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The sacred laws of the Aryas : as taught in the schools of Apastamba, Gautama, Vasishtha and Baudhayana online

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(your honour),

15. (Likewise) a fellow-citizen who is ten years
older (than oneself),

1 6. (Also) an artist who is five years (older),

1 7. And a 6rotriya belonging to one's own Vedic
school who is three years older,

1 8. (Further), Brahmawas destitute of learning
and those who follow the occupations of Kshatriyas
or VaLsyas,

19. And (a contemporary) who has performed the
Dikshaiyesh/i of a Soma-sacrifice before he buys
(the Soma).

20. Wealth, relations, occupation, birth, learning,
and age must be honoured ; (but) each later named

14. Haradatta says that sam&nehani, 'on the same day,' means
' in the same year.' He is probably right in thinking that the
expression must not be interpreted too strictly. But his assertion
that aha/$ means also 'year' cannot be proved by his quotation
from the Nigha#/uka, abde sawzvatsaram ahar^aram.

15. 'A person aged by ten years, i. e. at least ten years older,
who lives in the same town as oneself, is to be addressed as bho/i,
bhavan, though he may be deficient in good qualities.' Haradatta.

16. 'The words "years older" must be understood. He who
lives by the fine arts (kala), i. e. the knowledge of music, painting,
leaf-cutting, and the like, and is at least five years older than
oneself, must be addressed as bho^ or bhavan.' Haradatta.

17. Haradatta notes that Apastamba I, 4, 14, 13 gives a some-
what different rule.

1 8. Haradatta adds that a person destitute of learning, be he
ever so old, may still be treated as an equal, and addressed as
bho^, bhavan, by a more learned man.

20. Manu II, 136. 'As wealth and the rest cannot be directly

honoured, the persons possessing them are to be honoured

Respect (mana) means honour shown by saluting and the like.'
Haradatta.



VII, 4- TIMES OF DISTRESS. 2 1 1

(quality) is more important (than the preceding
ones).

21. But sacred learning is more important than
all (other good qualities),

22. Because that is the root of the sacred law,

23. And because the Veda (expressly declares it).

24. Way must be made for a man seated in
a carriage, for one who is in his tenth (decade), for
one requiring consideration, for a woman, for a
Snataka, and for a king.

25. But a king (must make way) for a .5rotriya.

CHAPTER VII.

1. The rule for (times of) distress (is) that a
Brahmawa may study under a teacher who is not
a Brahma#a.

2. (A student is bound) to walk behind and to
obey (his non-Brahmanical teacher).

3. (But) when (the course of study) has been
finished, the Brahmawa (pupil is more) venerable
(than his teacher).

4. (In times of distress it is permissible) to offer

21. Manu II, 154.

23. Haradatta says that a passage to this effect occurs in the
-AfMndogya-brahmawa. He also refers to Manu II, 151.

24. Apastamba II, 5, n, 5, 7-9. 'A person requiring con-
sideration, i.e. one afflicted by disease. A woman, i.e. a bride
or a pregnant woman. A Snataka, i. e. a person who has bathed
after completing his studies and after having kept the vow of
studentship.' Haradatta.

25. Apastamba II, 5, n, 6:
VII. i. Apastamba II, 2, 4, 25.

2. Apastamba II, 2, 4, 26. 3. Apastamba ll, 2, 4, 27.

4. Haradatta quotes Manu X, 103 in support of the above
explanation, and adds that another commentator interprets the

P 2



212 GAUTAMA. VII, ; ~.

sacrifices for (men of) all (castes), to teach (them),
and to accept (presents from them).

5. Each preceding (mode of living is) preferable
(to those named later).

6. On failure of the (occupations lawful for a
Brahmawa) he may live by the occupations of a
Kshatriya.

7. On failure of those, he may live by the
occupations of a Vaisya.

8. (Goods) that may not be sold by a (Brahmawa
are),

9. Perfumes, substances (used for) flavouring
(food), prepared food, sesamum, hempen and linen
cloth, skins,

10. Garments dyed red or washed,

1 1. Milk and preparations from it,

12. Roots, fruits, flowers, medicines, honey, flesh,
grass, water, poison,



SOtra to mean, that in times of distress men of all castes may
support themselves by sacrificing for others, teaching, and the
acceptance of gifts, though in ordinary times these modes of
living are reserved for Brahmawas.

5. The use of the masculine in the text, ' purva^ purvo guru/;,'
may, I think, be explained by the fact that the compound in the
preceding Sutra ends with a noun of the masculine gender.

6. Manu X, 81; Ya^. Ill, 35. 7. Apastamba I, 7, 20, n.

9. Apastamba I, 7, 20, 12-13. ' Substances used for flavouring
(rasa), i. e. oil, sugar, clarified butter, salt, and the like.' Hara-
datta. From Sutra 19 it is clear that ' rasa' does not simply mean
' liquids.'

10. My MSS. read nirwikte for nikte, and nirniktam is explained
by ' washed by a washerman or the like person.' It is possible to
translate Professor Stenzler's reading in accordance with Manu X,
87, ' pairs of (i. e. upper and lower) garments dyed red.'

11. 'Preparations from it, i.e. sour milk and the like/
Haradatta.



VII, 24. TIMES OF DISTRESS. 213



13. Nor animals for slaughter,

14. Nor, under any circumstances, human beings,
heifers, female calves, cows big with young.

15. Some (declare, that the traffic in) land, rice,
barley, goats, sheep, horses, bulls, milch-cows, and
draught-oxen (is) likewise (forbidden).

1 6. But (it is permissible) to barter,

17. One kind of substances used for flavouring
others,

1 8. And animals (for animals).

19. Salt and prepared food (must) not . (be
bartered),

20. Nor sesamum.

21. But for present use an equal (quantity of) un-
cooked (food may be exchanged) for cooked (food).

22. But if no (other course is) possible (a Brah-
ma//a) may support himself in any way except by
(following the occupations) of a .Sudra.

23. Some (permit) even this in case his life is
in danger.

24. But to mix with that (caste) and forbidden
food must be avoided (even in times of distress).

14. 'Under any circumstances (nityam, literally "always")
means even when they are not sold for slaughter. Another
(commentator) says, that, as the expression "under any circum-
stances" is used here, the prohibition regarding the above-men-
tioned things, i.e. sesamum and the like, does not hold good under
all circumstances, and that hence self-grown sesamum and other
grain may be sold, see Manu X, 90.' Haradatta.

15. Manu X, 88. Haradatta explains 'land' by 'houses.'
16-21. Apa&tamba I, 7, 20, 14-15.

19. ' The sale of salt and prepared food has been forbidden by
Sutra 9, but their barter has been permitted (by Sutra 17).' Hara-
datta.

22. Regarding the Sftdra's occupations, see below, X, 57-60.

24. ' Restriction (niyama), i. e, avoiding. That Brahmawa



214 GAUTAMA. VII, 25.

25. If his life is threatened, even a Brahirtawa
may use arms.

26. (In times of distress) a Kshatriya (may follow)
the occupations of a Vai^ya.



CHAPTER VIII.

1. A king and a Brahmarca, deeply versed in
the Vedas, these two, uphold the moral order in
the world.

2. On them depends the existence of the fourfold
human race, of internally conscious beings, of those
which move on feet and on wings, and of those
which creep,

even who lives the life of a .Sudra must not mix with that
Sudra caste, i.e. he must not sit among .Sudras and so forth.'
Haradatta.

25. Apastamba I, 10, 29, 7 ; Manu VITI, 348.

26. Haradatta adds, that in accordance with the principle
exemplified by the rule of this Sutra a Vai-rya may follow in
times of distress the occupations of a .Sudra.

VIII. i. .Satapatha-brahmaa V, 4, 4, 5; Weber, Ind. Stud. X,
29. Haradatta explains vrata, 'moral order/ by karmai, 'the
rites and occupations,' and loka, ' world,' by rash/ra, .' kingdom.'
Ultimately my translation and his explanation come to the same
thing. He adds that the king upholds order by punishing, and
a learned Brahmawa by teaching. Regarding the excellence of
these two, see also Manu IV, 135.

2. ; Internally conscious beings, i. e. trees and the like, which
are immovable, but grow and decay. For such possess internal
consciousness only, no corresponding external faculty of acting. . . .
The existence of these, i. e. of men and the rest, depends upon,
i. e. is subordinate to the king and to a Brahmaa deeply versed
in the Vedas. How is that? As regards the Brahmaa, an
offering which has been properly thrown into the fire reaches the
sun ; from the sun comes rain ; from rain food is produced and
thereon live the creatures. By this reasoning he is shown to



VIII, ii. KING AND BRAHMA-YA VERSED IN VEDAS. 215

3. (As well as) the protection of offspring, the
prevention of the confusion (of the castes and) the
sacred law.

4. He is (called) deeply versed in the Vedas,

5. Who is acquainted with the (ways of the)
world, the Vedas (and their) Ahgas (auxiliary
sciences),

6. Who is skilled in disputations (and), in (recit-
ing) legends and the Purawa,

7. Who looks to these (alone), and lives according
to these,

8. Who has been sanctified by the forty sacra-
ments (sa*#skara),

9. Who is constantly engaged in the three occu-
pations (prescribed for all twice-born men),

10. Or in the six (occupations prescribed specially
fora Brahmawa),

1 1 . (And) who is well versed in the duties of



be the cause of their existence. But the king is (also) the cause
of their existence ; for he punishes robbers and the like.'
Haradatta.

3. Haradatta takes prasutirakshanam, 'the protection of their
offspring/ as a copulative compound, and explains it by 'their
prosperity (abhivr/ddhi) and their protection.' But a samahara-
dvandva is here out of place.

4. Macnaghten, Mitakshara 1 I, 2, 27. ' By the word loka, " the
world," are intended the laws of countries and the like, which may
be learnt from the practice of the world.' Haradatta. Regarding
the Ahgas, see Apastamba II, 4, 8, 10.

8. Regarding the forty sacraments, see below, Sfltras 14-20.

9. Regarding the three occupations, common to all twice-born
men, see below, X, i.

10. See below, X, 2.

11. The Samaya/farika or Smarta duties are those taught in
the Dharma-sutras and Smrriis, see Apastamba I, i, i, i, and
Max Miiller's History of Ancient Sanskrit Literature, p. 101.



2l6 GAUTAMA. VTFI, t2.

daily life settled by the agreement (of those who
know the law).

12. (Such a Brahmawa) must be allowed by the
king immunity from (the following) six (kinds of
opprobrious treatment) :

13. (I.e.) he must not be subjected to corporal
punishment, he must not be imprisoned, he must
not be fined, he must not be exiled, he must not be
reviled, nor be excluded.

14. The Garbhadhana (or ceremony to cause
conception), the Puwsavana (or ceremony to cause
the birth of a male child), the Simantonnayana (or
arranging the parting of the pregnant wife's hair),
the G&takarman (or ceremony on the birth of the
child), the ceremony of naming the child, the first
feeding, the A"aula (or tonsure of the head of the
child), the initiation,

15. The four vows (undertaken) for the study
of the Veda,

1 6. The bath (on completion of the studentship),



12. See Weber, Ind. Stud. X, 41, 60, 66; Macnaghten, Mita-
kshara I, 2, 27.

14. Regarding the Sawskaras mentioned in this Sfttra, see
Asvalayana Gr/hya-sfltra I, 13-23; .Sahkhayana Gr?"hya-sutra I,
19 II, 5; Paraskara Gr/hya-sutra I, 13 II, 2.

15. The four vows, as Haradatta states, are, according to
Ajvalayana, the Mahanamnivrata, the Mahavrata, the Upanishad-
vrata, and the Godana; see A-rvalayana Srauta-sutra VIII, 14,
where the first three are described in detail, and GrzTiya-sfHra
I, 22, 3, with the commentary thereon. Other Gr/'hya-sutras give
more and different names, see H. Oldenberg, .Sahkhayana Gr/hya-
sutra II, 11-12 (S. B. E., vol. xxix), and Gobhila GnTiya-sutra

III, I, 28111, 2, 62.

1 6. Haradatta explains snana, ' the bath,' by samavartanaj ' the
ceremony on completion of the studentship/ Regarding the five
sacrifices, usually called the great sacrifices, see above, VII, 9 seq.



VIII, 22. KING AND BRAHMAJVA VERSED IN VEDAS. 21 7

the taking of a help-mate for the fulfilment of the
religious duties, the performance of the five sacrifices
to gods, manes, men, goblins, and Brahman,

17. And {the performance) of the following
(sacrifices) :

1 8. The seven kinds of Pakaya^was (or small
sacrifices), viz. the Ash/aka, the Parvawa ('Sthali-
paka, offered on the new and full moon days), the
funeral oblations, the vSravawi, the Agrahayai, the
A'aitri, and the Asvayu^i ;

19. The seven kinds of Havirya^vzas, viz. the
Agnyadheva, the Agnihotra, the Daryapauraamasas,
the Agrayawa, the A"atiirmasyas, the NinW/zapasu-
bandha, and the Sautramam ;

20. The seven kinds of Soma-sacrifices, viz. the
Agnish/oma, the Atyagnish/oma, the Ukthya, the
Shorten, the Atiratra, and the Aptoryama ;

21. These are the forty sacraments.

22. Now (follow) the eight good qualities of the
soul,



1 8. The various Pakaya^was, named here, are fully described by
Ajvalayana Gr/hya-t>utra II, i, i II, 10, 8; Gobhila III, 10 seq. ;
Paraskara III, 3 seq. See also Max Miiller, History of Ancient
Sanskrit Literature, p. 203. The Ash/akas are sacrifices offered on
the eighth day of the dark halves of the winter months, and of those
of the dewy season, i.e. Karttika, Margajiras, Pausha, and Magha.
The .Sravawi is offered on the full moon day of the month of
.SYavaa, the Agrahayat on the fourteenth, or on the full moon day
of Marga-riras, the A'aitri on the full moon day of the A'aitra, and
the Ajvayu^-i on the full moon day of the month A-yvayu^a or
A.yvina.

1920. The Havirya^/Sfas and Soma-sacrifices are described hi
the Brahmawas and AS'rauta-sutras. Havis denotes any kind of food
used for oblations, such as clarified butter, milk, rice, meat, &c.

22. Apastamba I, 8, 23, 6.



2 1 8 GAUTAMA. VIII, 33.

23. (Viz.) compassion on all creatures, forbear-
ance, freedom from anger, purity, quietism, aus-
piciousness, freedom from avarice, and freedom from
covetousness.

24. He who is sanctified by these forty sacra-
ments, but whose soul is destitute of the eight good
qualities, will not be united with Brahman, nor does
he reach his heaven.

25. But he, forsooth, who is sanctified by a few
only of these forty sacraments, and whose soul is
endowed with the eight excellent qualities, will be
united with Brahman, and will dwell in his heaven.

CHAPTER IX.

i. Such (a man) shall bathe, after (having ful-
filled) the law (regarding studentship), take unto
him a wife, and, fulfilling the duties of a householder
which have been declared above, in addition obey
the following ordinances :

23. Haradatta explains mangalya, ' auspiciousness/ to mean
'always doing what is praised (by good men) and avoiding what
is blamed by them/ AniySsa, ' quietism,' means, according to him,
'avoiding to undertake that which causes pain to oneself, even
though it be a duty.'

IX. i. Apastamba I, n, 30, 1-4. Haradatta says that the ex-
pression sa, ' such (a man),' refers to the king and to the Brahmawa
deeply versed in the Vedas, who have been described in the pre-
ceding chapter. My MSS. insert between this and the following
one another Sutra, which has been left out in Professor Stenzler's
edition. It seems to me that it is absolutely required, and I there-
fore insert it here, together with Haradatta's comment, according
to my best copy, P.

Gautama: '(And) a Snataka (i.e. a person who has completed
his studentship, but has not yet taken a wife, shall act thus).' Hara-
datta: 'It must be understood that the word "and" has been left



IX, 7- THE DUTIES OF A SNATAKA.

2. (He shall be) always pure (and) sweet-smelling
(and) bathe frequently.

3. If he possesses wealth, he shall not be dressed
in old or dirty clothes ;

4. Nor shall he wear dyed or sumptuous gar-
ments, nor such as have been worn (before) by
others,

5. Nor a garland and shoes (that have been worn
by others).

6. (He may wear a cast-off garment) which has
been washed, if he is unable (to afford a new one).

7. He shall not allow his beard to grow without
a (sufficient) reason.

out. (The meaning is) : " And a Snataka shall obey the following
ordinances." If this Sutra were not given, those ordinances would
have to be obeyed after marriage only ; and if the preceding SGtra
(i) had not been given, before marriage only, because the term
Snataka is usually employed in that (sense) only. For this reason
both (SQtras) have been given.. Hence, though a man may not enter
another order, he shall, after taking the bath (on completion of his
studentship), obey these ordinances during his whole life. As here
(Sutra i) the word sa, "such a man," is used, a Kshatriya and
a Brahmaa only must necessarily obey the rules prescribed for
a Snataka and perform a penance for breaking them ; and the
penance for breaking the rules prescribed for a Snataka is fasting.
This is (the object of the insertion of the word sa, " such (a man)."
But, if a Vairya follows them, (his reward will be) prosperity ; if
he breaks them, he need not perform a penance. With respect to
this matter another Smr/'ti says : " The penance which is prescribed
for a breach of the Snataka laws, must be performed by a Kshatriya
and a Brahmaa alone, never by (men of) the other (caste)." '

2. Manu IV, 35.

3-4. Apastamba I, n, 30, 10-13. 5- Manu IV, 66.

6. According to Haradatta the same rule applies to garlands
and shoes.

7. Manu IV, 35. 'The expression " his beard" includes by
implication the nails and the rest As he says " without a suf-
ficient reason," he shall allow his beard to grow during the preg-



22O GAUTAMA. IX, 8.

8. He shall not carry water and fire at the same
time.

9. He shall not drink out of his joined hands.

10. He shall not sip water standing, nor (shall he
sip) water drawn up (from a well),

11. Nor (water) that is offered by a .Sudra or
an impure man, or that has been taken up with
one hand.

12. Facing or within sight of wind, fire, Brah-
ma//as, the sun, water, (images of the) gods, and
cows he shall not eject urine or faeces or other
impurities.

13. He shall not stretch out his feet towards
those divine beings.

14. He shall not remove urine or faeces with
leaves, clods of earth, or stones.

15. He shall not stand upon ashes, hair, nail
(parings), husks (of grain), pot-sherds, or impure
substances.

16. He shall not converse with barbarians, im-
pure or wicked men.

_

nancy of his wife and on other occasions. With respect to this
matter they quote the following verse : " In the sixth year and in
the sixteenth year, likewise in the year of his marriage and during
the pregnancy of his wife, he shall avoid the use of a razor." '
Haradatta.

A

8. Apastamba II, 5, 12, 9. 9. Manu IV, 63.

10. Apastamba I, 5, 16, i.

ir. Apastamba I, 4, 21 ; I, 5, 15, 3.

12. Apastamba I, n, 30, 18-20.

13. Apastamba I, n, 30, 22.

14. Apastamba I, n, 30, 21. Haradatta remarks that some
explain toshMa, ' a clod of earth,' by kapala, ' a pot-sherd.'

15. Apastamba II, 8, 20, i i-i 2. KapSla, ' pot-sherds/ may also
mean ' skull-bones.'

1 6. Manu IV, 57. Haradatta says that only a conversation,



TX, 26. THE DUTIES OF A SNATAKA. 221



17. If he has conversed (with such persons), he
shall meditate on virtuous (men) ;

1 8. Or he may speak with a Brahma/za.

19. He shall call (a cow that is) not a milch-cow,
a cow that will become a milch-cow.

20. (An event) that is not lucky (he shall call)
lucky.

21. (In speaking of) a skull (he shall use the
word) bhagala instead of kapala,

22. (And in speaking of) a rainbow, ma^iclhanus
(the jewelled bow) instead of indradhanus (Indra's
bow).

23. Let him not announce it to others, if a cow
suckles (her calf),

24. Nor let him prevent her (from doing it).

25. After conjugal intercourse he shall at once
clean himself.

26. Let him not recite the daily portion of the
Veda (lying) on that couch (on which he lies with
his wife).

properly so called, is forbidden, not to ask barbarians &c. about
the road and similar matters.

A

1 8. Compare the analogous case, mentioned Apastamba I, 3,

9. 13-

19. Apastamba I. 11,31, n.

22. Apastamba I, n, 31, 16.

23. Apastamba I, i r, 31, 10. Haradatta remarks that the pro-
hibition does not extend to those cases where the Vedic ritual
requires the fact to be pointed out. He is, of course, right in
making this statement, as an express injunction of the 6Yuti always
overrides the rules of the Smn'ti.

24. Haradatta adds that this and the preceding Sfkras include
by implication the cases where a cow does damage in a field ; see
Apastamba I, n, 31, 9.

25. Apastamba 11, i, i, 21 II, i, 2, i.

26. Apastamba I, i r, 32, 3.



222 GAUTAMA. IX, 27.

27. And when he has studied during the third
watch of the night, he shall not again retire to rest.

28. Let him not have intercourse with his wife
when she is ill,

29. Nor during her courses ;

30. Nor let him embrace her (during that period),

31. Nor an unmarried female.

32. He shall avoid to blow the fire with his
mouth, to contend with words, to show himself
covered with perfumed ointments or wearing gar-
lands, to scratch himself with any impure (imple-
ment), to take his meals with his wife, to look at
(a woman) who is anointing herself, to enter (his
village) by a back-gate, to wash one foot with the
other, to eat food deposited on a chair, to cross
a river swimming, to ascend trees and dangerous
(places), or to descend therefrom, and to imperil
his life (in any other manner).

33. Let him not ascend a ship (of) doubtful
(solidity).

34. He shall protect himself by all (possible)
means.

35. In the day-time he shall not wrap up his
head while walking about ;

36. But at night he shall cover it,

37. And while voiding urine and faeces.

27. Apastamba I, n, 32, 15.
29-30. Manu IV, 40.

32. Apastamba I, 5, 15, 20; I, ir, 32, 5; Manu IV, 43 ; Apa-
stamba I, n, 31, zi ; Manu IV, 74; Apastamba I, n, 32, 26;
I, , 32, 25.

33. Apastamba I, n, 32, 27.

35. Apastamba I, n, 30, 14. Haradatta adds that he may wrap
up his head while sitting down and in walking when the sun or
rain annoys him.



IX, 47- THE DUTIES OF A SNATAKA. 223

38. (Let him) not (ease nature) without (first)
covering the ground (with grass or the like),

39. Nor close to his dwelling,

40. Nor on ashes, on cow-dung, in a ploughed
field, in the shade (of a tree), on a road, in beautiful
(spots).

41. Let him eject both urine and faeces, facing
the north in the day-time,

42. And in the twilight,

43. But at night, facing the south.

44. Let him avoid to use a seat, clogs, a stick
for cleaning the teeth (and other implements) made
of Pala^a-wood.

45. With shoes on (his feet), he shall not eat,
sit down, salute, or worship (the gods).

46. Let him not pass idly (any part of the day,
be it) morning, midday, or evening ; (but) according
to his ability (he shall make each useful) by the
acquisition of spiritual merit or of wealth, and by
taking his pleasure.

47. But among those (three aims of human life)
he shall chiefly attend to the acquisition of spiritual
merit.



A A

38. Apastamba I, u, 30, 15. 39. Apastamba I, n, 31, 2.
40. Apastamba I, n, 30, 16 18. 41. Apastamba I, n, 31, i.
43. Apastamba I, u, 31, 3. 44. Apastamba I, n, 32, 9.

45. Apastamba I, 4, 14, 22.

46. Colebrooke, Mitakshara II, i, 22. 'He shall use the
morning, according to his ability, for acts tending to the acquisi-
tion of spiritual merit, such as reciting the Vedas; the middle part
of the day for the acquisition of wealth ; and the evening for
scenting himself, adorning himself with garlands and the like acts
giving pleasure.' Haradatta.

47. Apastamba I, 7, 20, 1-4.



224 GAUTAMA. IX, 48.

48. Let him not look at a naked woman wedded
to another man.

49. Let him not draw a seat towards himself with
his foot.

50. He shall keep his organ, his stomach, his
hands, his feet, his tongue, and his eyes under due
restraint.

51. Let him avoid to cut, to break, to scratch,
and to crush (anything), or to make (his joints)
crack, without a (sufficient) reason.

52. Let him not step 'over a rope (to which) a
calf (is tied).

53. Let him not be a stay-at-home.

54." Let him not go to (perform) a sacrifice with-
out being chosen (to officiate as priest).

55. But at his pleasure (he may go) to see it.

56. Let him not eat food (that he has placed) in
his lap,

57. Nor what has been brought at night by a
servant.

58. He shall not eat (substances) from which the
fat has been extracted, such as milk from which the
cream has separated, butter, oil-cake, buttermilk, and
the like.



48. Manu IV, 53.

50. Apastamba II, 2, 5, 19; Manu IV, 175, 177.



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