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(prepared) for no (sacred) purpose' which a man cooks only for
himself, not for guests and the rest, see Apastamba II, 4, 8, 4 ;
Manu V, 7.

.20. Apastamba I, 5, 17, 2.

268 GAUTAMA. XVII, 21.

equals are honoured in the same manner (as oneself,
must not be eaten),

21. Nor (food that is given) in a disrespectful

22. And the milk which a cow gives during the
first ten days after calving (must not be drunk),

23. Nor (that) of goats and buffalo-cows (under
the same conditions).

24. (The milk) of sheep, camels, and of one-
hoofed animals must not be drunk under any cir-

25. Nor (that) of animals from whose udders the
milk flows spontaneously, of those that bring forth
twins, and of those giving milk while big with

26. Nor the milk of a cow whose calf is dead
or separated from her.

27. And five-toed animals (must) not (be eaten)
excepting the hedgehog, the hare, the porcupine,
the iguana, the rhinoceros, and the tortoise,

28. Nor animals which have a double row of
teeth, those which are covered with an excessive
quantity of hair, those which have no hair, one-
hoofed animals, sparrows, the (heron called) Plava,
Brahman! ducks, and swans,

21. Apastamba I, 5, 17, 4.

22-23. Apastamba I, 5, 17, 24.

24. Apastamba I, 5, 17, 23. 25. Apastamba I, 5, 17, 23.

26. Manu V, 8; Ya^wavalkya I, 170.

27. Apastamba I, 5, 17,37.

28. Apastamba I, 5, 17, 29, 33, 35. Haradatta gives as an
example of ' animals covered with an excessive quantity of hair '
the Yak or Bos grunniens, and of ' those that have no hair ' snakes
and the like.


29. (Nor) crows, herons, vultures, and falcons,
(birds) born in the water, (birds) with red feet and
beaks, tame cocks and pigs,

30. (Nor) milch-cows and draught-oxen,

31. Nor the flesh of animals whose milk-teeth
have not fallen out, which are diseased, nor the
meat of those (which have been killed) for no
(sacred) purpose,

32. Nor young sprouts, mushrooms, garlic, and
substances exuding (from trees),

33. Nor red (juices) which issue from incisions.

34. Woodpeckers, egrets, ibis, parrots, cormo-
rants, peewits, and flying foxes, (as well as birds)
flying at night, (ought not to be eaten).

35. Birds that feed striking with their beaks,
or scratching with their feet, and are not web-
footed may be eaten,

36. And fishes that are not misshapen,

29. Apastamba I, 5, 17, 29, 32, 34, 35; Ya^7avalkya I, 173.

30. Apastamba I, 5, 17, 29-30.

31. Aitareya-brahmawa VII, 14. For the explanation of vr/tha-
ma/wsa, ' the flesh (of animals killed) for no (sacred) purpose,'
Haradatta refers back to Sutra 19, but see also the Petersburg
Diet. s. v. vn'tha 1 .


32. Apastamba I, 5, 17, 26, 28; Manu V, 5, 6, 19.

34. Manu V, 12; Y%wavalkya I, 173. Haradatta explains
mandhala by vagvada, which seems to be the same as the bird
vagguda (Manu XII, 64). Mandhala is not found in our dic-
tionaries, but it apparently is a vicarious form for mSnthala, which
occurs in the Va^-asaneyi-eawhita, and is said to be the name of
a kind of mouse or rat. It seems to me that the large herbivorous
bat, usually called the flying fox (in Gu^aratt vagud or vagul) is
really meant, which, by an inaccurate observer, might be described
both as a bird and as a kind of rat. See also VasishMa XIV, 48.

35. Apastamba I, 5, 17, 32-33.

36. Apastamba I, 5, 17, 38-39.

270 GAUTAMA. XVII, 37.

37. And (animals) that must be slain for (the
fulfilment of) the sacred lav/.

38. Let him eat (the flesh of animals) killed by
beasts of prey, after having washed it, if no blemish
is visible, and if it is declared to be fit for use by
the word (of a Brahmawa).


1. A wife is not independent with respect to (the
fulfilment of) the sacred law.

2. Let her not violate her duty towards her

3. Let her restrain her tongue, eyes, and (organs
of) action.

4. A woman whose husband is dead and who de-
sires offspring (may bear a son) to her brother-in-law.

37. I.e. animals offered at .Sraddhas and .SYauta-sacrifices,
though under other circumstances forbidden, may be eaten both
by the priests and other Brahmaas.

38. Haradacta takes vyala, 'beasts of prey,' to mean sporting
dogs, which no doubt are also intended.

XVIII. i. Manu V, 155. This Sutra refers in the first instance
to the inability of wives to offer on their own account Srauta or
Gr*"hya-sacrifices, or to perform vows and religious ceremonies
prescribed in the Puraas, without the permission of their husbands.
As the word stri means both wife and woman, its ulterior meaning
is, that women in general are never independent ; see Manu V, 1 48 ;
IX, 3 ; Ya^Tzavalkya I, 85.

2. Apastamba II, 10, 27, 6; Manu IX, 102.

3. Manu V, 166; Ya^avalkya I, 87.

4. Apastamba II, 10, 27, 2-3; Manu IX, 59-60; Ya^avalkya
I, 68. Apati, ' she whose husband is dead,' means literally, ' she
who has no husband.' But as the case of a woman whose husband
has gone abroad, is discussed below, it follows that the former
translation alone is admissible. It must, of course, be understood
that the widow has no children.

XVIII, 14- WOMEN. 271

5. Let her obtain the permission of her Gurus,
and let her have intercourse during the proper
season only.

6. (On failure of a brother-in-law she may obtain
offspring) by (cohabiting with) a Sapix/dfa, a Sagotra,
a Samcinapravara, or one who belongs to the same

7. Some (declare, that she shall cohabit) with
nobody but a brother-in-law.

8. (She shall) not (bear) more than two (sons).

9. The child belongs to him who begat it,

10. Except if an agreement (to the contrary has
been made).

1 1 . (And the child begotten at) a living husband's
(request) on his wife (belongs to the husband).

12. (But if it was begotten) by a stranger (it
belongs) to the latter,

13. Or to both (the natural father and the
husband of the mother).

14. But being reared by the husband, (it belongs
to him.)

5. The Gurus are here the husband's relatives, under whose
protection the widow lives.

6. Regarding the term SapiWa, see above, XIV, 13; a Sagotra
is a relative bearing the same family name (laukika gotra) removed
seven to thirteen degrees, or still further. A Samanapravara is
one who is descended from the same JRt'shi (vaidika gotra).

8. Colebrooke V, Digest 265. Haradatta explains atidvitiya, ' not
more than two (sons)/ to mean ' not more than one son ' (prathamam
apatyam atitya dvitiyam na^anayed iti). But see Manu IX, 61.

9. Apastamba II, 6, 13, 6-7. 10. Manu IX, 52.

it. Manu IX, 145. Such a son is called Kshetra^a, see below,

12. Manu IX, 144.

13. Ya^wavalkya II, 127. Such a son is called dvipitri or


15. (A wife must) wait for six years, if her
husband has disappeared. If he is heard of, she
shall go to him.

1 6. But if (the husband) has renounced domestic
life, (his wife must refrain) from intercourse (with
other men).

1 7. (The wife) of a Brahmawa (who has gone to
a foreign country) for the purpose of studying (must
wait) twelve years.

1 8. And in like manner if an elder brother (has
gone to a foreign country) his younger brother (must
wait twelve years) before he takes a wife or kindles
the domestic fire.

1 9. Some (declare, that he shall wait) six years.

20. A (marriageable) maiden (who is not given
in marriage) shall allow three monthly periods to
pass, and afterwards unite herself, of her own will,
to a blameless man, giving up the ornaments received
from her father (or her family).

21. A girl should be given in marriage before
(she attains the age of) puberty.

22. He who neglects it, commits sin.

15. Manu IX, 76. ' When the husband has disappeared, i. e. has
gone to a foreign country, his wife, though childless, shall wait
for six years. After (the lapse of) that (period) she may, if she
desires it, produce a child (by cohabiting with a SapiWa), after
having been authorised thereto by her Gurus. If the husband
is heard of, i.e. that he dwells in such and such a country, she
shall go to him.' Haradatta. Kshapawa, ' waiting,' is ambiguous,
and may also mean being continent or emaciating herself.

17. I.e. before she goes to live with a Sapinda., or tries to
follow her husband, in case his residence is known.

20. Manu IX, 90-92 ; Ya^wavalkya I, 64.

21. Manu IX, 88.

22. Manu IX, 4 ; Ya^avalkya I, 64. ' He who/ i.e. the father
or guardian.

XVIII, 3i. WOMEN. 273

23. Some (declare, that a girl shall be given in
marriage) before she wears clothes.

24. In order to defray the expenses of a wedding,
and when engaged in a rite (enjoined by) the sacred
law, he may take money (by fraud or force) from
a .Sudra,

25. Or from a man rich in small cattle, who
neglects his religious duties, though he does not
belong to the ,5udra caste,

26. Or from the owner of a hundred cows, who
does not kindle the sacred fire,

27. Or from the owner of a thousand cows, who
does not drink Soma.

28. And when he has not eaten (at the time of
six meals he may take) at the time of the seventh
meal (as much as will sustain life), not (such a
quantity as will serve) to make a hoard,

29. Even from men who do not neglect their

30. If he is examined by the king (regarding
his deed), he shall confess (it and his condition).

31. For if he possesses sacred learning and a
good character, he must be maintained by the

24. Manu XI, u, 13. Haradatta explains dharmatantra, 'a rite
prescribed by the sacred law,' here, as well as Sutra 32, by 'the
means/ i.e. a sacrificial animal and the like required by one who
is engaged in performing a sacred duty, i. e. a Pajubandha-sacrifice
and the like.

25. Manu XI, 12. 26-27. Manu XI, 14.
28. Manu XI, 16; Ya^wavalkya III, 43.

30. Manu XI, 17 ; Ya^wavalkya III, 43-44.

31. Manu XI, 21-22. Haradatta adds that a Brahmana who
acts thus, must, of course, not be punished.

[] T


32. If the sacred law is violated and the (king)
does not do (his duty), he commits sin.


1. The law of castes and of orders has been

2. Now, indeed, man (in) this (world) is polluted
by a vile action, such as sacrificing for men unworthy
to offer a sacrifice, eating forbidden food, speaking
what ought not to be spoken, neglecting what is
prescribed, practising what is forbidden.

3. They are in doubt if he shall perform a
penance for such (a deed) or if he shall not do it,

4. (Some) declare, that he shall not do it,

32. Haradatta refers this Sutra to the case where a sacrificial
animal or other requisites for a sacrifice are stolen from a Brah-
maa. It seems, however, more probable that it refers to the duty
of the king to prevent, by all means in his power, a violation of
the sacred duty to perform -Srauta- sacrifices, and that it is intended
to prescribe that he is to assist a man who is engaged in them
and too poor to finish them.

XIX. i. Haradatta thinks that the object of this Sutra is to
assert that in the following chapter the laws given above for castes
and orders must be kept in mind. Thus penances like offering
a Punastoma are not intended for Sudras, who have no business
with Vedic rites, but other penances are. He also states that another
commentator believes that the Sutra is meant to indicate that the
following rules refer not merely to those men who belong to castes
and orders, but to the Pratilomas also, who have been declared
to stand outside the pale of the sacred law, Haradatta's opinion
appears to be preferable.

2. l Ayam purusha^, "man (in) this (world)," indicates the
universal soul which is dwelling in the body. Yapya, "vile,"
i.e. despicable (kutsita).' Haradatta.

3. ' They, i.e. the theologians (brahmava'dina/fc).' Haradatta.

XIX, 12. PENANCES. 27$

5. Because the deed does not perish.

6. The most excellent (opinion is), that he shall
perform (a penance).

7. For it is declared in the Veda, that he who
has offered a Pimastoma (may) again come to (par-
take of) the libations of Soma,

8. Likewise he who has offered a Vrtyastoma

9. (The Veda says) further : * H e who offers
a horse -sacrifice, conquers all sin, he destroys the
guilt of the murder of a Brahma/za:

10. Moreover: 'He shall make an Abhwasta
perform an Agnish/ut sacrifice.'

11. Reciting the Veda, austerity, a sacrifice,
fasting, giving gifts are the means for expiating
such a (blamable act).

12. The purificatory (texts are), the Upanishads,
the Vedantas, the Sawhita-text of all the Vedas,
the (Anuvakas called) Madhu, the (hymn of)

5. I.e. the guilt (adharma) contracted by the deed is not effaced
before it has produced its result in the shape of punishment in
hell and in other births, see also Manu XI, 45.

6. ' Apara, " most excellent." means that which nothing sur-
passes, i.e. the settled doctrine.' Haradatta.

7. The Punastoma is one of the .Srauta- sacrifices belonging
to the class called Ekaha. Regarding its efficacy, see also La/yS-
yana .SYauta-sutra IX, 4, 5.

8. The Vratyastoma is another Ekaha-sacrifke. Regarding its
efficacy, see Ya^-avalkya I, 38 : La/yayana Srautra-stitraVIII, 6, 29.

9. .Satapatha-brahmawa XIII, 3, r, i.

10. The Agnish/ut is an Fkaha-sacritice. Regarding its efficacy,
see Manu XI, 75.

ti. Manu XI, 46, 228; Apastamba I, 9, 26, 12 I, 9. 27, n.

12, 'Those parts of the Arayakas which are not (Upanishads)

are called Vedantas. In all the Vedas (Mandas), i.e. in all S"akhas

(prava^ana), the Sa7hita-text, not the Pada-text, nor the Krama-

text. Another commentator says, "One Sawhita is to be made

T 2

276 GAUTAMA. XIX, 13.

Aghamarshawa, the Atharva^iras, the (Anuvakas
called the) Rudras, the Purusha-hymn, the two
Samans (called) Rifana and Rauhi/zeya, the Brzhat
(Saman) and the Rathantara, the Purushagati (Sa-
man), the Mahanamnis, the Mahavaira^a (Saman),
the Mahadivakirtya (Saman), any of the ^yeshMa
Samans, the Bahishpavamana (Saman), the Kush-
mattdfos, the Pavamanis, and the Savitrl.

13. To live on milk alone, to eat vegetables only,
to eat fruits only, (to live on) barley-gruel prepared
of a handful of grain, to eat gold, to eat clarified
butter, and to drink Soma (are modes of living)
which purify.

14. All mountains, all rivers, holy lakes, places
of pilgrimage, the dwellings of ./foshis, cow-pens, and
temples of the gods (are) places (which destroy

with all the metres, i. e. the Gayatri and the rest, and to be recited
according to the manner of the Prataranuvaka/" Haradatta.
According to the same authority, the Madhus are found Taittiriya
Arayaka X, 38, the hymn of Aghamarshawa Rig-veda X, 190, the
Rudras Taittiriya-sa/whita IV, 5, i-n, and in the correspoi ding
eleven chapters of all other Ya^us-jakh4s, the Purushasukta Rig-
veda X, 90, the KushmaWas Taittirfya Arayaka X, 3-5, the
Pavamanis Rig-veda IX, while by Atharva-riras the Upanishad,
known by that name, is meant. As regards the Samans mentioned
in the Sutra it suffices to refer to Professor Benfey's Index, Ind.
Stud. Ill, 199, and to Dr. Burnell's Index of the Arsheya-brahmawa.

13. According to Haradatta the word id, which appears in the
text at the end of the enumeration, is intended to include other
similar kinds of food, as ' the five products of the cow/ Eating
gold means eating small particles of gold which have been thrown
into clarified butter and the like.

14. The word iti used in the text is, according to Haradatta,
again to be taken in the sense of ' and so forth.' The translation
of parishkanda, ' a temple/ not parishkandha, as Professor Sleazier


15. Continence, speaking the truth, bathing morn-
ing, noon, and evening, standing in wet clothes,
sleeping on the ground, and fasting (are the various
kinds of) austerity.

1 6. Gold, a cow, a dress, a horse, land, sesamum,
clarified butter, and food are the gifts (which destroy

17. A year, six months, four (months), three
(months), two (months), one (month), twenty-four
days, twelve days, six days, three days, a day and
a night are the periods (for penances).

1 8. These (acts) may be optionally performed
when no (particular penance) has been prescribed,

19. (Viz.) for great sins difficult (pena t nces), and
for trivial faults easy ones.

20. The Y^rikkhvaL. and the Atikr//^^ra, (as
well as) the Alandrayawa, are penances for all


i. Let him cast off a father who assassinates a
king, who sacrifices for .Sudras, who sacrifices for

reads, is based on Haradatta's explanation. Etymologically it
seems to mean ' a place for circumambulation/ and to denote the
platform on which the temples usually stand, and which is used for
the Pradakshia ceremony.

15. The word iti in the text is explained as in the preceding

1 8. These (acts), i.e. the recitation of the Veda and so forth,
which have been enumerated above, Sutras n 16.

20. Regarding these penances, see chapters XXVI and XX VII.
Haradaita again takes the word iti, which occurs in the text, to
include other difficult penances.

XX. i. Haradatta remarks that the father is mentioned here,
in order to indicate that other less venerable relatives must certainly

278 GAUTAMA. XX. 2.

his own sake (accepting) money from ^SYidras, who
divulges the Veda (to persons not authorised to
study it), who kills a learned Brahmawa, who dwells
with men of the lowest castes, or (cohabits) with a
female of one of the lowest castes.

2. Having assembled the (sinner's) spiritual Gurus
and the relatives by marriage, (the sons and other
kinsmen) shall perform (for him) all the funeral
rites, the first of which is the libation of water,

3. And (afterwards) they shall overturn his water-
vessel (in the following manner) :

4. A slave or a hired servant shall fetch an
impure vessel from a dust-heap, fill it (with water
taken) from the pot of a female slave and, his face
turned towards the south, upset it with his foot,
pronouncing (the sinner's) name (and saying) : ' I
deprive N. N. of water.'

5. All (the kinsmen) shall touch him (the slave)
passing their sacrificial cords over the right shoulder
and under the left arm, and untying the locks on
their heads.

6. The spiritual Gurus and the relatives by
marriage shall look on.

7. Having bathed, they (all shall) enter the

8. He who afterwards unintentionally speaks to

also be abandoned. He also states that bhrurcahan, ' he who slays
a learned Brahmana/ includes sinners who have committed other
mortal sins (mahapataka), see XXI, i.

2. Manu XI, 183-185; Ya^avalkya III, 295. The spiritual
Gurus, i. e. the teacher who initiated him (a^arya) and those who
instructed him in the Veda (upidhyaya).

8. Manu XI, 185.

XX, 17- PENANCES. 279

the (outcast sinner) shall stand, during one night,
reciting the Savitri.

9. If he intentionally (converses with the out-
cast, he must perform the same penance) for three

10. But if an (outcast sinner) is purified by
(performing) a penance, (his kinsmen) shall, after
he has become pure, fill a golden vessel (with water)
from a very holy lake or a river, and make him
bathe in water (taken) from that (vessel).

1 1. Then they shall give him that vessel and he,
after taking it, shall mutter (the following Mantras) :
' Cleansed is the sky, cleansed is the earth, cleansed
and auspicious is the middle sphere ; I here take
that which is brilliant.'

1 2. Let him offer clarified butter, (reciting) these
Ya/iis formulas, the Pavamanls, the Taratsamandis,
and the Kushma/wfas.

13. Let him present gold or a cow to a Brah-

14. And to his teacher.

15. But he, whose penance lasts for his (whole)
lifetime, will be purified after death.

1 6. Let (his kinsmen) perform for him all the
funeral rites, the first of which is the libation of

17. This same (ceremony of bathing in) water

10. Manu XI, 187-188 ; Ya^avalkya III, 296.

11. As appears from Gobhila Gr/hya-sutra III, 4, 16, the noun
to be understood is apam a%ali/fr, ' a handful of water.'

12. Haradatta refers the term Pavamanis here to Taittiriya-
brahmawa I, 4, 8. The Taratsamandfs are found Rig-veda IX, 58.

17. ' " Water (consecrated) for the sake of purification " means


consecrated for the sake of purification (must be
performed) in the case of all minor offences (upapa-


1. The murderer of a Brahma^a, he who drinks
spirituous liquor, the violator of a Guru's bed, he
who has connection with the female relatives of his
mother and of his father (within six degrees) or with
sisters and their female offspring, he who steals (the
gold of a Brahmawa), an atheist, he who constantly
repeats blamable acts, he who does not cast off
persons guilty ot" a crime causing loss of .caste,
and he who forsakes blameless (relatives), become

2. Likewise those who instigate others to acts
causing loss of caste,

3. And he who for a (whole) year associates
with outcasts.

4. To be an outcast means to be deprived of
the right to follow the lawful occupations of twice-
born men,

5. And to be deprived after death of the rewards
of meritorious deeds.

water consecrated by the formulas, " Cleansed is the earth," &c.'

XXI. i. Apastamba I, 7, 21, 7-9, n ; I, 9, 24, 6-9; Manu XI,
35 > Ya^avalkya III, 227. Guru, i.e. a father or spiritual teacher.
The term yonisambandha, ' sisters and their female offspring/ seems
to be used here in a sense different from that which it has III, 3 ;
XIV, 20; and XIX, 20. It may possibly include also daughters-

2. Apastamba II, n, 29, i.

3. Manu IX, 181; Ya^wavalkya III, 261.

XXI, ii. PENANCES. 28 1

6. Some call (this condition) hell.

7. Manu (declares, that) the first three (crimes,
named above) cannot be expiated.

8. Some (declare, that a man) does not become
an outcast (by having connection) with female (rela-
tives), except (when he violates) a Guru's bed.

9. A woman becomes an outcast by procuring
abortion, by connection with a (man of) lower (caste)
and (the like heinous crimes).

10. Giving false evidence, calumnies which will
reach (the ears of) the king, an untrue accusation
brought against a Guru (are acts) equal' to mortal
sins (mahipataka).

11. (The guilt of a) minor offence (npapataka)
rests on those who (have been declared to) defile
the company (at a funeral dinner and have been
named above) before the bald man, on killers of kine,
those who forget the Veda, those who pronounce
Vedic texts for the (last-mentioned sinners), students

7. Apastamba I, 9, 24, 24-25; I, 9, 25, 1-3 ; Manu XI, 90-92,
104-105. The 'penances' prescribed are equal to a sentence of

8. Apastamba I, 7, 21, 10.

9. Ya^wavalkya III, 298. 'On account of the word "and,"
by slaying a Brahmawa and similar crimes also. Another (com-
mentator) says, '' A woman who serves the slayer of a learned
Brahmaa or a man of lower caste, i. e. becomes his wife, loses
her caste. On account of the word ' and ' the same happens in
case she kills a Brahimwa or commits a similarly heinous crime.
The slayer of a Brahmawa is mentioned in order to include (all)
outcasts." ' Haradatta.

10. Manu XI, 56-57; Y%wavalkya III, 228-229.

11. Manu XI, 60-67; Y%wavalkya III, 234-242; Apastamba
I, 7, 21, 12-17, 1 9- The persons who defile the company are
enumerated above, XV, 16-18.

282 GAUTAMA. XXI, 12.

who break the vow of chastity, and those who allow
the time for the initiation to pass.

12. An officiating priest must be forsaken, if he
is ignorant (of the rules of the sacrifice), a teacher,
if he does not impart instruction, and (both) if they
commit crimes causing loss of caste.

13. He who forsakes (them) under any other
circumstances, becomes an outcast.

14. Some declare, that he, also, who receives (a
person who has unjustly forsaken his priest or
teacher, becomes an outcast).

15. The mother and the father must not be
treated improperly under any circumstances.

1 6. But (the sons) shall not take their property.

17. By accusing a Brihmawa of a crime (the ac-
cuser commits) a sin equal (to that of the accused).

1 8. If (the accused is) innocent, (the accuser's
guilt is) twice (as great as that of the crime which
he imputed to the other).

19. And he who, though able to rescue a weak
man from injury, (does) not (do it, incurs as much
guilt as he who injures the other).

20. He who in anger raises (his hand or a weapon)

12. Apastamba I, 2, 4, 26; I, 2, 7, 26 ; I, 2, 8, 27. Haradatta
asserts that, as the desertion of sinners has been prescribed above,
XX, i, the expression pataniyasevSydm must here mean 'if they

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