Haradatta.

4. Manu III, 122, 123; Ya^;7. I, 217.



IT, 7, 16. HOUSEHOLDER; INHERITANCE. 141



5. The afternoon of (a day of) the latter half is
preferable (for it).

6. The last days of the latter half (of the month)
likewise are (preferable to the first days).

7. (A funeral-oblation) offered on any day of the
latter half of the month gladdens the Manes. But it
procures different rewards for the sacrificer according
to the time observed.

8. If it be performed on the first day of the half-
month, the issue (of the sacrificer) will chiefly consist
of females.

9. (Performed on the second day it procures)
children who are free from thievish propensities.

10. (If it is performed) on the third day children
will be born to him who will fulfil the various vows
for studying (portions of the Veda).

n. (The sacrificer who performs it) on the fourth
day becomes rich in small domestic animals.

12. (If he performs it) on the fifth day, sons (will
be born to him). He will have numerous and dis-
tinguished offspring, and he will not die childless.

13. (If he performs it) on the sixth day, he will
become a great traveller and gambler.

14. (The reward of a funeral-oblation performed)
on the seventh day is success in agriculture.

1 5. (If he performs it) on the eighth day (its reward
is) prosperity

1 6. (If he performs it) on the ninth day (its reward
consists in) one-hoofed animals.



5. Manu III, 255, 278.
7. Manu III, 277; Ya^T*. I, 264, 265.

12. The translation follows the corrected reading given in the
Addenda to the Critical Notes.



142 APASTAMBA. II, 7, 16.

1 7. (If he performs it) on the tenth day (its reward
is) success in trade.

1 8. (If he performs it) on the eleventh day (its
reward is) black iron, tin, and lead.

19. (If he performs a funeral-oblation) on the
twelfth day, he will become rich in cattle.

20. (If he performs it) on the thirteenth day. he
will have many sons (and) many friends, (and) his
offspring will be beautiful. But his (sons) will die
young.

21. (If he performs it) on the fourteenth day (its
reward is) success in battle.

22. (If he performs it) on the fifteenth day (its
reward is) prosperity.

23. The substances (to be offered) at these (sacri-
fices) are sesamum, masha, rice, yava, water, roots,
and fruits.

24. But, if food mixed with fat (is offered), the
satisfaction of the Manes is greater, and (lasts) a
longer time,

25. Likewise, if money, lawfully acquired, is given
to worthy (persons).

26. Beef satisfies (the Manes) for a year,



20. Others read the last part of the Sutra, ayuvamarinas-tu
bhavanti, ' they will not die young.' Haradatta. If the two
halves of the Sutra are joined and Darjaniyapatyoyovamariwa^ is
read, the Sandhi may be dissolved in either manner.

21. Manu III, 276, and Ya^. I, 263, declare the fourteenth
day to be unfit for a .9raddha, and the latter adds that .Sraddhas
for men killed in battle may be offered on that day. This latter
statement explains why Apastamba declares its reward to be
' success in battle/ The nature of the reward shows that on that
day Kshatriyas, not Brahmawas, should offer their .Sraddhas.

23. Manu III, 267; Y%#. I, 257.
a6. Manu III, 271.



II, 7 !? HOUSEHOLDER ; FUNERAL-OBLATIONS. 143

27. Buffalo's (meat) for a longer (time) than that.

28. By this (permission of the use of buffalo's
meat) it has been declared that the meat of (other)
tame and wild animals is fit to be offered.

PKA.SNA II, PAJTALA 7, KHAA^DA 17.

1. (If) rhinoceros' meat (is given to Brahmawas
seated) on (seats covered with) the skin of a rhino-
ceros, (the Manes are satisfied) for a very long time.

2. (The same effect is obtained) by (offering the)
flesh (of the fish called) .Satabali,

3 . And by (offering the) meat of the (crane called)
Vdrdhra^asa.

4. Pure, with composed mind and full of ardour,
he shall feed Brahmawas who know the Vedas, and
who are not connected with him by marriage, blood
relationship, by the relationship of sacrificial priest
and sacrificer, or by the relationship of (teacher and)
pupil.

5. If strangers are deficient in the (requisite)
good qualities, even a full brother -who possesses
them, may be fed (at a v9raddha).

6. (The admissibility of) pupils (and the rest) has
been declared hereby.

7. Now they quote also (in regard to this matter
the following verse) :

8. The food eaten (at a sacrifice) by persons
related to the giver is, indeed, a gift offered to the
goblins. It reaches neither the Manes nor the



17. i. Manu III, 272; %#. 1, 259.
2. Manu V, 16, where Rohita is explained by .Satabali.
4. Manu III, 128-138, and 149, 188; Y%. I, 225.
8. See Manu III, 141, where this TrishAibh has been turned
into an Anush/ubh.



144 APASTAMI5A. II, 7, if.

gods. Losing its power (to procure heaven), it errs
about in this world as a cow that has lost its calf
runs into a strange stable.

9. The meaning (of the verse) is, that gifts which
are eaten (and offered) mutually by relations, (and
thus go) from one house to the other, perish in this
world.

10. If the good qualities (of several persons who
might be invited) are equal, old men and (amongst
these) poor ones, who wish to come, have the
preference.

1 1. On the day before (the ceremony) the (first)
invitation (must be issued).

12. On the following day the second invitation
takes place.

1 3. (On the same day also takes place) the third
invitation (which consists in the call to dinner).

14. Some declare, that every act at a funeral-
sacrifice must be repeated three times.

15. As (the acts are performed) the first time,
so they must be repeated) the second and the thirc
times.

1 6. When all (the three oblations) have beeu



it. Manu III, 187; Yagn. I, 225. According to Haradatta
the formula of invitation is, Svah jraddham bhavita, tatrahavanf-
yarthe bhavadbhi^ prasada^ kartavya iti, ' to-morrow a .Sraddha
will take place. Do me the favour to take at that the place of
the Ahavaniya-fire.'

12. The formula is, Adya jrdddham, ' to-day the .Sraddha takes
place.'

13. The call to dinner is, Siddham agamyatam, 'the food is
ready; come.'

16. Apastamba Gr/hya-sQtra VIII, 21, 9. ' He shall eat it pro-
nouncing the Mantra, " Prae nivish/osmrna/H ^uhomi." ' Taitt.
Ar. X, 34, i.



iT,7,i7- HOUSEHOLDER; FUNERAL-OBLATIONS. 145

offered, he shall take a portion of the food of
all (three), and shall eat a small mouthful of the
remainder in the manner described (in the Grz'hya-
sutra).

1 7. But the custom of the Northerners is to pour
into the hands of the Brahmawas, when they are
seated on their seats, (water which has been taken
from the water-vessel)

1 8. (At the time of the burnt-offering which is
offered at the beginning of the dinner) he addresses
the Brahmawas with this Mantra : ' Let it be taken
out, and let it be offered in the fire.'

19. (They shall give their permission with this
Mantra) : * Let it be taken out at thy pleasure, let
it be offered in the fire at thy pleasure.' Having
received this permission, he shall take out (some of
the prepared food) and offer it.

20. They blame it, if dogs and Apapatras are
allowed to see the performance of a funeral-sacrifice.

21. The following persons defile the company if
they are invited to a funeral-sacrifice, viz. a leper,
a bald man, the violator of another man's bed, the
son of a Brahmawa who follows the profession of
a Kshatriya, and the son of (a Brahmawa who by
marrying first a .Sudra wife had himself become) a
.Sudra, born from a Brahma#a woman.



1 7. The North of India begins to the north of the river Saravati.
The rule alluded to is given by Ya^. I. 226, 229; Manu III, 210.

1 8. %;?. I, 235. 20; Manu III, 239.

21. Manu III, 152-166, and particularly 153 and 154; Ya^.
I, 222-224. Haradatta's explanation of the word '.Sudra' by
' a Brahmawa who has become a -Sudra ' is probably right, because
the son of a real S"udra and of a Brahmawa female is a A'a//c/ala,
and has been disposed of by the preceding Sutra.

[2] L



146 APASTAMBA.



22. The following persons sanctify the company
if they eat at a funeral-sacrifice, viz. one who has
studied the three verses of the Veda containing the
word 'Madhu,' each three times ; one who has studied
the part of the Veda containing the word ' Suparwa '
three times ; a Tri^a^iketa ; one who has studied
the Mantras required for the four sacrifices (called
A-yvamedha, Purushamedha, Sarvamedha, and Pitrt-
medha) ; one who keeps five fires ; one who knows
the Saman called (^yesh/^a ; one who fulfils the
duty of daily study ; the son of one who has studied
and is able to teach the whole Veda with its Angas,
and a -Srotriya.

23. He shall not perform (any part of) a funeral-
sacrifice at night.

24. After having begun (a funeral-sacrifice), he
shall not eat until he has finished it.

25. (He shall not perform a funeral-sacrifice at

22. Compare ManuIII, 185, 186; \agn. I, 219-221. The three
verses to be known by a Trimadhu are, Madhu vatS. rz'tayate, &c.,
which occur both in the Taitt. Sa/wh. and in the Taitt. Ar. The
explanation of Trisupara is not certain. Haradatta thinks that it
may mean either a person who knows the three verses .ftatushkaparda
yuvati supe^a, &c., Taittiriya-brahmawa I, 2, i, 27, &c., or one who
knows the three Anuvakas from the Taittirtya Arayaka X, 48-50,
beginning, Brahmametu mam, &c. The word ' Triwa&keta ' has
three explanations: a. A person who knows the Na^iketa-fire
according to the Taittiriyaka, Ka/Aavallt, and the .Satapatha, i.e. has
studied the portions on the Na&keta-fire in these three books.
b. A person who has thrice kindled the Naiketa-fire. c. A person
who has studied the Anuvaka, called Vira.fas. Alaturmedna may
also mean ' one who has performed the four sacrifices ' enumerated
above.

23. Manu III, 280.

24. ' The Sraddha is stated to begin with the first invitation to
the Brahmans.' Haradatta.

25. 'The Northerners do not generally receive this Sutra, and



IT, 8, i8. HOUSEHOLDER; FUNERAL-OBLATIONS. 147

night), except if an eclipse of the moon takes
place.

PRASNA II, PAT-ALA 8, KHAJWJA 18.

1. He shall avoid butter, butter-milk, oil-cake,
honey, meat.

2. And black grain (such as kulittha), food given
by .Sudras, or by other persons, whose food is not
considered fit to be eaten.

3. And food unfit for oblations, speaking an un-
truth, anger, and (acts or words) by which he might
excite anger. He who desires a (good) memory,
fame, wisdom, heavenly bliss, and prosperity, shall
avoid these twelve (things and acts) ;

4. Wearing a dress that reaches from the navel
to the knees, bathing morning, noon, and evening,
living on food that has not been cooked at a fire,
never seeking the shade, standing (during the day),
and sitting (during the night), he shall keep this vow
for one year. They declare, that (its merit) is equal to
that of a studentship continued for forty-eight^years.

5. (Now follows) the daily funeral-oblation.

6. Outside the village pure (men shall) prepare
(the food for that rite) in a pure place.

therefore former commentators have not explained it. Hara-
datta.

18. i. Sutras 1-4 contain rules for a vow to be kept for the special
objects mentioned in Sutras 3 and 4 for one year only. Haradatta
(on Sutra 4) says that another commentator thinks that Sutras 1-3
prescribe one vow, and Sutra 4 another, and that the latter applies
both to householders and students. A passage from Baudhayana
is quoted in support of this latter view.

5. Manu III, 82 seq.

6. The term ' pure (men) ' is used in order to indicate that they
must be so particularly, because, by II, 2, 3, i, purity has already
been prescribed for cooks.

L 2



148 APASTAMBA. II, 8, 18.

7. New vessels are used for that,

8. In which the food is prepared, and out of
which it is eaten.

9. And those (vessels) he shall present to the
(Brdhma^as) who have been fed.

10. And he shall feed (Brahmawas) possessed of
all (good qualities).

n. And he shall not give the residue (of that
funeral-dinner) to one who is inferior to them in
good qualities.

12. Thus (he shall act every day) during a
year.

13. The last of these (funeral-oblations) he shall
perform, offering a red goat.

14. And let him cause an altar to be built, con-
cealed (by a covering^ and outside the village).

15. Let him feed the Brahma^as on the northern
half of that.

1 6. They declare, that (then) he sees both the
Brahma^as who eat and the Manes sitting on the
altar.

17. After that he may offer (a funeral-sacrifice
once a month) or stop altogether.

18. For (by appearing on the altar) the Manes
signify that they are satisfied by the funeral-
offering.

19. Under the constellation Tishya he who de-
sires prosperity,



7. For the unusual meaning of dravya, 'vessel,' compare the
term sitadravj a"i, ' implements of husbandry/ Manu IX, 293, and
the Petersburg Diet. s. v.

13. The red goat is mentioned as particularly fit for a .Sraddha,
#. I, 259, and Manu III, 272.



II, 8, TQ. HOUSEHOLDER | FUNERAL-OBLATIONS. 149



PRASNA II, PAFALA 8, KHAJVDA 19.

1. Shall cause to be prepared powder of white
mustard-seeds, cause his hands, feet, ears, and
mouth to be rubbed with that, and shall eat (the
remainder). If the wind does not blow too violently,
he shall eat sitting, silent and his face turned towards
the south, on a seat (facing the) same (direction)
the first alternative is the skin of a he-goat.

2. But they declare, that the life of the mother
of that person who eats at this ceremony, his face
turned in that direction, will be shortened.

3. A vessel of brass, the centre of which is gilt, is
best (for this occasion).

4. And nobody else shall eat out of that vessel.

5. He shall make a lump of as much (food) as he
can swallow (at once).

6. (And he shall) not scatter anything (on the
ground).

7. He shall not let go the vessel (with his left
hand) ;

8. Or he may let it go.

19. i. The ceremony which is here described, may also be per-
formed daily. If the reading prasya is adopted, the translation
must run thus : 'and he shall scatter (the remainder of the powder).
If the wind,' &c.

2. 'Therefore those whose mothers are alive should not per-
form this ceremony.' Haradatta.

4. If the masculine bhoktavyaA is used instead of bhoktavyam,
the participle must be construed with tamasaA.

5. The verbum finitum, which according to the Sanskrit text
ought to be taken with the participle sa///nayan, is grasita, SiUra 9.

8. ' Why is this second alternative mentioned, as (the first
Sutra) suffices? True. But according to the maxim that "re-
strictions are made on account of the continuance of an action
once begun," the meaning of this second Sutra is that he shall



I5O APASTAMBA. 11,8,19.

9. He shall swallow the whole mouthful at once,
introducing it, together with the thumb, (into the
mouth.)

10. He shall make no noise with his mouth (whilst
eating).

11. And he shall not shake his right hand (whilst



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