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The sacred laws of the Aryas : as taught in the schools of Apastamba, Gautama, Vasishtha and Baudhayana online

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associate with outcasts.' The former rule refers, however, to blood
relations only, and our Sutra may be intended to extend it to
spiritual relations.

15. Apastamba I, 10, 28, 9-10. The meaning is that parents,
though they have become outcasts, must be provided with the
necessaries of life.

1 6. Haradatta adds that their property goes to the king.

17. Apastamba I, 7, 21, 20. 18. Ya^avalkya III, 285.
20-21. Manu XI, 207; Ya^wavalkya III, 293. According to



XXII. 5 PENANCES. 283

against a Brahmawa, will be banished from heaven
for a hundred years,

21. If he strikes, (he will lose heaven) for a
thousand (years),

22. If blood flows, (he will lose heaven) for a
number of years equal to (that of the particles of)
dust which the spilt (blood) binds together.

CHAPTER XXII.

J. (Now follows the description of the) penances.

2. He who has (intentionally) slain a Brahmawa
shall emaciate himself, and thrice throw himself into
a fire,

3. Or he may become in battle a target for
armed men,

4. Or, remaining chaste, he may, during twelve
years, enter the village (only) for the purpose of
begging, carrying the foot of a bedstead and a
skull in his hand and proclaiming his deed.

5. If he meets an Arya, he shall step out of the
road.

Haradatta the word asvargyam, ' will be banished from or lose
heaven/ may either mean that a hundred years' residence in heaven
will be deducted from the rewards for his meritorious deeds, or
that he will reside in hell for the period specified.

22. Manu XI, 208; Ya^wavalkya III, 293.

XXII. i. The text of the Sutra consists of the single word
' penance ' in the singular, which, being the adhikara or heading,
must be taken with each of the following Sutras down to the end
of chapter XXIII.

2. Manu XI, 74. 3. Apastamba I, 9, 25, n.

4. Apastamba I, 9, 24, 11-20. Haradatta says, ' the foot of a
bedstead' (kha/vinga) is known in the case of the Pa^upatas, and
indicates thereby that he interprets the term to mean 'a club
shaped like the foot of a bedstead,' which the Pampatas wear.

5. Apastamba I, 9, 24, 13.



284 GAUTAMA. XXII, 6.

6. Standing by clay, sitting at night, and bathing
in the morning, at noon, and in the evening, he may
be purified (after twelve years),

7. Or by saving the life of a Brahma#a,

8. Or if he is, at least, thrice vanquished in
(trying to recover) the property (of a Brahma na.)
stolen (by robbers),

9. Or by bathing (with the priests) at (the end
of) a horse-sacrifice,

10. Or at (the end of) any other (Vedic) sacrifice,
provided that an Aguish Ait (sacrifice) forms part
of it.

11. (The same penances must be performed)
even if he has attempted the life of a Brahmawa,
but failed to kill him,

12. Likewise if he has killed a female (of the
Brahma^a caste) who had bathed after temporary
uncleanness,

1 3. Also for (destroying) the embryo of a Brah-
mawa, though (its sex) may be not distinguishable.

14. For (intentionally) killing a Kshatriya the
normal vow of continence (must be kept) for six



6. Apastamba I, 9, 25, 10.

7. Manu XI, 80 ; Ya^v/avalkya III, 244-245.

8. Apastamba I, 9, 25, 21. 9. Apastamba I, 9, 25, 22.
10. Haradatta names the Paaratra sacrifice as an instance of

a -Srauta ya^vza, of which an Agnish/ut forms part. He adds that
another commentator explains the Sfitra to mean, ' or at any other
sacrifice, provided that an Agnish/ut sacrifice be its final ceremony.'
Regarding the Agnish/ut sacrifice, see also above, XIX, 10.
n. Ya^flavalkya III, 252.

12. Apastamba 1. 9, 24, 9 ; Manu XI, 88 ; Y%avalkya III, 251.

13. Apastamba I, 9, 24, 8; Manu, Ya^navalkya, loc. cit.

14. Apastamba I, 9, 24, i, 4. ' Prakrrta (normal) means natural



XXII, 21. PENANCES. 285

years ; and he shall give one thousand cows and
one bull.

15. For (killing) a Vaisya (the same penance
must be performed) during three years ; and he
shall give one hundred cows and one bull.

1 6. For (killing) a .Sudra (the same penance must
be performed) during one year ; and he shall give
ten cows and one bull.

17. And the same (rule applies) if a female (has
been killed) who was not in the condition (described
in Sutra 12).

1 8. (The penance for killing) a cow is the same
as for (the murder of) a Vaisya,

19. And for injuring a frog, an ichneumon, a
crow, a chameleon, a musk-rat, a mouse, and a dog,

20. And for killing one thousand (small animals)
that have bones,

21. Also for (killing) an ox-load of (animals) that
have no bones ;



(svabhavika), i. e. not accompanied by the carrying of the foot of
a bedstead and the rest/ Haradatta.

A

15. Apastamba I, 9, 24, 2, 4.

16. Apastamba I, 9, 24, 3, 4.

17. Apastamba I, 9, 24, 5; Yag-wavalkya III, 269. Haradatta
says that this rule refers to the expiation of the murder of a virtuous
Brahmam.

18. Apastamba I, 9, 26, i ; Mann XI, 109-116; YagTzavalkya III,
263. Haradatta thinks that the Sutra refers to the cow of a vir-
tuous .Srotriya or of a poor Brahmawa who has many children.

19. Apastamba 1, 9, 25, 13. Haradatta explains dahara to mean
a small mouse, but gives the meaning assigned to it in the transla-
tion as the opinion of others. He states that all the animals named
must have been intentionally injured and together.

20. Manu XI, 142; Ya^v/avalkya III, 275.

21. Apastamba I, 9, 26, 2.



286 GAUTAMA. XXII, 22.

22. Or he may also give something for (the de-
struction of) each animal that has bones.

23. For (killing) a eunuch (he shall give) a load
of straw and a masha of lead ;

24. For (killing) a boar, a pot of clarified butter ;

25. For (killing) a snake, a bar of iron ;

26. For (killing) an unchaste woman, who is
merely in name a Brahma#l, a leather bag;

27. (For killing a woman who subsists) by har-
lotry, nothing at all.

28. For preventing that (a Brhmaa) obtains a
wife, food, or money, (he must) in each case (remain
chaste) during a year,

29. For adultery two years,

30. (For adultery with the wife) of a .SVotriya
three years.

31. And if he has received a present (from the
woman), he shall throw it away,

32. Or restore it to the giver,

33. If he has employed Vedic texts for people
(with whom such intercourse is) forbidden, (he shall
remain chaste for a year), provided (the portion of
the Veda thus employed) contained one thousand
words.

22. Haradatta quotes a verse showing that 'something' means
eight handfuls (mush/i) of grain.

23. Manu XI, 134; Ya^avalkya III, 273.

24. Manu XI, 135.

25. Manu XI, 34 ; Ya^wavalkya III, 273. Possibly danda, a bar,
denotes here a particular measure, as a d&nda. is said to be equal
to four hastas or ninety-six angulis.

26. .Manu XI, 139,

29-30. Apastamba II, 10, 27, n.

33. Haradatta says that by the employment of Vedic texts,
teaching or sacrificing is meant, but that others refer the Sfitra



XXITT, 3. PENANCES. 287

34. And the same (penance must be performed)
by him who extinguishes the (sacred) fires, who
neglects the daily recitation of the Veda, or (who is
guilty) of a minor offence (upapataka),

35. Also by a wife who violates her duty (to
her husband) : but, being guarded, she shall receive
food.

36. For committing a bestial crime, excepting
(the case of) a cow, (he shall offer) an oblation of
clarified butter, (reciting) the KushmaWa texts,

CHAPTER XXIII.

'i. They shall pour hot spirituous liquor into the
mouth of a Brahmawa who has drunk such liquor ;
he will be purified after death.

2. If he has drunk it unintentionally, (he shall
drink) for three days hot milk, clarified butter, and
water, and (inhale hot) air. That (penance is called
the Tapta-)krz'>/f>fcra. Afterwards he shall be again
initiated.

3. And (the same penance must be performed)
for swallowing urine, excrements, or semen,



to the performance of these acts in the company of, not for
unworthy people.

35. Manu XI, 189 ; Yagtfavalkya III, 297.

36. Manu XI, 174. Regarding the KushmaWas, see XIX, 12.
XXIII. i. Apastamba I, 9, 25, 3. Haradatta remarks that other

twice-born men also must perform the same penance in case they
drink liquor forbidden to them, see above, II, 20 note. He also
states that the offence must have been committed intentionally and
repeatedly in order to justify so severe an expiation. Regarding
the effect of the purification after death, see above, XX, 16.

2-3. Manu XI, 151; Ya^wavalkya III, 255; see also Apastamba
I, 9, 25, 10.



288 GAUTAMA. XXITT, 4.

4. And (for eating) any part of a carnivorous
beast, of a camel or of an ass,

5. And of tame cocks or tame pigs.

6. If he smells the fume (exhaled) by a man who
has drunk spirituous liquor, (he shall) thrice restrain
his breath and eat clarified butter,

7. Also, if he has been bitten by (one of the
animals mentioned) above (Sutras 4-5).

8. He who has defiled the bed of his Guru shall
extend himself on a heated iron bed,

9. Or he shall embrace the red-hot iron image of
a woman.

10. Or he shall tear out his organ and testi-
cles and, holding them in his hands, walk straight
towards the south-west, until he falls down dead.

u. He will be purified after death.

12. (The guilt of him who has intercourse) with
the wife of a friend, a sister, a female belonging to
the same family, the wife of a pupil, a daughter-
in-law, or with a cow, is as great as that of (him
who violates his Guru's) bed.

13. Some (declare, that the guilt of such a sinner
is equal to) that of a student who breaks the vow of
chastity.

14. A woman who commits adultery with a man

4-5. Manu XI, 157. 6. Manu XI, 150.

7. Manu XI, 200; Ya^avalkya III, 277.
8-10. Apastamba I, 9, 25, 1-2. Haradatta asserts that Guru
denotes here the father alone.

12. Manu XI, 171-172; Ya^wavalkya III, 232-233.

13. ' The penance also consists in the performance of the
rites obligatory on an unchaste student (see Sutras 17-19), and
that for the violation of a Guru's bed need not be performed.'
Haradatta.

14. Manu VIII, 371.



XXIII, 20. PENANCES. 289

of lower caste the king shall cause to be devoured
by clogs in a public place.

15. He shall cause the adulterer to be killed
(also).

1 6. (Or he shall punish him in the manner) which
has been declared (above).

T 7. A student who has broken the vow of chastity
shall offer an ass to Nirrzti on a cross-road.

1 8. Putting on the skin of that (ass), with the
hair turned outside, and holding a red (earthen)
vessel in his hands, he shall beg in seven houses,
proclaiming his deed.

19. He will be purified after a year.

20. For an involuntary discharge caused by fear
or sickness, or happening during sleep, and if for
seven days the fire-oblations and begging have been
neglected, (a student) shall make an offering of clari-



15. Manu VIII, 372 ; Ya-avalkya II, 286 ; Apastamba II, 10,
27, 9. My best MSS. read ghatayet, 'shall cause to be killed/
instead of Professor Stenzler's khadayet, 'shall cause to be de-
voured.' C. has khadayet, but its commentary, as well as that
given in the other MSS., shows that ghatayet is the correct
reading. The text of the commentary runs as follows: Anan-
taroktavishaye gata^ puman ra^T/a ghatayitvyo [khadayitavyo C.]
vadhaprakara^Mnantaram eva vasishMava^ane damtaA. The pas-
sages of Vasish/^a XXI, 1-3, which Haradatta has quoted
in explanation of 'Sutra 14, prescribe that the adulterer is to be
burnt. Another objection to the reading khadayet is that the word
would be superfluous. If Gautama had intended to prescribe the
same punishment for the adulterer as for the woman, he would
simply have said pumawsam.

1 6. Above, i. e. XII, 2, where the mutilation of the offender has
been prescribed. See also Apastamba II, 10, 26, 20.

17-19. Apastamba I, 9, 26, 8-9.

20. Manu II, 181, 187; Ya^wavalkya III, 278, 281. The
Retasyas are found Taittiriya Aranyaka I, 30.

[2] U



290 GAUTAMA. XXIJT, 21.

fied butter or (place) two pieces of fuel (in the fire)
reciting the two (verses called) Retasya.

21. Let him who was asleep when the sun rose
remain standing during the day, continent and fast-
ing, and him who was asleep when the sun set
(remain in the same position) during the night>
reciting the Gayatri.

22. He who has looked at an impure (person),
shall look at the sun and restrain his breath (once);

23. Let him who has eaten forbidden food [or
swallowed impure substances], (fast until) his entrails
are empty.

24. (In order to attain that), he must entirely ab-
stain from food at least for three (days and) nights.

25. Or (he becomes pure) after eating during
seven (days and) nights fruits that have become
detached spontaneously, avoiding (all other food).

26. (If he has eaten forbidden food mentioned
above) before five-toed animals, he must throw it
up and eat clarified butter.

27. For abuse, speaking an untruth, and doing
injury, (he shall practise) austerities for no longer
period than three (days and) nights.



21. Apastamba II, 5, 12, 22; Manu II, 220.

22. Manu V, 86. 'An impure person, i.e. a K.nd\z. and the
like. This rule refers to a student (who sees such a person) while
he recites the Veda.' Haradatta.

A

23-24. Apastamba I, 9, 27, 3-4. My copies omit amedhya-
pra^ane vS, or has swallowed impure substances, and the words are
not required, as another penance has been prescribed for the case
above, Sutra 3. But see also Samavidhana I, 5, 13.

26. Manu XI, 161. The Sutras referred to are XVII, 9-26.

27. Apastamba I, 9, 26, 3. My copies read triratraparamam
instead of triratram paramam. This reading, which seems pre-



XXIV, i. PENANCES. 29!

28. If (the abuse) was merited, (he shall offer)
burnt-oblations, reciting (the Mantras) addressed to
Varutfa and (the hymns) revealed by Manu.

29. Some (declare, that) an untruth (spoken) at
the time of marriage, during dalliance, in jest or
while (one suffers severe) pain is venial.

30. But (that is) certainly not (the case) when
(the untruth) concerns a Guru.

31. For if he lies in his heart only to a Guru re-
garding small matters even, he destroys (himself),
seven descendants, and seven ancestors.

3 2. For intercourse with a female (of one) of the
lowest castes, he shall perform a Y^rikkhr^. penance
during one year.

33. (For committing the same sin) undesignedly,
(he shall perform the same penance) during twelve
(days and) nights.

34. For connection with a woman during her
courses, (he shall perform the same penance) for
three (days and) nights.

CHAPTER XXIV.

i. A secret penance (must be performed) by him
whose sin is not publicly known.

ferable, is also confirmed by the commentary, where the words are
explained, triratraparataya parewa triratram.

28. According to Haradatta the texts addressed to Varua are
yatkiz /tedam, Taitt. Sawh. Ill, 4, ir, 6; imam me varuwa, tattva
yami, Taitt. Sawzh. II, i, n, 6; and ava te he/o, Taitt. Sa/h. I,
5, n, 3. The hymns seen by Manu are Rig-veda VIII, 27-31.

29. Manu VII, 112.

32. Apastamba I, 10, 28, 10-11. Regarding the
penance, see below, chapter XXVI.

34. Manu XI, 174; Ya^avalkya III, 288.
XXIV. i. Manu XI, 248; Ya^avalkya III, 301.

U 2



GAUTAMA. XXIV, 2.



2. He who desires to accept or has accepted (a
gift) which ought not to be accepted, shall recite
the four /?zk-verses (IX, 58, 1-4), (beginning) Tarat
sa mandt, (standing) in water.

3. He who desires to eat forbidden food, shall
scatter earth (on it).

4. Some (declare, that) he who has connection
with a woman during her courses becomes pure by
bathing.

5. Some (declare, that this rule holds good) in the
case of (one's own) wives (only).

6. The (secret) penance for killing a learned
Brahma^a (is as follows) : Living during ten days
on milk (alone) or (on food fit for offerings), during
a second (period of ten days) on clarified butter, and
during a third (period of ten days) on water, par-



2. Manu XI, 254. ' He who has accepted or desires to accept,
i.e. because no other course is possible, (a present) offered by
a man that is blamable on account of the caste of the giver or
on account of his deeds, or (a present) that in itself is blamable,
e. g. the skin of a black-buck and the like ... in water, i. e.
according to some, standing in water that reaches to his navel ;
according to others, entirely immersed in water.' Haradatta.

3. Manu loc. cit. ' Forbidden food has been described above,
XVII, 8, 9. If, being unable to act otherwise, he desires to eat
that, he shall throw earth, i. e. a piece of earth, (into it) and then
eat it.' Haradatta.

4. Haradatta adds that he shall bathe, dressed in his garments.

5. Haradatta adds that another commentator reads ekestrishu,
i.e. eke astrishu, and explains the Sutra to mean, ' Some (declare
the above rule to refer also) to a bestial crime.'

6. Ya^avalkya III, 303. According to Haradatta the complete
Mantras are as follows: Lomanyatmano mukhemmyorasye^-uhomi
sva'ha', nakhanya. m. m. a. ^uhomi svaha, &c. This secret penance
is apparently a milder form of that prescribed Apastamba I, 9,

25, 12.



XXIV, 12. PENANCES. 2Q3

taking of (such food) once only each day, in the
morning, and keeping his garments constantly wet,
he shall (daily) offer (eight) oblations, (representing)
the hair, the nails, the skin, the flesh, the blood, the
sinews, the bones, (and) the marrow. The end of
each (Mantra) shall be, ' I offer in the mouth of the
Atman (the Self), in the jaws of Death.'

7. Now another (penance for the murder of a
Brahmawa will be described) :

8. The rule (as to eating and so forth), which has
been declared (above, Sutra 6, must be observed),

9. (And) he shall offer clarified butter, reciting
(the sacred text Rig-veda I, 189, 2), C O fire, do
thou ferry over,' the Mahavyahrz'tis, and the Kush-



10. Or,ibr the murder of a Brahmawa, for drinking
spirituous liquor, for stealing (gold), and for the vio-
lation of a Guru's bed, he may perform that (same
vow), tire himself by repeatedly stopping his breath,
and recite (the hymn seen by) Aghamarshawa. That
is equal (in efficacy) to the final bath at a horse-
sacrifice ;

11. Or, repeating the Gayatrl a thousand times,
he, forsooth, purifies himself;

12. Or, thrice repeating (the hymn of) Agha-
marshafta while immersed in water, he is freed from
all sins.

9. The Mahavyahr/tis are, bhft/6, bhuvaA, sva^. Regarding the
Kflshma</as, see above, XIX, 12.

10. Manu XI, 260-261 ; Ya^wavalkya III, 302. The vow
intended is that prescribed above, SCitras 6, 8.

n. Apastamba I, 9, 26, 14-!, 9, 27, i. Haradatta remarks
that the performer of the penance shall live on milk and stop his
breath, repeatedly stopping his breath.



294 GAUTAMA. XXV, I.



CHAPTER XXV.

1. Now they say : 'How many (gods) does a
student enter who violates the vow of chastity ? '

2. (And they answer) : 'His vital spirits (go
to) the Maruts (winds), his strength to Indra, his
eminence in sacred learning to Brzhaspati, all the
remaining parts to Agni.'

3. He kindles the fire in the night of the new
moon, and offers, by way of penance, two oblations
of clarified butter,

4. (Reciting these two sacred texts), ' Defiled by
lust am I, defiled am I, oh Lust; to Lust svaha;'
"' Injured by lust am I, injured am I, oh Lust ; to
Lust svaha.' (Next) he (silently) places one piece of
sacred fuel (on the fire), sprinkles water round the
fire, offers the Ya^wavastu (oblation), and approaching
(the fire) worships it, thrice (reciting the text), ' May
the waters sprinkle me/

5. These worlds are three ; in order to conquer

XXV. i. For this and the following five Sutras, see Taittiriya
Arawyaka II, 18, i seq.

2. 'All the remaining parts, i.e. his sight and the other organs
of sense, go to Agni. Thus a student who has broken the vow of
chastity becomes short-lived, weak, destitute of eminence in sacred
learning, and deslitote of sight, and so forth. Therefore a penance
must be performed.' Haradatta. It must, of course, be under-
stood that the penance prescribed here, is a 'secret penance.'

3. 'He, i.e. the unchaste student, shall kindle the fire in the
night of the new moon, i.e. at midnight, in the manner declared in
the Gr/hya-sutra.' Haradatta.

4. Haradatta says that while sprinkling water the performer
shall recite the texts ' Aditi, thou hast permitted, 1 see Apastamba II,
2,3, 17 note. The Ya^wavasm oblation, which follows after the
Svish/akr/'t offering, is described Gobhila Gnr'hya-sutra 1, 8. 26-39.



XXV, 10. PENANCES. 295

these worlds, in order to gain mastership over these
worlds, (this rite must be performed.)

6. According to some, the above (described) rite
is a penance (for all hidden offences) in general, (and
they say) regarding it, 'He who may be impure, as it
were, shall offer burnt-oblations in this manner, and
shall recite sacred texts in this manner ; the fee (of
the officiating priest shall be) whatever he may
choose.'

7. He who has been guilty of cheating, of calum-
niating, of acting contrary to the rule of conduct,
of eating or drinking things forbidden, of con-
nection with a woman of the ^udra caste, of an un-
natural crime, and even of performing magic rites
with intent (to harm his enemies), shall bathe and
sprinkle himself with water, reciting the texts ad-
dressed to the Waters, or those addressed to
Varua, or other purificatory texts.

8. For offences committed by speaking or think-
ing of forbidden things, the five Vyahr/tis (must be
recited).

9. Or for all (offences) he may sip water, (reciting)
in the morning (the text), ' May the day and the sun
purify me ; ' and in the evening, * The night and
Vartuca.'

10. Or he may offer eight pieces of sacred fuel,



j. Apastamba I, 9, 26, 7. The verses addressed to the Waters
are, Rv. X, 9, i~3=Taitt. Sawh. IV. i, 5, i, and Taut. Sawh. V,
6, r. Regarding those addressed to Vanma, see above, XXIII, 28.
As an instance of ' other purificatory texts ' Haradatla quotes
Taittinya-brahmawa I, 4, 8. i.

8. Regarding the five VyShrriis, see above, I, 51.

10. Haradatta gives the following four Mantras: Devakrria-
syainasovaya^anam asi svaha, ' thou art the expiation lor sin com-



296 GAUTAMA. XXVI, I.

(reciting the texts beginning) ' Devak/Vtasya.' By
merely offering them he becomes free from all sin.



CHAPTER XXVI.

1. Now, therefore, we will describe three K>//-

(or difficult penances).

2. (During three days) he shall eat at the morning-
meal food fit for offerings, and fast in the evening.

3. Next, he shall eat (food fit for offerings),
during another period of three days, in the even-
ing (only).

4. Next, during another period of three days, he
shall not ask anybody (for food).

5. Next, he shall fast during another period of
three clays.

6. He who desires (to be purified) quickly, shall
stand during the day, and sit during the night.



mitted by the gods/ svaha pitr/kr/'tasyainaso . . . sv&ha, manushya-
krz'tasyainaso . . . svaha 1 , asmatkrztasyainaso . . . svahd. But see
Va^asaneyi-sawzhita VIII, 13, where eight Mantras are given, and
below, XXVII, 7.

XXVI. i. Slmavidhana I, 2, i ; Apastamba I, 9, 27, 7. Haradatta
states that ata^, ' therefore/ means ' because the KrzW/ras cannot be
performed if they have not been described/ while Sayaa, on the
Samavidhana, asserts that it means 'because unpurified persons
who are unable to offer sacrifices cannot gain heavenly bliss
without performing austerities such as Kr/'/W/fcras.' It is a remark-
able fact that Haradatta does not seem to have been aware that
the twenty-sixth chapter of Gautama is taken bodily .from the
Samavidhana.

2. Samavidhana I, 2, 2. 'Food fit for offerings, i.e. such as
is not mixed with salt or pungent condiments.'

3-5. Samavidhana I, 2, 3.

6. Samavidhana I, 2, 4.



XXVI, 12. PENANCES. 297

7. He shall speak the truth.

8. He shall not converse with anybody but
Aryans.

9. He shall daily sing the two (Samans called)
Raurava and Yaudhd^aya.

10. He shall bathe in the morning, at noon, and
in the evening, reciting the three (verses which
begin) ' For ye waters are,' and he shall dry himself
reciting the eight purificatory (verses which begin)
' The golden-coloured.'

1 1. Next (he shall offer) libations of water.

12. Adoration to him who creates self-conscious-
ness, who creates matter, who gives gifts, who de-
stroys (sin), who performs penance, to Punarvasu,
adoration.

Adoration to him who is worthy of (offerings)

A

7-1 1. Samavidhana I, 2, 5. Aryans, i.e. Brahrnaas, Ksha-
triyas, and Vauyas. Regarding the Samans and Mantras, see notes
to Burnell's edition of the Samavidhana, and above, XXV, 7.
Haradatta remarks that in the Taitt. Sazh. (V, 6, i) the Mantras
beginning ' The golden-coloured' are ten in number, and adds that



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