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the) vital airs.

49. He shall thrice restrain his breath for (the
space of) fifteen moments ;

50. And he shall seat himself on (blades of Kua
grass) the tops of which are turned toward the east.

51. The five Vyahrztis nfust (each) be preceded
by (the syllable) Om and end with Satya.

52. (Every) morning the feet of the teacher must
be embraced (by the pupil),

53. And both at the beginning and at the end of
a lesson in the Veda.

54. After having received permission, the pupil

47. Apastamba I, 2, 5, 23 ; I, 2, 6, 20; Manu II, 192.

48. ' The (seat of the) vital airs are the organs of sense located
in the head. The pupil shall touch these, his own (organs of sense)
located in the head, in the order prescribed for the A^amana (see
Apastamba I, 5, 16, 7 note).' Haradatta. See also Manu II, 75.

49. ' Passing one's hand along the side of the knee, one will fill
the space of one Tru/ikS. That is one moment (matra).' Hara-
datta. Manu II, 75.

50. Manu II, 75.

51. 'In the Vyahr/ti-samans (see Burnell, Arsheya-br., Index
s.v.)five Vyihmis are mentioned, viz. BhuA, Bhuva/r, SvaA, Satyam,
PurushaA. Each of these is .o be preceded by the syllable Om. But
they are to end with Purusha^, which (in the above enumeration)
occupies the fourth place.' Haradatta. See also Manu II, 75 seq.

52-53. Apastamba I, 2, 5, 18-20.

54. Apastamba I, 2, 6, 24 ; Manu II, 193. ' " Turning his face
towards the east or towards the north." This alternative depends
upon (the nature of) the business.' Haradatta.

1 84 GAUTAMA. I, 55.

shall sit down to the right (of his teacher), turning
his face towards the east or towards the north,

55. And the Savitri must be recited ;

56. (All these acts must be performed) at the
beginning of the instruction in the Veda.

57. The syllable Om (must precede the recitation
of) other (parts of the Veda) also.

58. If (any one) passes between (the teacher and
the pupil) the worship (of the teacher must be
performed) once more.

59. If a dog, an ichneumon, a snake, a frog, (or)
a cat (pass between the teacher and the pupil) a
three days' fast and a journey (are necessary).

55. Manu II, 77.

56. ' All those acts beginning with the touching of the organs
of sense with Kuja grass and ending wiih the recitation of the
Savitri, which have been prescribed (Sutras 48-57^, must be per-
formed before the pupil begins to study the Veda with his teacher, but
should not be repeated daily. After the initiation follows the study of
the Savitri. The touching of the organs of sense and the other
(acts mentioned) form part of this (study). But the rules prescribed
in the three Sutras, the first of which is Sutra 52, and the rule to
direct the eye and mind towards the teacher (Sfitra 47), must be
constantly kept in mind. This decision is confirmed by the rules
of other Smr/tis and of the Gr/hya-sutras.' Haradatta.

57. Apastamba I, 4, 13, 6-7.

58. ' The worship of the teacher (upasadana) consists in the per-
formance of the acts prescribed in Sutras 46-57, with the exception
of the study of the SSvitrt and the acts belonging to that. .The
meaning of the Sutra is that, though the worship of the teacher may
have already been performed in the morning of that day, it must,
nevertheless, be repeated for the reason stated.' Haradatta.

59. ' A journey (vipravasa) means residence in some other place
than the teacher's house.' Haradatta. The commentator adds
that the somewhat different rule, given by Manu IV, 126, may be
reconciled with the above, by referring the former to the study for
the sake of remembering texts recited by the teacher (dharawadhya-
yana), and the latter to the first instruction in the sacred texts.


60. (In case the same event happens) with other
(animals, the pupil) must thrice restrain his breath
and eat clarified butter,

6 1. And (the same expiation must be performed),
if (unwittingly) a lesson in the Veda has been given
on the site of a burial-ground.


i. Before initiation (a child) may follow its
inclinations in behaviour, speech, and eating. (It
shall) not partake of offerings. (It shall remain)
chaste. It may void urine and faeces according to
its convenience.

60. ' This penance must be performed by the pupil, not by the
teacher. Others declare that both shall perform it.' Haradatta.

61. See also Apastamba I, 3, 9, 6-8. The last clauses of this
and all succeeding chapters are repeated in order to indicate that
the chapter is finished.

II. i. In concluding the explanation of this Sutra, Haradatta
states that its last clause is intended to give an instance of the
freedom of behaviour permitted to a child. In his opinion Gautama
indicates thereby that a person who, before initiation, drinks
spirituous liquor, commits murder or other mortal sins, becomes
an outcast, and is liable to perform the penances prescribed for
initiated sinners. In support of this view he quotes a passage,
taken from an unnamed Smr/'ti, according to which the parents
or other relatives of children between five and eleven years are
to perform penances vicariously for the latter, while children
between eleven and fifteen years are declared to be liable to half
the penances prescribed for initiated adults. Hence he infers that
though the above text of Gautama speaks of uninitiated persons
in general, its provisions really apply to children under five years
of age only. Though it would seem that some of Gautama's rules
refer to half-grown persons rather than to infants or very young
boys, it is impossible to assume that Gautama meant to give full
licence of behaviour, speech, and eating to Bra"hmaas who were not

1 86 GAUTAMA. 11,2.

2. No rule of (purification by) sipping water is
prescribed for it. But (the stains of impure sub-
stances) shall be removed by wiping, by washing,
or by sprinkling water.

3. (Other persons) cannot be denied by the touch
of such (a child).

4. But one must not employ a (child) to perform
oblations in the fire or Bali-offerings ;

5. Nor must one make it recite Vedic texts,
except in pronouncing Svadhi.

6. The restrictive rules, (which will be enumerated
hereafter, must be obeyed) after initiation,

7. And (for a student the duty of) chastity, which
has been prescribed (above for a child is likewise

8. (Also) to offer (daily) sacred fuel in the fire,
and to beg, to speak the truth, (and) to bathe

initiated before their sixteenth year, or to Kshatriyas and Vauyas
up to the age of twenty and twenty-two. It seems more likely
that, as Haradatta thinks, his rules are meant in the first instance
for infants and very young children only, and that he intended
the special cases of half-grown or nearly grown up boys to be
dealt with according to the custom of the family or of the

2. Haradatta points out that the Sutra does not forbid unini-
tiated persons to sip water, but that it merely denies the appli-
cability of the rules (kalpa) given above, 1, 36. Uninitiated persons
may, therefore, sip water in the manner practised by women and

4. Apastamba II, 6, 15, 18 ; Manu XI, 36.

5. ' The expression " pronouncing Svadha " includes by impli-
cation the performance of all funeral rites/ Haradatta.

7. Apastamba I, i, 2, 26.

8. Apastamba I. i, 4, 14-17; I, i, 3, 25; I, i, 2, 28-30;
Manu II, 176.


9. Some (declare, that the duty) to bathe (exists)
after (the performance of) the Godana (only).

10. And the morning and evening devotions
(Sandhya must be performed) outside (the village).

11. Silent he shall stand during the former, and
sit during the latter, from (the time when one) light
(is still visible) until (the other) light (appears).

1 2. He shall not look at the sun.

13. He shall avoid honey, meat, perfumes, gar-
lands, sleep in the day-time, ointments, collyrium, a
carriage, shoes, a parasol, love, anger, covetousness,
perplexity, garrulity, playing musical instruments,
bathing (for pleasure), cleaning the teeth, elation,
dancing, singing, calumny, (and) terror,

14. (And) in the presence of his Gurus, covering
his throat, crossing his legs, leaning (against a wall
or the like, and) stretching out his feet,

15. (As well as) spitting, laughing, yawning,
cracking the joints of the fingers,

9. Regarding the sacrament called Godana, see Gobhila Gr/hya-
sutra I, 9, 26. '

10. Apastamba I, n, 30, 8.

11. ' From (the time when one) light (is still visible,' &c.), i.e. in
the morning from the time w.hen the stars are still visible until
the sun rises, and in the evening from the time when the sun.
still stands above the horizon until the stars appear. Haradatta
observes that, as Manu II, ^02 prescribes the recitation of the
Gayatrf during the morning and evening devotions, either his or
Gautama's rule may be followed. He adds that another com-
mentator refers the injunction to keep silence to conversations
on worldly matters only. He himself has adopted this view in
his commentary on Apastamba I, 1 1, 30, 8.

12. Apastamba I, n, 31, 18.

13. Apastamba I, i, 2, 23-28 ; I, i, 3, 1 1-14, 20-24 J I, 2, 7 5-

14. Apastamba I, 2, 6, 3, 14, 17-18. The term Guru includes,
besides the teacher, the parents and other venerable persons.

15. Apastamba I, 2, 7, 6-7; II, 2, 5, 9. Haradatta observes


16. To gaze at and to touch women, if there is
danger of a breach of chastity,

17. Gambling, low service, to take things not
offered, to injure animate beings,

1 8. To pronounce the names of the teacher, of
the (teacher's) sons and wives, and of a person
who has performed the Diksha/dyesh/i of a Soma-

19. To make bitter speeches.

20. A Brihma;/a (shall) always (abstain from)
spirituous liquor.

21. (A student) shall occupy a seat and a couch
lower (than those of his teacher), shall rise before
(him) and retire to rest after (him).

22. He shall keep his tongue, his arms, and his
stomach in subjection.

23. (If it is absolutely necessary to pronounce)

that this Sutra again contains a general rule, and does not merely
refer, to the presence of Gurus.

16. Apastamba I, 2, 7, 3, 8-10.

17. Apastamba I, i, 3, 12. '-'Low service," i.e. service by wiping
off urine, faeces, and the like. . . . That is not even to be performed
for the teacher. Or the expression may mean that he shall not
serve a teacher deficient in learning and virtue. The same
opinion is expressed by Apastamba I, i, i, n.' Haradatta.

18. Manu II, 199. 19. Apastamba I, 2, 7, 24.

20. 'A Brahmaa shall avoid it always, i.e. even as a house-
holder; Kshatriyas and Vaijyas need do it only as long as they
are students. But in their case, too, they forbid the use of
liquor distilled from bruised rice, under all circumstances.'

21. Apastamba I, i, 2, 21 ; I, i, 4, 22, 28.

22. Apastamba I, i, 3, 13. 'Keeping his arms in subjection
means that he shall not (without a cause) break clods of earth
and the like. Keeping his stomach in subjection, i.e. eating with
moderation.' Haradatta.

23. ' He shall indicate it by another synonymous word,

11,29- STUDENTSHIP. 189

his teacher's name and family-name, he ought to
indicate it by (using) a synonymous term.

24. (He must speak) in the same (respectful)
manner of a man who is (generally) revered and
of his betters.

25. (If the teacher speaks to him), he shall answer
after having risen from his couch or seat (in case
he was lying down or sitting).

26. At the command (of his teacher) he shall
approach, though the (teacher) may not be visible.

27. And if he sees his teacher standing or sitting
in a lower place or to the leeward or to the wind-
ward, he shall rise (and change his positron).

28. If (his teacher) is walking, he shall walk
after him, informing him of the work (which he
is going to do and) telling (him what he has done).

29. He shall study after having been called (by
the teacher, and not request the latter to begin
the lesson).

e.g. instead of saying, " Haradatta (given by Hara)," he shall say,
" the venerable Bhavarata (given by Bhava)." ' Haradatta.

25. Apastamba I, 2, 6, 5-7.

26. He must not think that, as the teacher cannot see him,
he need not obey the summons.

27. Apastamba I, 2, 6, 15, 23.

28. ' Work (karma) means performance. The meaning is that
the pupil shall announce to his teacher the performance of all
he is going to do. But what is useful for the teacher, as fetching
water and the like, he shall inform him of the performance of
that, i.e. knowing himself (without being told) that such work is
necessary at a particular time (and acting on this knowledge).
Any other explanation of this Sutra does not please me.'-r Hara-
daita. See also Apastamba I, 2, 6, 8. My MSS. divide this Sutra
into two, beginning the second with ' Informing ' &c. Haradatta's
final remark, quoted above, seems to indicate that the division
was intended by him.

29. Apastamba I, 2, 5, 26.


30. He shall be intent on (doing) what is pleasing
and serviceable (to the teacher) ;

31. And (he shall behave) towards (the teacher's)
wives and sons just as (towards the teacher),

32. But not eat their leavings, attend them while
bathing, assist them at their toilet, wash their feet,
shampoo them nor embrace their feet.

33. On returning from a journey he shall embrace
the feet of the wives of his teacher.

34. Some declare, that (a pupil) who has attained
his majority is not (to act thus) towards young
(wives of his teacher).

35. Alms may be accepted from men of all castes,
excepting Abhirastas and outcasts.

36. (In begging) the word 'Lady' must be pro-
nounced in the beginning, in the middle, or at the
end (of the request), according to the order of the

37. (He may beg in the houses) of the teacher,
of blood relations, (or) of Gurus, and in his own, if
he obtains no (alms) elsewhere.

30. Apastamba I, i, 4, 23.

31. Apastamba I, 2, 7, 27, 30; Manu II, 207-212.

34. ' One who has attained his majority, i. e. one who has com-
pleted his sixteenth year and is (already) a youth.' Haradatta.

35. Haradatta explains abhuasta by upapatakin, ' one who has
committed a minor offence,' apparently forgetting Apastamba I, 7,
21, 7. See also Apaslamba I, i. 3, 25,

36. Apastamba I, i, 3, 28-30, where the formulas have been
given in the notes. Haradatta remarks that the (iraimini Gr/liya-
sutra forbids the lengthening or drawling pronunciation of the
syllables ksha; and hi in begging. Baudhayana I, 2, 3, 16
likewise forbids it. In the text read varanupurvyea.

37. Manu II, 184. It is just possible that the translation
ought to be ' in the houses of his teacher's blood relations/
instead of ' in the houses of his teacher (and) of blood .relations.'


38. Among' these he shall avoid each preceding
one (more carefully than those named later).

39. Having announced to the teacher (what he
has received) and having received his permission,
the (student) may eat (the collected food).

40. If (the teacher) is not present, (he shall seek
the permission to eat) from his (teacher's) wives or
sons, from fellow-students or virtuous (strangers).

41. Having placed water by his side, (he shall
eat) in silence, contented, (and) without greed.

42. (As a rule) a pupil shall not be punished

43. If no (other course) is possible, (he may be
corrected) with a thin rope or a thin cane.

44. If (the teacher) strikes him with any other
(instrument), he shall be punished by the king.

45. He shall remain a student for twelve years
in order (to study) one (recension of the Veda),

46. Or, if (he studies) all (the Vedas) twelve
years for each,

47. Or during (as long a period as he requires
for) learning (them).

48. On completion of the instruction the teacher
must be offered a fee.

38. The meaning of the Suira is, that if a student does not
obtain anything from strangers, he shall first go to his own
family, next to the houses of Gurus, i.e. paternal and maternal
uncles and other venerable relatives, then to his other blood
relations, i.e. Sapi</as, and in case of extreme necessity only
apply to the teacher's wife.

39. Apastamba I, i, 3, 31-32.

40. Apastamba I, i, 3, 33-34. 41. Manu II, 53-54.

42. Apastamba I, 2, 8, 29; Macnaghten, Mitakshara IV, i, 9.

43. Manu VIU, 299. 45~47- Apastamba I, i, 2, 12-16.
48. Apasfainba 1, 2, 7, 19.

GAUTAMA. 11,49-

49. After (the pupil) has paid (that) and has
been dismissed, he may, at his pleasure, bathe (as
is customary on completion of the studentship). .

50. The teacher is chief among all Gurus.

51. Some (say) that the mother (holds that


1. Some (declare, that) he (who has studied the
Veda) may make his choice (which) among the.
orders (he is going to enter).

2. (The four orders are, that of) the student,
(that of) the householder, (that of) the ascetic
(bhikshu), (and that of) the hermit in the woods

49. Apastamba I, 2, 8, 30. 50. Manu II, 225-237.

III. i. Other Sm/Ytikaras maintain that a Brahmawa must pass
through all the four orders.- Compare Apastamba II, 9, 21, 5;
Manu VI, 34-38; and the long discussion on the comparative
excellence of the orders of householders and of ascetics. Apa-
stamba II, 9, 23, 3 II, 9, 24, 14.

2. ' Though the order of studentship has already been described
above, still in the following chapter the rules for a professed
(naish/Aika) student will be given (and it had therefore again to
be mentioned). Bhikshu has generally been translated by ascetic
(sannyasin). Vaikhanasa, literally, he who lives according to the
rule promulgated by Vikhanas, means hermit. For that (?age) has
chiefly taught that order. In all other .Sastras (the order of) hermits
is the third, and (the order of) ascetics the fourth. Here a different
arrangement is adopted. The reason of the displacement of the
hermit is that the author considers the first- named three orders
preferable. Hence if a man chooses to pass through all four,
the sequence is that prescribed in other S"astras.' Haradatta.
In making these statements the commentator has apparently
forgotten that Apastamba (II, 9, 21, i) agrees exactly with Gau-
tama. It is, however, very probable that Haradatta has given
correctly the reason why the hermit is placed last by our author
and by Apastamba.

Ill, .;> ASCETIC. 193

3. The householder is the source of these, because
the others do not produce offspring.

4. Among them a (professed) student (must follow
the rules) given (in the preceding chapters).

5. He shall remain obedient to his teacher until
(his) end.

6. In (the time) remaining after (he has attended
to) the business of his Guru, he shall recite (the

7. If the Guru dies, he shall serve his son,

8. (Or) if there is no (son of the teacher), an
older fellow-student, or the fire.

9. He who lives thus, gains the heaven of Brah-
man, and (of him it is said that) he has subdued
his organs (of sense and action).

10. And these (restrictions imposed on students
must also be observed by men) of other (orders,
provided they are) not opposed (to their particular

n. An ascetic shall not possess (any) store.

12. (He must be) chaste,

13. He must not change his residence during the
rainy season.

3. -vlanu VI. 87. 4. Apastamba I, i, 4. 29.

5. Apastamba II, 9, 21, 6.

6. According to Haradatia the term Guru here includes the father.
But see the noxt Sutra, where Guru can only mean the teacher.

T O. Apustamba IT, 9, 21, 3-4. My MSS. have uttaresham, 'of
the 'ater named,' instead of itaresham, ' of the other ' (orders), both
in the Suira and in subsequent quotations of the same.

ii. Apastamba II, 9. 21, 8-10 ; Manu VI, 41-43 ; Colebrooke,
Milakshara II, 8, 7.

13. This rule shows that the Vasso of the Bauddhas and Gainas
is also derived from a Brahmanical source ; see also Buudhayana
II, 6, n. 20.

01 O

IQ4 GAUTAMA. 111,14.

14. He shall enter a village (only) in order to beg.

15. He shall beg late (after people have finished
their meals), without returning (twice),

1 6. Abandoning (all) desire (for sweet food).

17. He shall restrain his speech, his eyes, (and)
his actions.

1 8. He shall wear a cloth to cover his naked-

1 9. Some (declare, that he shall wear) an old rag,
after having washed it

20. He shall not take parts of plants and trees,
except such as have become detached (spontane-

21. Out of season he shall not dwell a second
night in (the same) village.

22. He may either shave or wear a lock on the
crown of the head.

23. He shall avoid the destruction of seeds.

24. (He shall be) indifferent towards (all) crea-
tures, (whether they do him) an injury or a kindness.

25. He shall not undertake (anything for his
temporal or spiritual welfare).

15. Manu VI, 55-56.

19. Apastamba II, 9, 21, n.

20. ' He shall not appropriate, i. e. take parts of these, i.e. fruits,
leaves, and the like, which have not been detached, i. e. have not
fallen off. But he may take what has become detached spon-
taneously.' Haradatta.

2 1. Out of season, i. e. except in the rainy season, during which,
according to Sutra 13, an ascetic must not wander about.

23. 'He shall avoid, i.e. neither himself nor by the agency of
others cause the destruction, i. e. the pounding by means of a pestle
or the like, of seeds, i.e. raw rice and the like. Hence he shall
accept as alms cooked food only, not rice and the like.' Hara-

111,35- HERMIT. 195

26. A hermit (shall live) in the forest subsisting
on roots and fruits, practising austerities.

27. Kindling the fire according to the (rule of
the) Sramawaka (Sutra, he shall offer oblations in
the morning and evening).

28. He shall eat wild-growing (vegetables only).

29. He shall worship gods, manes, men, goblins,
and Tfoshis.

30. He shall receive hospitably (men of) all
(castes) except those (with whom intercourse is)

31. He may even use the flesh of animals killed
by carnivorous beasts.

32. He shall not step on ploughed (land),

33. And he shall not enter a village.

34. He shall wear (his hair in) braids, and dress
in (garments made of) bark and skins.

35. He shall not eat anything that has been
hoarded for more than a year.

26. Apastamba II, 9, 21, 18 II, 9, 23, 2. 'Austerities (tapas)
means emaciating his body.' Haradatta.

27. 'He shall offer oblations in the morning and evening/
(these words), though not expressed, are understood.

29. I. e. he shall perform the five Mahaya^was, just like a house-
holder, only using wild-growing fruits, roots, &c., for the oblations.

31. 'They declare, that baishka means the flesh of an animal,
slain by a tiger or the like. He may use even that. The word
" even " implies blame. Hence this is a rule for times of distress,
and it must be understood that such food is to be eaten only
on failure of roots and fruits and the like.' Haradatta. The
commentator adds that the flesh of forbidden animals must be

34. According to Haradatta the lower garment shall be made of
ira, which he again explains as cloth made of Ku*a grass and the
like, and the upper of a skin.

35. Haradatta reads atisamvatsaram, not atisa/svatsaram, as in

O 2

1 96 GAUTAMA. Ill, 36.

36. But the venerable teacher (prescribes) one
order only, because the order of householders is
explicitly prescribed (in the Vedas).


1. A householder shall take a wife (of) equal
(caste), who has not belonged to another man and
is younger (than himself).

2. A marriage (may be contracted) between per-
sons who have not the same Pravaras,

3. (And) who are not related within six degrees
on the father's side,

4. Or on the side of the begetter,

Professor Stenzler's edition, though he notices the latter reading.
Manu VI. 15.

36. ' The duties of a householder, the Agnihotra, and the like,
are frequently prescribed and praised in all Vedas, Dharmajastras,
and Itihasas. As, therefore, the order of householders is explicitly
prescribed, this alone is the order (obligatory on all men). But the
other orders are prescribed only for those unfit for the (duties of
a householder). That is the opinion of many teachers.' Haradatta.
Haradatta's explanation of stiaryaA, which he takes to mean ' many
teachers/ seems to me inadmissible. Eke, 'some (teachers),' is
used in that sense, and aAryaA cannot possibly be a synonymous
term. Further on (IV, 23) Haradatta himself admits that by
aHryaA one teacher is meant. It must be translated ' the venerable
teacher,' because the Hindus are very fond of the use of the pluralis

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