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eating).

12. After he (has eaten and) sipped water, he
shall raise his hands, until the water has run off (and
they have become dry).

13. After that he shall touch fire.

14. And (during this ceremony) he shall not eat
in the day-time anything but roots and fruit.

15. And let him avoid Sthalipaka-ofierings, and
food offered to the Manes or to the Gods.

1 6. He shall eat wearing his upper garment over
his left shoulder and under his right arm.

17. At the (monthly) .Sraddha which must neces-
sarily be performed, he must use (food) mixed with
fat.

1 8. The first (and preferable) alternative (is to
employ) clarified butter and meat.

19. On failure (of these), oil of sesamum, vegeta-
bles, and (similar materials may be used).

20. And under the asterism Magha he shall feed
the Brahma#as more (than at other times) with (food
mixed with) clarified butter, according to the rule of
the .Sraddha.



coniinue to the end to handle the vessel (in that manner in which)
he has handled it when eating for the first time.' Haradatta.

1 6. Haradatta remarks that some allow, according to II, 2, 4,
22, the sacred thread to be substituted, and others think that both
the thread and the garment should be worn over the left shoulder
and under the right arm.



IT, 8, 20. THE FOUR ORDERS. 151

PRASNA II, PAFALA 8, KHAAT>A 20.

1. At every monthly 6raddha he shall use, in
whatever manner he may be able, one drona. of
sesamum.

2. And he shall feed Brahmawas endowed with all
(good qualities), and they shall not give the fragments
(of the food) to a person who does not possess the
same good qualities (as the Brahma#as).

3. He who desires prosperity shall fast in the
half of the year when the sun goes to the north,
under the constellation Tishya, in the first half of
the month, for (a day and) a night at least, prepare
a Sthalipaka-offering, offer burnt-oblations to Kubera
(the god of riches), feed a Brahmawa with that (food
prepared for the Sthalipaka) mixed with clarified
butter, and make him wish prosperity with (a
Mantra) implying prosperity.

4. This (rite he shall repeat) daily until the next
Tishya(-day).

5. On the second (Tishya-day and during the
second month he shall feed) two (Brahmawas).

6. On the third (Tishya-day and during the third
month he shall feed) three (Brahmawas).

7. In this manner (the Tishya-rite is to be per-
formed) for a year, with a (monthly) increase (of the
number of Brahmawas fed).



20. i. A drowa equals 128 seers or jeras. The latter is variously
reckoned at 1-3 Ibs.

3. The reason why the constellation Tishya has been chosen
for this rite seems to be that Tishya has another name, Pushya,
i.e. 'prosperous.' This sacrifice is to begin on the Tishya-day of
the month called Taisha or Pausha (December-January), and to
continue for one year.



152 APASTAMBA. II, 8, 20.

8. (Thus) he obtains great prosperity.

9. But the fasting takes place on the first
(Tishya-day) only.

10. He shall avoid to eat those things which
have lost their strength (as butter-milk, curds, and
whey).

11. He shall avoid to tread on ashes or husks of
grain.

1 2. To wash one foot with the other, or to place
one foot on the other,

13. And to swing his feet,

14. And to place one leg crosswise over the knee
(of the other),

15. And to make his nails

1 6. Or to make (his finger-joints) crack without
a (good) reason,

1 7. And all other (acts) which they blame.

1 8. And let him acquire money in all ways that
are lawful.

19. And let him spend money on worthy (persons
or objects).

20. And let him not give anything to an unworthy
(person), of whom he does not stand in fear.

21. And let him conciliate men (by gifts or
kindness).

22. And he may enjoy the pleasures which are
not forbidden by the holy law.

23. (Acting) thus he conquers both worlds.



ii. Manu IV, 78.

1 6. 'Good reasons for cracking the joints are fatigue or rheu-
matism/ Haradatta.

19. Manu XI, 6, and passim.



11,9,21. ^ THE HERMIT. J53

PRASNA II, PAT-ALA 9, KHAJVJDA 21.

1. There are four orders, viz. the order of house-
holders, the order of students, the order of ascetics,
and the order of hermits in the woods.

2. If he lives in all these four according to the
rules (of the law), without allowing himself to be
disturbed (by anything), he will obtain salvation.

3. The duty to live in the teacher's house after
the initiation is common to all of them.

4. Not to abandon sacred learning (is a duty
common) to all.

5. Having learnt the rites (that are to be per-
formed in each order), he may perform what he
wishes.

6. Worshipping until death (and living) according
to the rule of a (temporary) student, a (professed)
student may leave his body in the house of his
teacher.

7. Now (follow the rules) regarding the ascetic
(Sawnyasin).

8. Only after (having fulfilled) the duties of that
(order of students) he shall go forth (as an ascetic),
remaining chaste.

21. T. ' Though four (orders) are enumerated, he uses the word
" four," lest, in the absence of a distinct rule of the venerable
teacher, one order only, that of the householder, should be allowed,
as has been taught in other Smr/tis/ Haradatta. Manu VI, 87.

2. Manu VI, 88.

3. Manu II, 247-249, and above.

8. The meaning of the Stura is, that the studentship is a
necessary preliminary for the Sawmyasin. If a man considers
himself sufficiently purified by his life in that order, he may be-
come a Sa;/myasin immediately after its completion. Otherwise he
may first become a householder, or a hermit, and enter the last



154 APASTAMBA. 11,9,21.

9. For him (the Sawnyasin) they prescribe (the
following rules) :

10. He shall live without a fire, without a house,
without pleasures, without protection. Remaining
silent and uttering speech only on the occasion of
the daily recitation of the Veda, begging so much
food only in the village as will sustain his life, he
shall wander about neither caring for this world nor
for heaven.

11. It is ordained that he shall wear clothes
thrown away (by others as useless).

12. Some declare that he shall go naked.

13. Abandoning truth and falsehood, pleasure
and pain, the Vedas, this world and the next, he
shall seek the Atman.

14. (Some say that) he obtains salvation if he
knows (the Atman).

1 5. (But) that (opinion) is opposed to the .Sastras.

1 6. (For) if salvation were obtained by the know-
ledge of the Atman alone, then he ought not to feel
any pain even in this (world).

1 7. Thereby that which follows has been declared.

order, when his passions are entirely extinct. See also Manu VI,
36; Ya77. Ill, 56-57.

10. Manu VI, 33, 42-45 ; \ 7 agn. Ill, 58 seq.

12. 'Another (commentator) says, "Some declare that he fe
free from all injunctions and prohibitions, i.e. he need neither
perform nor avoid any (particular actions)." ' Haradatta.

13. 'He shall seek, i.e. worship, the Atman or Self, which has
been described in the section on transcendental knowledge (I, 8).'
Haradatta.

1 5. Haradatta apparently takes the word Sastras to mean ' Dhar-
majastras.

1 7. ( That which follows ' are the Yogas, which must be employed
in order to cause the annihilation of pain, after the knowledge of
the Atman or. Self has been obtained.



11,9,22. THE HERMIT. 155

1 8. Now (follow the rules regarding) the hermit
living in the woods.

19. Only after (completing) that (studentship) he
shall go forth, remaining chaste.

20. For him they give (the following rules) :

21. He shall keep one fire only, have no house,
enjoy no pleasures, have no protector, observe
silence, uttering speech on the occasion of the daily
recitation of the Veda only.

PRASNA II, PAZ'ALA 9, KHAA T DA 22.

1. A dress of materials procured in the woods
(skins or bark) is ordained for him.

2. Then he shall wander about, sustaining his
life by roots, fruits, leaves, and grass.

3. In the end (he shall live on) what has become
detached spontaneously.

4. Next he shall live on water, (then) on air, then
on ether.

5. Each following one of these modes of subsist-
ence is distinguished by a (greater) reward.

6. Now some (teachers) enjoin for the hermit the



2 1. ' But which is that one fire ? Certainly not the Gn hya-fire,
because he must remain chaste. Therefore the meaning intended
is, " He shall offer a Samidh morn and evening in the common
fire, just as formerly, (during his studentship)." Another com-
mentator says, "Gautama declares that he shall kindle a fire
according to the rule of the 6'ramawaka Sutra. The .S'ramawaka
Sutra is the Vaikhanasa Sutra. Having kindled a fire in the
manner prescribed there, he shall sacrifice in it every morning
and every evening." ' Haradatta. See also Manu VI, 4 ; \zgit,

HI, 45-

22, t, Manu VI, 6. 2. Manu VI, 5, 21 ; Yav7. Ill, 46.
4. ' Then he shall live on ether, i. e. eat nothing at all.'

Haradatta. M-anu VI, 31 ; Yilgv;. Ill, 55.



156 APASTAMHA. 11,9,22.

successive performance (of the acts prescribed for
the several orders).

7. After having finished the study of the Veda,
having taken a wife and kindled the sacred fires,
he shall begin the rites, which end with the Soma-
sacrifices, (performing) as many as are prescribed in
the revealed texts.

8. (Afterwards) he shall build a dwelling, and
dwell outside the village with his wife, his children,
and his fires,

9. Or (he may live) alone.

10. He shall support himself by gleaning corn,
n. And after that he shall not any longer take

presents.

12. And he shall sacrifice (only) after having
bathed (in the following manner) :

13. He shall enter the water slowly, and bathe
without beating it (with his hand), his face turned
towards the sun.

14. This rule of bathing is valid for all (castes
and orders).

15. Some enjoin (that he shall prepare) two sets
of utensils for cooking and eating, (and) of choppers,
hatchets, sickles, and mallets.



6. ' The word atha, " now," introduces a different opinion.
Above, it has been declared that the life in the woods (may be
begun) after the studentship only. But some teachers enjoin just
for that hermit a successive performance of the acts.

8. Manu VI, 3 seq.; Ya^f. Ill, 45.

10. Haradatta thinks that this rule refers both to the hermit
who lives with his family and to him who lives alone. Others
refer it to the latter only.

15. According to Haradatta, the word ka^a appears to designate
' a mallet ; ' in the passage from the Ramayaa quoted in the Peters-
burg Diet, the commentator explains it by pe/aka, ' basket.'



IT, 9, 23. COMPARISON OF THE FOUR ORDERS. 157

1 6. He shall take one of each pair (of instru-
ments), give the others (to his wife), and (then) go
into the forest.

1 7. After that time (he shall perform) the burnt-
oblations, (sustain) his life, (feed) his guests, and
(prepare) his clothes with materials produced in the
forest.

1 8. Rice must be used for those sacrifices for
which cakes mixed with meat (are employed by the
householder).

19. And all (the Mantras), as well as the daily
portion of the Veda, (must be recited) inaudibly.

20. He shall not make the inhabitants of the
forest hear (his recitation).

21. (He shall have) a house for his fire (only).

22. He himself (shall live) in the open air.

23. His couch and seat must not be covered (with
mats).

24. If he obtains fresh grain, he shall throw away
the old (store).

PRASNA II, PAFALA 9, KHAA-ZJA 23.

1. If he desires (to perform) very great austerities,
he (shall not make a hoard of grain, but) collect food
every day only, morning and evening, in his vessel.

2. Afterwards he shall wander about, sustaining
his life with roots, fruits, leaves, and grass (which he

17. Ya^. Ill, 46.

20. This Sutra explains the word upaw.ru, ' inaudibly.'

24. Manu VI, 15; Ya^-. Ill, 47.

23. i. The following rules apply to a solitary hermit.

2. These Sutras are repeated in order to show that, according
to the opinion of those who allow hermits to live with their families,
the end should be the same.



158 APASTAMBA. 11,9,2,3.

collects). Finally (he shall content himself with)
what has become detached spontaneously. Then he
shall live on water, then on air, (and finally) upon
ether. Each succeeding mode of subsistence pro-
cures greater rewards.

3. Now they quote (the following) two verses
from a Purawa :

r~ 4. Those eighty thousand sages who desired
offspring passed to the south by Aryaman's road
and obtained burial-grounds.

5. Those eighty thousand sages who desired no
offspring passed by Afyaman's road to the north
and obtained immortality.

6. Thus are praised those who keep the vow of
chastity.

7. Now they accomplish also their wishes merely
by conceiving them,

8. For instance, (the desire to procure) rain, to
bestow children, second-sight, to move quick as
thought, and other (desires) of this description.

9. Therefore on account of (passages) of the re-
vealed texts, and on account of the visible results,
some declare these orders (of men keeping the vow
of chastity to be) the most excellent.

10. But (to this we answer) : It is the firm opinion
of those who are well versed in the threefold sacred
learning, that the Vedas are the highest authority.



3. ' The " orders " have been described. Now, giving conflict-
ing opinions, he discusses which of them is the most important.'
Haradatta.

4. This verse and the next are intended to disparage the order
of householders. Haradatta explains 'burial-grounds' by 'new
births which lead to new deaths;' but see below, Sutra 10. See
also Ya^. Ill, 186-187.



IT, 9, 24. THE KING. 159

^*

They consider that the (rites) which are ordered
there to be performed with rice, yava, animals, clari-
fied butter, milk, potsherds, (in conjunction) with
a wife, (and accompanied) by loud or muttered
(Mantras), must be performed, and that (hence)
a rule of conduct winch is opposed to these (rites)
is of no authority.

11. But by the term burial-ground (in the text
above given) it is intended to ordain the last rites
for those who have performed many sacrifices, (and
not to mean that dead householders become demons
and haunt burial-grounds.)

12. The revealed texts declare that after (the
burial follows) a reward without end, which is desig-
nated by the term ' heavenly bliss.'

PKASNA II, PATALA 9, KHANDA 24.

1. Now the Veda declares also one's offspring to
be immortality (in this verse) : * In thy offspring thou
art born again, that, mortal, is thy immortality.'

2. Now it can also be perceived by the senses
that the (father) has been reproduced separately (in
the son) ; for the likeness (of a father and of a son)
is even visible, only (their) bodies are different.

3. * These (sons) who live, fulfilling the rites
taught (in the Veda), increase the fame and heavenly
bliss of their departed ancestors.'

4. ' In this manner each succeeding (generation
increases the fame and heavenly bliss) of the pre-
ceding ones.'

ii. The Sutra is intended to remove the blame thrown on the
order of householders by the verse quoted. Haradatta seems to
have forgotten his former explanation of -Smajanani.



l6O APASTAMBA. 11,9,24.

5. ' They (the ancestors) live in heaven until the
(next) general destruction of created things.'

6. At the new creation (of, the world) they
become the seed. That has been declared in the
Bhavishyatpurawa.

7. Now Pra^apati also says,

8. ' Those dwell with us who fulfil the following
(duties) : the study of the three Vedas, the student-
ship, the procreation of children, faith, religious aus-
terities, sacrifices, and the giving of gifts. He who
praises other (duties), becomes dust and perishes.'

9. Those among these (sons) who commit sin,
perish alone, just as the leaf of a tree (which has
been attacked by worms falls without injuring its
branch or tree). They do not hurt their ancestors.

10. (For) the (ancestor) has no connection with
the acts committed (by his descendant) in this world,
nor with their results in the next.

n. (The truth of) that may be known by the
following (reason) :

1 2. This creation (is the work) of Pra^apati and
of the sages.

13. The bodies of those (sages) who stay there
(in heaven) on account of their merits appear visibly
most excellent and brilliant (as, for instance, the
constellation of the seven -/?z'shis).

14. But even though some (ascetic), whilst still

24. 6. ' They become the seed,' i.e. ' The Pra^ipatis.'
8. ' Other (duties), i. e. the order of ascetics and the like.'
Haradatta.

13. As the j?/shis have not lost heaven through the sins of their
sons, the dogma according to which ancestors lose heaven through
the sins of their sons, must be false.

^

14. Apastambas own opinion is apparently against pure as-
ceticism.



IT. TO, 25. THE KING. IOI

in the body, may gain heaven through a portion of
(the merit acquired by his former) works or through
austerities, and though he may accomplish (his
objects) by his mere wish, still this is no reason
to place one order before the other.

PRASNA II, PATALA 10, KHAAV>A 25.

1. The general and special duties of all castes
have been explained. But we will now declare those
of a king in particular.

2. He shall cause to be built a town and a palace,
the gates of both of which (must look) towards the
south.

3. The palace (shall stand) in the heart of the
town.

4. In front of that (there shall be) a hall. That
is called the hall of invitation.

5. (At a little distance) from the town to the
south, (he shall cause to be built) an assembly-house
with doors on the south and on the north sides, so
that one can see what passes inside and outside.

6. In all (these three places) fires shall burn
constantly.

7. And oblations must be offered in these fires
daily, just as at the daily sacrifice of a householder.

8. In the hall he. shall put up his guests, at least
those who are learned in the Vedas.



25. 3. 'In the heart of the town, i.e. in that town which is sur-
rounded by all the walls.' Haradatta. Compare Manu VII, 76.

6. According to Haradatta, the fires are to be common, not
consecrated ones.

7. Manu VII, 78 ; Y%. I, 313.

8. Manu VII, 82 seq.

W M



162 APASTAMBA. 11,10,25.

9. Rooms, a couch, food and drink should be
given to them according to their good qualities.

10. Let him not live better than his Gurus or
ministers.

1 1. And in his realm no (Brahma^a) should suffer
hunger, sickness, cold, or heat, be it through want,
or intentionally.

12. In the midst of the assembly-house, (the
superintendent of the house) shall raise a play-table
and sprinkle it with water, turning his hand down-
wards, and place on it dice in even numbers, made
of Vibhitaka (wood), as many as are wanted.

13. Men of the first three castes, who are pure
and truthful, may be allowed to play there.

14. Assaults of arms, dancing, singing, music, and
the like (performances) shall be held only (in the
houses) of the king's servants.

15. That king only takes care of the welfare of
his subjects in whose dominions, be it in villages
or forests, there is no danger from thieves.



10. 'The Gurus are the father and other (venerable rela-
tions).' Haradatta.

11. Manu VII, 134. 'Or intentionally; with reference to
that the following example may be given. If anybody is to be
made to pay his debts or taxes, then he is to be exposed to cold
or heat, or to be made to fast (until he pays). The king shall
punish (every one) who acts thus.' Haradatta.

13. 'Having played there, they shall give a fixed sum to the
gambling-house keeper and go away. The latter shall, every day
or every month or every year, give that gain to the king. And
the king shall punish those who play elsewhere or quarrel in the
assembly-house.' Haradatta.

14. 'At festivals and the like occasions (these performances)
take place also elsewhere, that is the custom.' Haradatta.

15. Manu VII, 143, and passim ; Ya^. I, 335.



11,10,26. CIVIL AND CRIMINAL LAW. 163

PRASNA II, PAT-ALA 10, KHAJVDA 26.

1 . A (king) who, without detriment to his servants,
gives land and money to Brahmawas according to
their deserts gains endless worlds.

2. They say (that) a king, who is slain in at-
tempting to recover the property of Brahma#as,
(performs) a sacrifice where his body takes the place
of the sacrificial post, and at which an unlimited fee
is given.

3. Hereby have been declared (the rewards of)
other heroes, who fall fighting for a (worthy)
cause.

4. He shall appoint men of the first three castes,
who are pure and truthful, over villages and towns
for the protection of the people.

5. Their servants shall possess the same qualities.

6. They must protect a town from thieves in
every direction to the distance of one yo/ana.

7. (They must protect the country to the distance
of) one kro^a from each village.

8. They must be made to repay what is stolen
within these (boundaries).



26. i. Manu VII. 83, 84, 88; Yagn. I, 314.

2. According to Haradatta the king's body represents the post
(yupa), his soul the sacrificial animal, the recovered property the
reward for the priests or fee.

3. Manu VII, 89 ; Ya^v*. I, 323, 324.

4. Manu VII, 115-124; Ya^. I, 321.

6. Ya. II, 271-272. A ycgana is a distance of 4 krara, kos.

7. A kroja, kos, or gau, literally ' the lowing of a cow,' is
variously reckoned at 1^-4 miles.

8. Ya^fl.I, 272. This law is, with certain modifications, still in
force. See Bombay Regulations, XII, 27 par.

M 2



1 64 APASTAMBA. IT, IO, 26.

9. The (king) shall make them collect the lawful
taxxes (mlka).

10. A learned Brahmawa is free from taxes,

1 1. And the women of all castes,

12. And male children before the marks (of
puberty appear),

13. And those who live (with a teacher) in order
to study,

14. And those who perform austerities, being
intent on fulfilling the sacred law,

15. And a 6udra who lives by washing the
feet,

1 6. Also blind, dumb, deaf, and diseased persons
(as long as their infirmities last),

1 7. And those to whom the acquisition of property
is forbidden (as Sannyisins).

1 8. A young man who, decked with ornaments,
enters unintentionally (a place where) a married
woman or a (marriageable) damsel (sits), must be
reprimanded.



9. According to Haradatta, who quotes Gautama in his com-
mentary, the julka is the ^th part of a merchant's gains. On
account of the Sutras immediately following, it is, however,
more probable that the term is here used as a synonym of
' kara,' and includes all taxes. ' Lawful ' taxes are, of course,
those sanctioned by custom and approved of by the Smr;tis.

10. Manu VII, 133.

11. Haradatta thinks that the rule applies to women of the
Anuloma, the pure castes, only.

14. 'Why does he say "intent on fulfilling the holy law?"
Those shall not be free from taxes who perform austerities in order
to make their magic charms efficacious/ Haradatta.

1 8. The ornaments would indicate that he was bent on mis-
chief. Compare above, I, n, 32, 6.



11,10,27- CIVIL AND CRIMINAL LAW. 165



19. But if he does it intentionally with a bad
purpose, he must be fined.

20. If he has actually committed adultery, his
organ shall be cut off together with the testicles.

21. But (if he has had intercourse) with a (mar-
riageable) girl, his property shall be confiscated and
he shall be banished.

22. Afterwards the king must support (such
women and damsels),

23. And protect them from defilement

24. If they agree to undergo the (prescribed)
penance, lie shall make them over to their (lawful)
guardians.

PRASNA II, PAFALA 10, KHAA-DA 27.

1. If (adulteresses) have performed (the pre-
scribed penance), they are to be treated as before
(their fault). For the connection (of husband and
wife) takes place through the law.

2. (A husband) shall not make over his (wife),
who occupies the position of a ' gentilis,' to others
(than to his ' gentiles '), in order to cause children to
be begot for himself.



19. 'The punishment must be proportionate to his property
and the greatness of his offence. The term "with a bad purpose"
is added, because he who has been sent by his teacher (to such
a place) should not be punished.' Harndatta. Manu VIII, 354 ;
Ya^?. II, 284.

24. 'I.e. a married woman to her husband or father-in-law, an
unmarried damsel to her father or to her brother.' Haradatta.

27. 2. This Sutra refers to the begetting of a Ksbet.raga son,
and gives the usual rule, that only the Sagotras in the order of the
grade of relationship, a brother-in-law, a Sapi</a, &c., shall be
employed for this purpose.



1 66 APASTAMBA. 11,10,27.

3. For they declare, that a bride is given to the



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