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caste (carries out the body of) one of lower caste,
(the duration of) the impurity in these (cases) is
determined by (the caste of) the dead man.

30. On touching an outcast, a Aad&la, a woman
impure on account of her confinement, a woman in
her courses, or a corpse, and on touching persons
who have touched them, he shall purify himself by
bathing dressed in his clothes,

31. Likewise if he has followed a corpse (that
was being carried out),

32. And (if he has come into contact) with a
dog.

33. Some (declare), that (the limb) which (a dog)
may touch (must be washed).

34. The Sapiwd'as shall offer (libations of) water
for (a deceased relative) whose A^aula-karman (or
tonsure) has been performed,

35. As well as for the wives and daughters of
such (a person).

36. Some (declare, that it must be done in the
case) of married female relatives (also).

the carrying out of corpses, it is impossible to agree with him.
It seems to me that Gautama's rule means, that, if a man has
carried out the corpse of a teacher, &c., he becomes impure for ten,
eleven, or twelve days, or for three days only. See also Manu V,
91, 103 ; Ya^T/avalkya III, 15.

30. Apastamba II, 2, 2, 8-9 ; Manu V, 85 ; Ya7/avalkya III, 30.

31. Manu V, 103 ; Ya^avalkya III, 26.
32-33. Apastamba I, 5, 15, 16-17.

34. Apastamba II, 6, 15, 9; Manu V, 70. Haradatta observes
that most Gr/hya-sutras prescribe the performance of the Aaula-
karman in the third year.

36. Ya^Tzavalkya III, 4.



254 GAUTAMA. XIV, 37.

37. (During the period of impurity) all (the
mourners) shall sleep and sit on the ground and
remain chaste.

38. They shall not clean (themselves) ;

39. Nor shall they eat meat until (the funeral
oblation) has been offered.

40. On the first, third, fifth, seventh, and ninth
(days after the death) water (mixed with sesamum)
must be offered.

41. And the garments (worn during that cere-
mony) must be changed,

42. But on the last (day they must be given) to
men of the lowest castes.

43. The parents (shall offer water for a son who
dies) after he has teethed.

44. If infants, (relatives) who live in a distant
country, those who have renounced domestic life,
and those who are not Sapiwrf'as, (die), the purifica-
tion is instantaneous.

45. Kings (remain always pure), lest their busi-
ness be impeded,

46. And a Brahma^a, lest his daily study of the
Veda be interrupted.

37. Manu V, 73 ; Ya^navalkya HI, 16.
. 39. Manu V, 73. 43. Manu V, 70.

44. Y%avalkya III, 23. Haradatta remarks that the rule
refers to those Sapi<fos residing in foreign countries only, of
whose death one may hear a year after their decease, and to
remoter relations of whose death one hears after the lapse of
ten days; see Manu V, 75-76.

45. Manu V, 93-94; Yag7?avalkya III, 27. Haradatta adds
that the plural 'kings' is used in order to include all rulers and
governors, and such persons as the king wishes to be pure.

46. Ya^avalkya III, 28.



XV, g. FUNERAL OBLATIONS. 255

CHAPTER XV.

1. Now (follow the rules regarding) funeral obla-
tions (6raddha).

2. He shall offer (them) to the Manes on the day
of the new moon,

3. Or in the dark half (of the month) after the
fourth (lunar day),

4. Or on any day (of the dark half) according to
(the results he may) desire ;

5. Or if (particularly appropriate) materials or
(particularly holy) Brahmawas are at hand, or (the
sacrificer is) near a (particularly sacred) place, no
restriction as to time (need be observed) :

6. Let him select as good food as he can afford,
and have it prepared as well as possible.

7. He shall feed an uneven number (of Brah-
mawas), at least nine,

8. Or as many as he is able (to entertain).

9. (Let him feed such as are) .Srotriyas and

XV. i . ' The word " now " indicates that a new topic begins/
Haradatta. The rules now following refer in the first instance to
the Parvaa or monthly Sraddha, but most of them serve also as
general rules for all the numerous varieties of funeral sacrifices.

2. Manu III, 122 ; Ya^Tavalkya 1, 217.

3. Apastamba. II, 7, 16, 6. 4. Apastamba II, 7, 16, 6 22.

5. Some of the most famous among the places where the per-
formance of a Sra'ddha is particularly efficacious and meritorious
are Gaya in BihSr, Pushkara or Pokhar near Agmu, the Kuru-
kshetra near Dehli, Nasika on the GodSvart Pilgrims or persons
passing through such places may and must perform a .S'raddha
on any day of the month.

7. Ya^avalkya I, 227. 8. See also below, Sutra 21.

9. Apastamba II, 7. 17, 4. Haradatta explains vak, 'eloquence,'
by ' ability to speak Sanskrit,' rupa, ' beauty.' by 'the proper number
of limbs,' and vaya//sampanna, 'cf (suitable) age/ by 'not too young/



256 GAUTAMA. XV, TO,

endowed with eloquence and beauty, of a (suitable)
age, and of a virtuous disposition.

10. It is preferable to give (food at a .Sraddha) to
young (men in ,the prime of life).

11. Some (declare, that the age of the guests
shall be) proportionate to (that of) the Manes.

12. And he shall not try to contract a friendship
by an (invitation to a vSraddha).

13. On failure of sons (the deceased person's)
Sapi</as, the Sapi^as of his mother, or his pupils
shall offer (the funeral oblations),

14. On failure of these an officiating priest or the
teacher.

15. The Manes are satisfied for a month by
gifts of sesamum, Masha-beans, rice, barley, and
water,

For (three) years by fish and the flesh of common
deer, spotted deer, hares, turtles, boars, and sheep,

For twelve years by cow's milk and messes made
of milk,

For a very long time by the flesh of (the crane
called) Vardhrlwasa, by Ocymum sanctum (sacred
Basil), and by the flesh of goats, (especially) of a red
(he-goat), and of a rhinoceros, (if these dishes are)
mixed with honey.

1 6. Let him not feed a thief, a eunuch, an out-
cast, an atheist, a person who lives like an atheist,



11. I.e. in honour of the father a young man is to be invited,
in honour of the grandfather an old man, and in honour of the
great-grandfather a very old man.

12. Apastamba II, 7, 17, 4, 8; Manu III, 140.

15. Apastamba II, 7, 16, 23 II, 7, 17, 3; II, 8, 18, 13.

1 6. Apastamba II. 7, 17, 21. 'A destroyer of the sacred fire
(virahan), i.e. one \vho extinguishes intentionally the (domestic) fire



XT, 18. FUNERAL OBLATIONS. 257

the destroyer of the sacred fire, (the husband of) a
younger sister married before the elder, the hus-
band of an elder sister whose youngest sister was
married first, a person who sacrifices for women or
for a multitude of men, a man who tends goats,
who has given up the fire-worship, who drinks
spirituous liquor, whose conduct is blamable, who is
a false witness, who lives as a door-keeper ;

1 7. Who lives with another man's wife, and the
(husband) who allows that (must not be invited) ;

1 8. (Nor shall he feed) a man who eats the food
of a person born from adulterous intercourse, a
seller of Soma, an incendiary, a poisoner, a man who
during studentship has broken the vow of chastity,
who is the servant of a guild, who has intercourse
with females who must not be touched, who de-
lights in doing hurt, a younger brother married
before the elder brother, an elder brother married
after his younger brother, an elder brother whose



out of hatred against his wife, and for the like reasons.' Haradatta.
He also remarks that some read agredidhishu instead of agredi-
dhishu, and he proposes to explain the former, on the authority of
Yyaghra and of the Naigha^/ukas, as ' a Brahmawa whose wife has
been wedded before to another man.'

17. My MSS. make two Sutras out of Professor Stenzler's one,
and read upapatLfc \ yasya ^a saA. The sense remains the same,
but the latter version of the text is, I think, the correct one.

1 8. Haradatta says that ku</a.rin may also mean 'he who eats
out of a vessel called ku</a,' as the people have in some countries
the habit of preparing their food and afterwards eating out of the
kuwda. Haradatta explains tyaktatman, 'one who despairs of
himself,' by ' one who has made an attempt on his own life, and
has tried to hang himself, and the like.' He remarks that some
explain durvala, ' a. bald man,' by nirvesh/ita^epha. He who
neglects the recitation of the sacred texts, i.e. of those texts which,
like the Gayatri, ought to be recited.

[2] S



258 GAUTAMA. XV, 19.

junior has kindled the sacred fire first, a younger
brother who has done that, a person who despairs
of himself, a bald man, a man who has deformed
nails, or black teeth, who suffers from white leprosy,
the son of a twice-married woman, a gambler, a
man who neglects the recitation (of the sacred
texts), a servant of the king, any one who uses
false weights and measures, whose only wife is a
.Sudra female, who neglects the daily study, who
suffers from spotted leprosy, a usurer, a person who
lives by trade or handicrafts, by the use of the bow,
by playing musical instruments, or, by beating time,
by dancing, and by singing ;

19. Nor, (sons) who have enforced a division of
the family estate against the wish of their father.

20. Some (allow) pupils and kinsmen (to be in-
vited).

21. Let him feed upwards of tjhree (or) one
(guest) endowed with (particularly) excellent qua-
lities.

22. If he enters the bed of a .Sudra female im-
mediately after partaking of a funeral repast, his
ancestors will lie for a month in her ordure.

23. Therefore he shall remain chaste on that day.

19. Below, XXVIII, 2, it will be prescribed that the division of
the family estate may take place during the lifetime of the father
with his consent. From this Sutra it would appear that sons
could enforce a division of the ancestral estate against his will,
as . Ya^wavalkya also allows (see Colebrooke, Mitakshara I, 6,
5-1 1), and that this practice, though legal, was held to be contra
bonos mores.

ao. Apastamba II, 7, 17, 5-6.

21. According to Haradatta, this Sutra is intended as a modi-
fication of Sutra 8.

22. Manu III, 250. 23. Manu III, 188.



XVI, r. THE STUDY OF THE VEDA. 259

24. If (a funeral offering) is looked at by dogs,
A'awdalas, or outcasts, it is blemished.

25. Therefore he shall offer it in an enclosed
(place),

26. Or he shall scatter grains of sesamum over it,

27. Or a man who sanctifies the company shall
remove the blemish.

28. Persons who sanctify the company are, any
one who knows the six Ahgas, who sings the Gye-
sh^a-samans, who knows the three texts regarding
the Naiketa-fire, who knows the text which con-
tains thrice the word Madhu, who knows the text
which thrice contains the word Supara, who keeps
five fires, a Snataka, any one who knows the Man-
tras and Brahma^as, who knows the sacred law,
and in whose family the study and teaching of the
Veda are hereditary.

29. (The same rule applies) to sacrifices offered
to gods and men.

30. Some (forbid the invitation of) bald men and
the rest to a funeral repast only.

CHAPTER XVI.

i. The annual (term for studying the Veda) be-
gins on the full moon of the month Sra.va.na. (July-
August) ; or let him perform the Upakarman on



24. Apastamba II, 7, 17, 20. 28. Apastamba II. 7, 17, 22.

29-30. Manu III, 132-137, 148-149.

XVI. i. Apastamba I, 3, 9, i. The Upakarman is the ceremony
which is annually performed at the beginning of the course of
study, and it is obligatory on householders also; see Apastamba
II, 2, 5, i. A^andS/ttsi, 'the Vedic texts,' i.e. the Mantras and
Brahmaas. The Angas may be studied out of term ; see Apa-
stamba I, 3, 9, 3 note.

S 2



260 GAUTAMA. XVI, 2.

(the full moon of) Bhadrapada (August-September)
and study the Vedic texts,

2. During four months and a half, or during five
months, or as long as the sun moves towards the
south.

3. Let him remain chaste, let him not shave, nor
eat flesh (during that period) ;

4. Or (this) restrictive rule may (be observed)
during two months.

5. He shall not recite the Veda, if the wind
whirls up the dust in the day-tirne,

6. Nor if it is audible at night,

7. Nor if the sound of a Vaa, of a large or
a small drum, the noise of a chariot, and the wail
of a person in pain (are heard),

8. Nor if the barking of many dogs and jackals,
or the braying of many donkeys (is heard),

9. Nor if (the sky appears flaming) red, a rainbow
(is seen), or hoar-frost (lies on the ground),

10. Nor if clouds rise out of season.

11. (Let him not study) when he feels the neces-
sity to void urine or excrements,

12. Nor at midnight, in the twilight, and (while
standing) in the water,

13. Nor while rain falls.

2. Apastamba I, 3, 9, 2-3.

3. This Sutra and the following one refer to a teacher or to a
householder who again goes through the Veda; see Apastamba II,
2, 5> i5> A i6.

5-6. Apastamba I, 3, n, 8.

7-8. Apastamba I, 3, 10, 19. A V&a is stated to be a kind of
lute, or harp, with a hundred strings.

9. Apastamba I, 3, n, 25, 31.

10. Apastamba I, 3, n, 31. n. Manu IV, 109.

12. Apastamba I, 3, n, 15, 17; Manu IV, 109.

13. Manu IV, 103. *



XVI, 23. THE STUDY OF THE VEDA. 26 1

14. Some (declare, that the recitation of the Veda
must be interrupted only) when (the rain) is dripping
from the edge of the roof.

15. (Nor shall he study) when the teachers (of
the gods and Asuras, i.e. the planets Jupiter and
Venus) are surrounded by a halo,

1 6. Nor (when this happens) to the two (great)
lights (the sun and the moon),

1 7. (Nor) while he is in fear, riding in a carriage
or on beasts of burden, or lying down, nor while his
feet are raised,

1 8. (Nor) in a burial-ground, at the extremity of
a village, on a high-road, nor during impurity,

19. Nor while a foul smell (is perceptible), while
a corpse or a A'a^ala (is) in (the village), nor in the
neighbourhood of a .Sudra,

20. Nor while (he suffers from) sour eructations.

2 1 . The /fog-veda and the Ya^ur-veda (shall not be
studied) while the sound of the Samans (is heard).

22. The fall of a thunderbolt, an earthquake, an
eclipse, and (the fall of) meteors (are reasons for
discontinuing the reading of the Veda) until the
same time (next day),

23. Likewise when it thunders and rains and

15. 'Another (commentator says): " Pariveshaa, being sur-
rounded by a halo, means bringing food." . . . (The Sutra means,
therefore), He shall not study while his teacher eats.' Haradatia.

1 6. Apastamba I, 3, ir, 31.

17. Apastamba I, 3, 9, 27; I, 3, n, 12; Manu IV, 112;
Ya^wavalkya I, 150.

1 8. Apastamba I, 3, 9, 4, 6; I, 3, to, 2, 4 ; I, 3, n, 9.

19. Apastamba I, 3, 10, 24; I, 3, 9, 6, 14-15-

20. Apastamba I, 3, 10, 25. 21. Apastamba I, 3, 10, 19.

22. Apastamba I, 3, n, 30.

23. Apastamba I, 3, n, 29; Manu IV, 29.



262 GAUTAMA. XVI, 24.

when lightning (flashes out of season) after the fires
have become visible (in the twilight).

24. (If these phenomena appear) during the
(rainy) season, (the reading must be interrupted)
for a day (or a night),

25. And if lightning (is observed) during the
night, (the recitation of the Veda shall be inter-
rupted) until the third watch.

26. If (lightning) flashes during the third part
of the day or later, (the Veda must not be read)
during the entire (following night).

27. (According to the opinion) of some, a fiery
meteor (has the same effect) as lightning,

28. Likewise thunder (which is heard) during the
last part of the day,

29. (Or) also in the twilight.

A

24. Apastamba I, 3, 9, 22. The above translation follows the
reading of my MSS., which differ very much from Professor
Stenzler's edition. According to them the commentary on the
latter part of Sutra 23 and on Sutra 24 runs as follows : . . . pra-
tyekam akalika anadhyayahelava// I apart&v idam I r/tav aha II

AHA JWTAU n 24 tl

Varshartiv ete yadi bhaveyuA sandhyaya/n tadaharmStram ana-
dhyayaA I prataj^et I saya/ tu ratrav anadhyaya ityarthasiddhatvSd
anuktam li . . . 'are each reasons for discontinuing the recita-
tion until the same time next day. This (rule) refers to other
times than the rainy season. He now declares (the rule) for the
Tainy season :

24. "During the (rainy) season for a day."

' If these (phenomena) happen in the twilight during the rainy
season, the interruption of the study lasts for that day only, pro-
vided (they happen) in the morning. But if they happen in 'the
evening, study is forbidden during the night. As this is clear
from the context, it has not been declared specially/ Haradatta.
I suspect that Professor Stenzler' spreading apartau is a correction,
made by an ingenious Pandit, of an old varia lectio ' ahartau ' for
aha nltau, which is found in one of my MSS. (C) also.

25. Apastamba I, 3, 9, 21.



XVI, 37- THE STUDY OF THE VEDA. 263

30. (If thunder is heard) before midnight, (the
study of the Veda must be interrupted) during the
whole night.

31. (If it is heard) during the (early part of the)
day, (the interruption must continue) as long as the
sun shines,

32. Likewise if the king of the country has died.

33. If one (pupil) has gone on a journey (and)
another (stays) with (the teacher, the study of the
Veda shall be interrupted until the absentee re-
turns).

34. When an attack (is made on the village),
or a fire (breaks out), when one Veda has been
completed, after (an attack of) vomiting, when he
has partaken of a funeral repast or of a dinner on
the occasion of a sacrifice offered to men, (the study
of the Veda shall be interrupted) for a day and
a night,

35. Likewise on the day of the new moon.

36. (On the latter occasion it may also be inter-
rupted) for two days*

37. (The Veda shall not be studied for a day
and a night) on the full moon days of the months
Karttika, Phalgua, and Ashad^a.

30. Apastamba I, 3, 9, 23.

33. Apastamba I, 3, n, n. Haradatta adds that others
enjoin a stoppage of the Veda-study from the hour of the de-
parture until the same hour on the following day, while another
commentator gives the following explanation: 'All, indeed, the
teacher and the rest, shall, on that day, not even recite the Veda
in order to remember it.'

34. Apastamba I, 3, 9, 25; I, 3, 10, 22, 28-30; I, 3, n, 6,30;
Manu IV, 118. Haradatta is in doubt whether 'a sacrifice offered
in honour of men ' means a SawskSra, or a sacrifice to gods, like
Kumara, who formerly were men; see Apastamba I, 3, n, 3.

36. Apastamba I, 3, 9, 28. 37. Apastamba I, 3, to, i.



264 GAUTAMA. XVI, 3?.

38. On the three Ash/akas (the Veda shall not
be studied) for three (days and) nights.

39. Some (declare, that the rule applies) to the
last Ash/aka (only).

40. (On the occasion of) the annual (Upakarman
and Utsarga the reading shall be interrupted) on
the day (of the ceremony) and those preceding and
following it.

41. All (teachers declare, that the reading shall
be interrupted for three days) when rain, thunder,
and lightning (are observed) simultaneously,

42. When the rain is very heavy, (the reading
shall be interrupted as long as it lasts).

43. On a festive day (the reading shall be
stopped) after the (morning) meal,

44.. And he who has begun to study (after the
Upakarman shall not read) at night for four
Muhurtas.

45. Some (declare, that the recitation of the Veda
is) always (forbidden) in a town.

46. While he is impure (he shall) not even (recite
the Veda) mentally.

38. Apastamba I, 3, 10, 2. Regarding the meaning of the word
Ash/aka, see above, VIII, 18 note.

40. Apastamba I, 3, 10, 2. 41. Apastamba I, 3, u, 27.

42. Apastamba I, 3, n, 28.

43. Haradatta explains 'a festive day' to mean the day of the
initiation and the like, but see Apastamba I, 3, n, 20.

44. Haradatta explains this Sutra as equivalent to Apastamba I,
3, 9, i. He adds that another commentator reads pradhitasya
a as a separate Sutra, interpreting it to mean, 'And a person
who has performed the Upakarman (shall not study after dinner),'
and refers the words 'at night for four Muhurtas' to the pro-
hibition to read on the evening of the thirteenth day of the dark
half of the month.

45. Manu IV, 116. 46. Apastamba I, 3, n, 25.



XVII, 6. EATING AND FORBIDDEN FOOD. 265

47. (The study) of those who offer a funeral
sacrifice (must be interrupted) until the same time
next day,

48. Even if uncooked grain is offered at the
funeral sacrifice.

49. And (those rules regarding the stoppage of
the reading must be observed), which they teach in
the several schools.

CHAPTER XVII.

1. A Brahmawa may eat the food given by twice-
born men, who are praised for (the faithful perform-
ance of their) duties,

2. And he may accept (other gifts from them).

3. Fire-wood, water, grass, roots, fruits, honey,
(a promise of) safety, food brought unsolicited, a
couch, a seat, shelter, a carriage, milk, sour milk,
(roasted) grain, small fish, millet, a garland, venison,
and vegetables, (spontaneously offered by a man) of
any (caste) must not be refused,

4. Nor anything else that may be required for
providing for (the worship of the) Manes and gods,
for Gurus and dependents.

5. If the means for sustaining life cannot (be
procured) otherwise, (they may be accepted) from



6. A herdsman, a husbandman, an acquaintance

A A

47. Apastamba ibidem. 49. Apastamba'I, 3, n, 38.

XVII. i. Apastamba I, 6, 1 8, 13.

3. Apastamba I, 6, 18, i ; I, 6, 19, 13; Manu IV, 247-250.

4. Manu IV, 251. Gurus, i.e. parents and other venerable
persons.

5. Apastamba I, 6, 18, 14.

6. Manu IV, 253; Y%avalkya I, 166.



266 GAUTAMA. XVII, 7.

of the family, a barber, and a servant are persons
whose food may be eaten,

7. And a trader, who is not (at the same time)
an artisan.

8. (A householder) shall not eat every day (the
food of strangers).

9. Food into which a hair or an insect has fallen
(must not be eaten),

10. (Nor) what has been touched by a woman
during her courses, by a black bird, or with the
foot,

11. (No,r) what has been looked at by the mur-
derer of a learned Brahmawa,

12. (Nor) what has been smelt at by a cow,

1 3. (Nor) what is naturally bad,

14. Nor (food) that (has turned) sour by itself;'
excepting sour milk,

15. (Nor) what has been cooked twice,

1 6. (Nor) what (has become) stale (by being

7. E.g. a man who sells pots, but does not make them.

8. Manu III, 104; Ya^zavalkya I, 112.

9. Apastamba I, 5, 16, 23, 26.

10. Apastamba I, 5, 16, 27, 30. Haradatta explains 'a black
bird ' by ' a crow/ and no doubt the crow, as the Jfandala. among
birds, is intended in the first instance.

11. Manu IV, 208; Ya^wavalkya I, 167.

12. Manu IV, 209; Ya^avalkya I, 168.

13. 'What has been given in a contemptuous manner by the
host, or what is not pleasing to the eater, that is called bhava-
dush/a, "naturally bad.'" Haradatta. The second seems to be
the right explanation, as food falling under the first is mentioned
below, Sutra 21.

14. Apastamba I, 5, 17, 18, 20.

15. Haradatta states that this rule does not refer to dishes
the preparation of which requires a double cooking, but to those
which ordinarily are cooked once only.

1 6 Apaatamba I, 5, 17, 17. Haradatta says that food prepared



XVII, 20. EATING AND FORBIDDEN FOOD. 267

kept), except vegetables, food that requires masti-
cation, fatty and oily substances, meat and honey.

17. (Food given) by a person who has been cast
off (by his parents), by a woman of bad character,
an Ablmasta, a hermaphrodite, a police-officer, a
carpenter, a miser, a jailer, a surgeon, one who
hunts without using the bow, a man who eats the
leavings (of others), by a multitude (of men), and by
an enemy (must not be eaten),

1.8. Nor what is given by such men who defile
the company at a funeral dinner, as have been
enumerated before bald men ;

19. (A dinner) which is prepared for no (holy)
purpose or where (the guests) sip water or rise
against the rule,

20. Or where (one's) equals are honoured in
a different manner, and persons who are not (one's)



for the morning meal and kept until supper is also called paryushita,
'stale.'

17. For this and the following Sutras, see Apastamba I, 6, 18,
16 I, 6, 19, i; Manu IV, 205-217; Ya^avalkya I, 161-165.
An Abhiwsta is a person who is wrongly or falsely accused of
a heinous crime, see Apastamba I, 9, 24, 6-9. Haradatta adduces
the explanation 'hermaphrodite' for anapade-rya as the opinion of
others. He himself thinks that it means 'a person not worthy to
be described or named.' ' One who hunts without using the bow '
is a poacher who snares animals. Snaring animals is a favourite
occupation of the non-Aryan tribes, such as VSghris, Bhils, and
Kolis.

1 8. See above, XV, 15-18, where 'bald men' occupy the four-
teenth place in Sutra 18.

19. Apastamba I, 5, 17, 3; Manu IV, 212. That is called 'food



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