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The sacred laws of the Aryas : as taught in the schools of Apastamba, Gautama, Vasishtha and Baudhayana online

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majestatis. I have no doubt that Gautama means his own teacher,
whom, of course, etiquette forbids him to name. See also R. Garbe,
Uebersetzung des Vaitana-sutra. I, 3.

IV. i. Apastamba II, 6, 13, i ; Manu III, 4, 12 ; Yn^;7. I, 52.

2. Regarding the Pravaras, see Max Miiller's History of Ancient
Sanskrit Literature, p. 386. Apastamba II, 5, n, 15.

3. Apastamba II, 5, n, 16; Manu 111, 5: Yagri. I, 52.

4. This rule refers to the case where a husband has made over
his wife to another man and the bridegroom stands in the relation
of a son to the husband of his mother and to his natural father
(dvipita). See V&gri. I, 68.



IV, 15- HOUSEHOLDER. 197

5. (Nor) within four degrees on the mother's
side.

6. (If the father) gives (his daughter) dressed
(in two garments) and decked with ornaments to
a person possessing (sacred) learning, of virtuous
conduct, who has relatives and a (good) disposition,
(that is a) Brahma (wedding).

7. At the Pra/apatya (wedding) the marriage-
formula is, ' Fulfil ye the law conjointly.'

8. At the Arsha (wedding the bridegroom) shall
present a cow and a bull to him who has (authority
over) the maiden.

9. (If the bride) is given, decked with ornaments,
to a priest at the altar, that is a Daiva wedding.

10. The spontaneous union with a willing (maiden
is called) a Gandharva wedding.

11. If those who have (authority over) a female
are propitiated by money, (that is) an Asura wedding.

12. (If the bride) is taken by force, (that is)
a Rakshasa wedding.

13. If (a man) embraces a female deprived of
consciousness, (that is) a Faisa^a wedding.

14. The first four (rites) are lawful ;

15. Some say, (the first) six.



5. Ya77. I, 53.

6. Apasiamba II, 5, n, 17. 'Virtuous conduct (/-aritra), i.e.
the performance of the acts prescribed (in the Vedas and Smr/tis).
.... good disposition (jila), i. e. faith in the ordinances of the
law.' Haradatta.

7. Manu 111, 30 ; Yiiw- I, 60.

8. Apastamba II, 5, n, 18. 9. Apastamba II, 5, n, 19.
10. Apastamba II, 5, ii, 20. u. Apastamba II, 5, 12, r.

i 2. Apastamba II, ,;, 12, 2. 13. Manu III, 34 ; Y*g. I, 6r.

14. Manu III, 24. 39. 15. Manu III, 23.



198 GAUTAMA. TV, 16.

1 6. (Children) born in the regular order of
wives of the next, second or third lower castes
(become) Savarwas, Ambash///as, Ugras, Nishadas,
Daushyantas or Pdra^avas.

17. (Children born) in the inverted order (of
wives of higher castes become) Sutas, Migadhas,
Ayogavas, Kshattr/s, Vaidehakas or /$fa#d&las.

1 8. Some declare, that a woman of the Brahma^a
caste has born successively to (husbands of) the (four)
castes, sons (who are) BrAhmafcas, Sutas, Magadhas
or A'awd&las ;

19. (And that) a woman of the Kshatriya caste
(has born) to the same, Murdhavasiktas, Kshatriyas,
Dhlvaras, Pulkasas ;

20. Further, a woman of the Vai-yya caste to
the same, Bhr^yaka/^as, Mahishyas, Vai^yas, and
Vaidehas j

21. (And) a woman of the .Sudra caste to the
same, P&raravas, Yavanas, Kararcas, and .Sudras.



1 6. I.e. from a Brahmawa and a KshatriyS springs a Savarwa,
from a Brahmawa and a Vaijy a Nish&da, from a Brahma^a and
a Sudra a Parayava, from a Kshatriya and a Vaijya an AmbashMa,
and from a Kshatriya and a /SCuM a Daushyanta, from a Vauya
and a Sfidra an Ugra. Compare for this and the following five
Sutras Manu X, 6-18; Y%. 1, 91-95.

17. I.e. from a Kshatriya and a Brahmam springs a Suta, from
a Vai-rya and a Kshatriya a Magadha, from a .Sudra and a Vaijya
an Ayogava, from a Vaijya and a Brahmawi a Kshatt/-/, from a
.Sttdra and a Kshatriya a Vaidehaka, from a -S"udra and a Brahmawi



1 8. The words ' Some declare' stand only at the end of Sutra
21. But Haradatta rightly declares that they refer to all the four
Sutras. The proof for the correctness of his interpretation lies in
the use of the form a^i^anat, which refers to each of the Stitras.
The four Sutras are, however ; probably spurious, as Sutra 28 refers
back to Sutra 1 7 by calling the Au/z^ala ' the last (named).'



IV, 25. HOUSEHOLDER. 199

22. In the seventh (generation men obtain) a
change of caste, either being raised to a higher
one or being degraded to a lower one.

23. The venerable teacher declares (that this
happens) in the fifth (generation).

24. And (the same rule applies) to those born
(from parents of different classes that are) inter-
mediate between (two of the castes originally)
created (by Brahman).

25. But those born in the inverse order (from
fathers of a lower and mothers of a higher caste
stand) outside (the pale of) the sacred law,



22. Apastamba II, 5, n, 10-11. 'That is as follows: If a
Savarwa female, born of the Kshatriya wife of a Bcahmaa, is
married to a Brahmaa, and her female descendants down to the
seventh likewise, then the offspring -which that seventh female
descendant bears to her BrShma/ra. husband is equal in caste to
a Brahmana. In like manner, if a Savaraa male, the son of a
Brahmaa and of his Kshatriya wife, again marries a Kshatriya
wife and his male descendants down to the seventh likewise, then
the offspring of that seventh male descendant is equal in caste to
a Kshatriya. The same principle must be applied to the offspring
of Kshatriyas and wives of the Vauya caste as well as to Vaijyas
and wives of the .Sudra caste.' Haradatta.

23. '(The venerable) teacher opines that the change of caste
takes place in the fifth generation. They declare that the plural
may be used to denote one teacher. This Sutra refers to (cases of
extraordinary merit acquired through) virtuous conduct and study
of the Veda.' Haradatta. It is clear that in this case Haradatta,
too, has seen that the word a^arya^ has another force than the
more common eke ; see above, note to III, 36.

24. 'That is as follows: If the daughter of a Savaraa, born
of a wife of the Ambash/^a caste, is married again to a Savama,
and her female descendants down to the seventh likewise, then the
offspring of that seventh female descendant, begotten by a Savara
husband, is equal in caste to a Savara.' Haradatta. Regarding
the birth of the four castes from Brahman, see Kig-veda X, 90, 12.

25. Manu X, 41, 67-68.



2OO GAUTAMA. IV, 26.

26. As well as (those born in the regular order)
from a female of the sSudra caate.

27. But he whom a 6'udra (begets) on a female
of unequal caste shall be treated like an outcast.

28. The last (named, the A'aWala), is the
foulest.

29. Virtuous sons (born of wives of equal caste)
and wedded according to approved rites sanctify
(their father's family).

30. (A son born of a wife married) according
to the Arsha rite (saves) three ancestors (from
hell),

31. (A son born of a wife married) according to
the Daiva rite ten,

32. (A son born of a wife married) according to
the Pra^apatya rite, also ten.

33. (But) the son of a wife married according to
the Brahma rite (saves) ten ancestors, ten descend-
ants, and himself.

CHAPTER V.

T. (A householder) shall approach (his wife) in
the proper season,

2. Or (he may do so) at any time except on
the forbidden (days).



26. Mann X, 68.

27. ' "Shall be treated like an outcast," i.e. one must avoid to
look at him, &c., just as in the case of an outcast.' Haradatta.

28. Manu X, 51-56. 30. Manu 111, 38; Ya^, I, 59.

31. Manu 111, 38 : Ya#. I, 59.

32. Manu III, 38 ; Ya^Tz. I, 60.

33. Manu III, 37 ; Ya^/7. 1, 58.

V. i. Apastamba II, i. i, 17. 2. Apastamba II, i, i, 18.



V, 9



HOUSEHOLDER.



3. He shall worship gods, manes, men, goblins,
(and) ftishls.

4. Every day he shall recite privately (a portion
of the Veda),

5. And the (daily) libation of water to the manes
(is obligatory on him).

6. Other (rites than these he may perform) ac-
cording to his ability.

7. The (sacred) fire (must be kindled) on his
marriage or on the division of the family estate.

8. The domestic (ceremonies must be performed)
with (the aid of) that (fire).

9. (Also) the sacrifices to the gods, manes, (and)
men, and the private recitation (and) the Bali-
offerings.

3. Apastamba I, 4. 12, 15; I, 4, 13, i ; Manu III, 69-72; IV,
29, 21 ; Ya^Tz. I, 99, 102-104.

4. Manu III, 8 1 ; Y%. I, 104.

5. Manu III. 82; Y%. I, 104. 'The word "and" indicates
that water must be offered to the gods and j?/shis also.' Hara-
datta.

6. ' (Rites) other than those prescribed in Sfitras 3-5 he may
perform according to his energy, i.e. according to his ability. But
those he should zealously perform. As the oblations to the gods
and the other (Mahaya^as) are mentioned before the kindling of
the domestic fire, they must be performed by a person who has not
yet kindled the domestic fire with the aid of the common (kitchen)-
fire.' Haradatta.

7. As long as the family remains united, its head offers the
oblations for all its members.

8. 'The domestic rites, i.e. the Puwzsavana and the rest. . . .
Now with the aid of which fire must a man, who has not yet kindled
the domestic fire, perform the Puwsavana, &c. ? Some answer that
he shall use a common fire. But the opinion of the teacher (Gau-
tama) is that he shall use the sacred fire which has been kindled on
that occasion.' Haradatta.

9. Haradatta states that the Mahaya^tfas are again enumerated
in order to show that a person who has kindled the sacred fire



2O2 GAUTAMA. V, 10.

10. The oblations (which are thrown) into the
(sacred) fire (at the Vaisvadeva-sacrifice are offered)
to Agni, to Dhanvantari, to all the gods, to Pra^a-
pati, (and to Agni) Svish/akret ;

n. And (Bali-offerings must be given) to the
deities presiding over the (eight) points of the
horizon, in their respective places,

12. At the doors (of the house) to the Maruts,

13. To the deities of the dwelling inside (the
house),

shall use this for them, not a common fire. He also states that
a passage of Usanas, according to which some teachers prescribe
the performance of the daily recitation near the sacred fire, shows
(hat this rite too has a connection with the sacred fire.

10. Apastamba II, 2, 3, 16, where, however, as in all other
works, the order of the offerings differs. Haradatta adds that the
word 'oblations' is used in the Sutra in order to indicate that the
word svaha must be pronounced at the end of each Mantra, and
that the expression 'in the fire' indicates that the Bali-offerings
described in the following Sutra must be thrown on the ground.

n. Compare Apastamba II, 2, 3, 20 II, a, 4, 8 ; Manu III,
87-90, where, as elsewhere, the order of the offerings differs.
According to Haradatta the deities intended are, Indra, Agni, Yama,
Nirr/ti, Varuwa, Vayu, Soma, and Mna. The first offering must
be placed to the east, the next to the south-east, south, &c.

12. At all the doors, as many as there are, a Bali must be
offered with the Mantra, ' To the Maruts, svaha/ Haradatta.

13. 'As he says " inside " (pravuya, literally " entering ") he must
stand outside while offering the Balis at the doors. ... At this
occasion some require the following Mantra, " To the deities of
the dwelling, svaha," because that is found in the JWvalayana
(Gr/hya-sCitra I, 2, 4). Others consider it necessary to mention
the deities by name, and to present as many offerings as there are
deities, while pronouncing the required words.' Haradatta. The
commentator then goes on to quote a passage from U-ranas, which
he considers applicable, because it contains the names of the
Grzhadevatas. I doubt, however, if the 'others' are right, and
stilt more if, in oase they should be right, it would be advisable to
supply the names of the Gr/hadevatas from U-ranas.



V, 21. HOUSEHOLDER. 2O3



14. To Brahman in the centre (of the house),

15. To the Waters near the water-pot,

16. To the Ether in the air,

17. And to the Beings walking about at night
in the evening.

1 8. A gift of food shall be preceded by a libation
of water and (it shall be presented) after (the re-
cipient) has been made to say, ' May welfare attend
thee,'

19. And the same (rule applies) to all gifts pre-
sented for the sake of spiritual merit.

20. The reward of a gift (offered) to a person
who is not a Brahmaffa is equal (to the value of
the gift), those (of presents given) to a Brahmawa
twofold, to a 6Yotriya thousandfold, to one who
knows the whole Veda (vedaparaga) endless.

21. Presents of money (must be given) outside
the Vedi to persons begging for their Gurus, (or) in
order to defray the expenses of their wedding, (or

14. 'Because the word "and" occurs in Sfitra II after the word
" to the deities presiding over the points of the horizon " a Bali-
offering must be presented to the deities mentioned by the author
in Sutra 10, vi2. to the earth, wind, Pra^apati, and to all the gods,
after a Bali has been offered to Brahman.' Haradatta.

16. 'The Bali presented to Akaja, " the ether," must be thrown
up into the air, as Manu says, III, 90.' Haradatta.

17. ' Because of the word " and," he must, also, present Balis to
the deities mentioned above.' Haradatta. The commentator means
fo say that in the evening not only the ' Beings walking about
at night' (naktaw/fara) are to receive a portion, but all the other
deities too, and that the Balikarma must be offered twice a day.

18-19. Apastamba II, 4, 9, 8.

20. According to Haradatta the term 6rotriya here denotes one
who has studied one Veda, (but see also Apastamba II, 3, 6, 4 ;
II. 4, 8, 5.) Vedaplraga is a man who has studied one Veda,
together with the Ahgas, Kalpa-sutras, and Upanishads.

21. Apastamba II, 5, 10, 1-2. 'Now he promulgates a Sutra



204 GAUTAMA. V, 22.

to procure) medicine for the sick, to those who
are without means of subsistence, to those who are
going to offer a sacrifice, to those engaged in study,
to travellers, (and) to those who have performed
the Visva^it-sacrifice.

22. Prepared food (must be given) to other
beggars.

23. For an unlawful purpose he shall not give
(anything), though he may have promised it.

24. An untruth spoken by people under the influ-
ence of anger, excessive joy, fear, pain (or) greed,
by infants, very old men, persons labouring under
a delusion, those being under the influence of drink
(or) by mad men does not cause (the speaker) to fall.

25. Before (a householder eats) he shall feed his
guests, the infants, the sick people, the pregnant
women, the females under his protection, the very
aged men, and those of low condition (who may
be in his house).

which refers to those cases where one must necessarily make gifts,
and where one incurs guilt by a refusal. ... As the expression
" outside the Vedi " is used, presents must be given to others also
" inside the Vedi" (i.e. fees to priests, &c.)' Haradatta.

22. Apastamba II, 2, 4, 14.

23. Apastamba II, 5, 10, 3; Colebrooke II, Digest IV, 47;
Mayukha IX, 5. 'As he says "for an unlawful purpose," what
has been promised must in other cases necessarily be given.'
Haradatta.

24. Colebrooke II, Digest IV, 56. ' " Does not cause (the
speaker) to fall," i.e. produces no guilt. Hence such persons need
not even give a promised present.' Haradatta.

25. Apastamba II, 2, 4, 11-13; HI 4, 9, 10; Manu III, 116.
'Females under his protection (suvasinyaA), i.e. daughters and
sisters . . . , those of low condition (^aghanyaA), i.e. servants,
slaves, and the like. . . . The term " men of low condition " is
made a separate word in the text in order to show that they come
after the others.' Haradatta.



V, 32 HOUSEHOLDER. 2O5

26. But (when) his teacher, parents (or intimate)
friends (visit his house), he shall proceed to the
preparation of the dinner after asking them (for
orders).

27. When an officiating priest, his teacher, his
father-in-law, paternal or maternal uncles visit (him),
a Madhuparka (or honey-mixture must be offered
to them).

28. (If they have been once honoured in this
manner, the, ceremony need be) repeated (only) after
a year.

29. (But) on (the occasion of) a sacrifice and
of the wedding (a Madhuparka must be offered,
though) less than a year (has passed since the last
visit of the persons thus honoured).

30. And to a king who is a .Srotriya (a Madhu-
parka must be offered as often as he comes),

31. (But to a king) who is not a .Srotriya a seat
and water.

32. But for a vSYotriya he shall cause to be pre-
pared a foot-bath, an Arghya, and food of a superior
quality,

26. Manu TIT, 113.

27. Apastamba II, 4, 8, 5-9.

30. ' And to a king a Madhuparka must be offered on his
arrival. If he is a Srotriya (this must be done) on each visit.'
iiaradatta.

31. ; A king who is not a -S'rotriya shall be honoured with a seat
and water, not with a Madhuparka/ Haradatta.

32. Apaslamba II, 3, 6, 7-10, 14-15. 'This Sutra may be
optionally taken as referring to a Brahmawa, because the word
.SYotriya is repeated. For a -Srotriya who has come as a guest,
a foot-bath, i.e. water for washing the feet, an Arghya, i.e. water
mixed with Durvi grass, flowers, &c., and food of a superior
quality, i. e. milk and rice ; cakes and the like shall be particularly
prepared, if the host is able to afford it.' Haradatta.



2O6 GAUTAMA. V, 33.

33. Or his usual food distinguished by a (par-
ticularly careful) preparation.

34. To a (Brahma^a) who is not learned in the
Vedas, (but) of good conduct, food of a middling
(quality) shall be given,

35. To one who is the reverse (of virtuous) grass,
water, and earth,

36. (Or) at least a welcome.

37. Honour (must be shown to a guest, and the
host must) not dine better (than his guest).

38. A couch, a seat, (and) a lodging (of the)
same (quality as the host uses must be given) to
(a guest) of equal condition and to one's betters ;
they must be accompanied (on departure) and re-
spectfully attended to (during their stay).

39. (The host shall show similar) though less
(attention) to (a guest) who is inferior (to himself).

33. ' But if (the host is) not able (to afford dainties), he shall
prepare that same food which is daily used in his house, dis-
tinguished in the preparation, i. e. by adding pepper and the like
condiments, by frying it, and so forth.' Haradatta.

34. Apastamba II, 2, 4. 16 ; II, 3, 6, 12. Haradatta points out
that in this case nothing but a simple dinner shall be given.

36. Apastamba II, 2, 4, 14. ' On failure of grass and the rest,
a welcome, i. e. (the host shall say), " Thou art tired, sit down
here." ' Haradatta.

37. Manu III, 106-107. 'This Sutra refers solely to such a
guest, as is described below, Sutra 40.' Haradatta.

38. 'Accompanying, i. e. walking after him ; respectfully attend-
ing to, i. e. sitting with him and so forth. As it is not possible
that these two acts can be performed by the host in the same
manner as for himself, the meaning of the Sutra must be taken to
be merely that they are to be performed.' Haradatta.

39. Haradatta says that some explain this Sutra to mean, ' (The
host shall show the same attention) even to a man who is a little
inferior (to himself in learning, &c.),' but that he disapproves of
their opinion.



VI, 3- SALUTING. 2C7

40. He is called a guest who, belonging to a
different village (and) intending to stay for one
night only, arrives when the sun's beams pass over
the trees.

41. According (to his caste a guest) must be asked
about his well being (kusala), about his being free
from hurt (anamaya), or about his health (arogya).

42. The last (formula must also be used in ad-
dressing) a ^udra.

43. A man of a lower caste (is) not (to be con-
sidered) a guest by a Brahma#a, except if he has
approached on (the occasion of) a sacrifice.

44. But a Kshatriya must be fed after the Brah-
maa (guests).

45. (Men of) other (castes he shall feed) with his
servants for mercy's sake.

CHAPTER VI.

1. (To salute) every day on meeting (by) an
embrace of the feet,

2. And (particularly) on return from a journey,

3. (Is prescribed in the case) of parents, of their
blood relations, of elder (brothers), of persons venera-

40. Apastamba II, 3, 6, 5. Haradatta states, that by ' the time
when the sun's rays pass over the trees/ either the middle of the
day or the late afternoon may be meant.

41. Apastamba I, 4, 14, 26-29.
43. Apastamba II, 2, 4, 18-19.

VI. i. Apastamba I, 4, 14, 7-9; I, 2, 5, 18; I, 2, 8, 17-18.

3. ' Their blood relations, i.e. paternal and maternal uncles and
the rest; elders, i.e. elder brothers; persons venerable on account
of their learning, i. e. the teacher who has initiated him (aMrya),
the teacher who has instructed him (upadhyaya), and the rest.'
Haradatta.



2O8 GAUTAMA. VI, . t .

ble on account of their learning, and of the Gurus of
the latter.

4. On meeting (several persons, to whom such
a salutation is due), together, the most venerable
(must be saluted first).

5. On meeting persons who understand (the rule
of returning salutes) one shnll salute (them) pro-
nouncing one's name, and (saying), ' I N. N. (ho !
salute thee).'

6. Some (declare that) there is no restrictive rule
for salutations between man and wife.



A

4. Apastamba I, 2, 6, 29 ; I, 2, 3, 19. ' On meeting his mother
and other persons whose feet must be embraced, he shall first
embrace the highest, i. e. the most excellent, afterwards the others.
Who the most excellent is has been declared above, II, 50-51.

5. Apastamba I, 2, 5, 12-15. Professor Stenzler reads a^a-
samavaye, while my copies and their commentary show that
^arasamavayc has to be read. Besides, it seems impossible to
make any sense out of the former reading without assuming
that the construction is strongly elliptical. ' On meeting, i. e. on
comiug together with him who knows the rule of returning a
salute, he shall utter, i.e. loudly pronounce his name, i.e. the
name which he has received on the tenth day (after his birth), and
which is to be employed in saluting, and speak the word " I " as
well as the word " this." They declare that instead of the word
" this,'' which here is explicitly prescribed, the word " I am " must
be used. Some salute thus, " I Haradatia by name ; " others, " I
Haradattajarman ;" and the common usage is to say, "I Haradatta-
jnrman by name." Thus the salutation must be made. Salutation
means saluting. The affix a is added to causatives and the rest.
With reference to this matter the rule for returning salutes has
been described by Manu II, 126. . . .As (in the above Sutra)
the expression "on moeting persons knowing" is used, those who
are unacquainted wiih the manner of returning a salute must not be
saluted in this manner. How is it then to be done ? It is described
by IManu III, 123.! Haradatta.

6. As Gautama says, '" Some declare," the restrictive rule must,
in his opinion, be follower!.' Haradatta.



VI, I .> SALUTING. 2O9

7. (The feet of) other female (relations) than the
mother, a paternal uncle's wife and (elder) sisters
(need) not (be embraced, nor need they be saluted)
except on return from a journey.

8. The feet of wives of brothers and of the mother-
in-law (need) not be embraced (on any occasion).

9. But (on the arrival of an) officiating priest,
a father-in-law, paternal and maternal uncles who
are younger (than oneself), one must rise ; they
need not be saluted (as prescribed above, Sutra 5).

10. In like manner (any) other aged fellow-citizen,
even a 5udra of eighty years and more, (must be
honoured) by one young enough to be his son,

71. (And) an Arya, though (he be) younger, by
a ^udra ;

1 2. And he shall avoid (to pronounce) the name
of that (person who is worthy of a salutation).

13. And an official who (is) not (able to) recite
(the Veda shall avoid to pronounce the name) of
the king.



7. Manu II, 132 ; Apastamba I, 4, 14, 6, 9.

9. Apastarnba I, 4, 14, u.

i o. ' Old (purva), i. e. of greater age A .Sudra even, who

answers this description, must be honoured by rising, not, however,
be saluted by one young enough to be his son, i. e. by a BrSh-
maa who is very much younger. The .Sfidra is mentioned as
an instance of a man of inferior caste. Hence a Sudra must
(under these circumstances) be honoured by rising, not be saluted
by men of the three higher castes, a Vauya by those of the two
higher castes, and a Kshatriva by a Brahmawa.' Haradatta.

A -

11. 'An Arya, i. e. a man of the three twice-born castes, though
he be inferior, i.e. younger, must be honoured by rising, not be
saluted by a .Sudra. The Sudra is mentioned in order to give an
instance of (a man of) inferior caste.' Haradatta.

12. 'An inferior shall avoid to take his name, i.e. that of a
superior.' Haradatta.

[2] P



210 GAUTAMA. VI, 14.

14. A contemporary who is born on the same day
(shall be addressed with the terms) bho/j or bhavan



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