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adhyltmam upadi-rati, 'teaches them transcendental knowledge.'


6. Hartta also quotes (the following verse): ' No
religious rite can be performed by a (child) before
he has been girt with the sacred girdle, since he is
on a level with a .Sudra before his (new) birth from
the Veda.'

7. (The above prohibition refers to all rites) except
those connected with libations of water, (the excla-
mation) Svadha, and the manes.

8. Sacred learning approached a Brahmawa (and
said to him), ' Preserve me, I am thy treasure, reveal
me not to a scorner, nor to a wicked man, nor to one
of uncontrolled passions : so (preserved) I shall be-
come strong/

9. ' Reveal me, O Brahma/za, as to the keeper of
thy treasure, to him whom thou shalt know to be
pure, attentive, intelligent, and chaste, who will not
offend thee nor revile thee/

10. '(That man) who fills his ears with truth, who
frees him from pain and confers immortality upon
him, (the pupil) shall consider as his father and mother;
him he must never grieve nor revile.' .

11. 'As those Brahmawas who, after receiving in-
struction, do not honour their teacher by their speech,
in their hearts or by their acts, will not be profitable
to their teacher, even so that sacred learning (which
they acquired) will not profit them/

6. Vishu XXVIII, 40. Instead of Kr/shapa<ita's'yavadvedo
na ^-ayate,' 'yavadvede na ^ayate,' which occurs in several
MSS. and in the parallel passages of Manu II, 172 and other
Smrrtis, must be read.

7, Gautama II, 5. The rites referred to are the funeral rites.
8-9. Visfom XXIX, 9-10, and introduction, p. xxiii ; Nirukta

II, 4 .

10. Vishnu XXX, 47.


12. 'As fire consumes dry grass, even so the
Veda, asked for, (but) not honoured, (destroys the en-
quirer). Let him not proclaim the Veda to that man,
who does not show him honour according to his

1 3. The (lawful) occupations of a Brahma#a are six,

14. Studying the Veda, teaching, sacrificing for
himself, sacrificing for others, giving alms, and ac-
cepting gifts.

15. (The lawful occupations) of a Kshatriya are

1 6. Studying, sacrificing for himself, and bestow-
ing gifts ;

1 7. And his peculiar duty is to protect the people
with his weapons ; let him gain his livelihood thereby.

1 8. (The lawful occupations) of a Vai-rya are the
same (as those mentioned above, Sutra 16),

1 9. Besides, agriculture, trading, tending cattle, and
lending money at interest,

20. To serve those (superior castes) has been fixed
as the means of livelihood for a -5udra.

21. (Men of) all (castes) may wear their hair
arranged according to the customs fixed (for their
family), or allow it to hang down excepting the lock
on the crown of the head.

13. Kn'shapatf<fita wrongly connects the word brahmawasya
with the next Sutra. For this and the next seven Sutras, compare
Visrmu 11,4-14.

14. Kr:'shapa<fita by mistake leaves out the word 'danam.'

20. I read 'tesham pari&uyaY with the majority of the MSS.,
instead of Krz'shwapaWita's ' tesha#z a pari&irja.'

21. In illustration of this Sutra Kr/'shapa#?ita quotes a verse
of Laugakshi, which states that Brahmawas belonging to the
Vasish/^a family wore the top-lock on the right side of the head,
and the members of the Atri family allowed it to hang down on

12 VASISHTHA. 11,22.

22. Those who are unable to live by their own
lawful occupation may adopt (that of) the next in-
ferior (caste),

23. But never (that of a) higher (caste).

24. (A Brahmawa and a Kshatriya) who have re-
sorted to a Vai^ya's mode of living and maintain
themselves by trade (shall not sell) stones, salt,
hempen (cloth), silk, linen (cloth), and skins,

25. Nor any kind of dyed cloth,

26. Nor prepared food, flowers, fruit, roots, per-
fumes, substances (used for) flavouring (food) ; nor
water, the juice extracted from plants ; nor Soma,
weapons, poison ; nor flesh, nor milk, nor prepara-
tions from it, iron, tin, lac, and lead,

27. Now they quote also (the following verse):
' By (selling) flesh, lac, and salt a Brahmawa at once
becomes an outcast; by selling milk he becomes
(equal to) a ^udra after three days.'

28. Among tame animals those with uncloven
hoofs, and those that have an abundance of hair,
(must not be sold), nor any wild animals, (nor) birds,
nor beasts that have tusks (or fangs).

29. Among the various kinds of grain they men-
tion sesamum (as forbidden).

both sides, while the Bhrzgus shaved their heads, and the Arigi-
rasas wore five locks (ttid&) on the crown of the head. Cf. Max
Miiller, Hist. Anc. Sansk. Lit, p. 53.

22. Vishnu II, 15.

24. For this and the following four Sutras, see Gautama VII, 8-21.

26. Rasd/fc, 'substances used for flavouring,' i.e. 'molasses,
sugar-cane, sugar, and the like.' Kr/hhapa</ila. See also note
on Gautama VII, 9.

27. Identical with Manu X, 92.

29. Vishmi LIV, 18; Apastamba I, 7, 20, 13. Knshaapaarfta
wrongly connects this Sutra with the preceding one.


30. Now they quote also (the following verse) :
' If he applies sesamum to any other purpose, but
food, anointing, and charitable gifts, he will be born
again as a worm and, together with his ancestors,
be plunged into his own ordure.'

31. Or, at pleasure, they may sell (sesamum), if
they themselves have produced it by tillage.

32. For that purpose he shall plough before
breakfast with two bulls whose noses have not
been pierced.

33. (If he ploughs) in the hot season, he shall
water (his beasts even in the morning).

34. The plough is attended by strong males, pro-
vided with a useful share and with a handle (to be
held) by the drinker of Soma ; that raises (for him)
a cow, a sheep, a stout damsel, and a swift horse for
the chariot.

35. The plough is attended by strong males, i.e.
is attended by strong men and bullocks, provided
with a useful share for its share is useful (because)
with the share it raises, i. e. pierces deep and pro-
vided with a handle for the drinker of Soma, for
Soma reaches him, possessing a handle for him.
That raises a cow, a sheep, goats, horses, mules,
donkeys and camels, and a stout damsel, i. e. a beau-
tiful, useful maiden in the flower of her youth.

36. For how could the plough raise (anything for
him) if he did not sell grain ?

30. Manu X, 91. 31. Manu X, 90.

34. Va^asaneyi-sa/whita XII, 71. The translation follows the
explanation given in the next Sutra as closely as possible, though
the latter is without doubt erroneous. The purpose for which
Vasish/Aa introduces it, is to show that a Vedic text permits agri-
culture to a Br&hmawa who offers Soma-sacrifices.

14 VASISH3THA. 11,37-

37- Substances used for flavouring may be bar-
tered for (other) substances of the same kind, be it
for one more valuable or for one worth less.

38. But salt must never (be exchanged) for (other)
substances used for flavouring (food).

39. It is permitted to barter sesamum, rice, cooked
food, learning, and slaves (each for its own kind and
the one for the other).

40. A Brihmawa and a Kshatriya shall not lend
(anything at interest acting like) usurers.

41. Now they quote also (the following verses) :
' He who acquiring property cheap, gives it for a
high price, is called a usurer and blamed among
those who recite the Veda.'

42. ' (Brahman) weighed in the scales the crime
of killing a learned Brahma^a against (the crime of)
usury ; the slayer of the Brahma^a remained at the
top, the usurer sank downwards.'

43. Or, at pleasure, they may lend to a person
who entirely neglects his sacred duties, and is ex-
ceedingly wicked,

44. Gold (taking) double (its value on repayment,
and) grain trebling (the original price).

37-39. Gautama VII, 16-21.

40. Manu X, 117. Kr/shapa<fita reads with MS. B., vardhu-
shiflz na dadyatSm, and explains it by vriddhim naiva prayo^a-
yetdm, ' they shall not take interest.' I read with the other MSS.
virdhushf, and translate that term by ' usurers.' Below, Sutra 42,
v&rdhushi is used likewise in this its usual sense.

43. Manu X, 117.

44-47. Visrmu VI, 11-17; Colebrooke I, Dig. LXVI, where
' silver and gems ' have been added after gold, and rasa" A, 'flavour-
ing substances/ been translated by ' fluids.' The translation differs
also in other respects, because there the Sutras stand by them-
selves, while here the nouns in Sutras 44 and 47 are governed by
the preceding dadyatam, ' they may lend.' They, i. e. a Brdhmawa


45. (The case of) flavouring substances has been
explained by (the rule regarding) grain,

46. As well as (the case of) flowers, roots, and fruit.

47. (They may lend) what is sold by weight, (taking)
eight times (the original value on repayment).

48. Now they quote also (the following verses) :
' Two in the hundred, three and four and five, as has
been declared in the Smmi, he may take as interest
by the month according to the order of the castes.'

49. ' But the king's death shall stop the interest
on money (lent) ; '

50. ' And after the coronation of (a new) king the
capital grows again.'

and a Kshatriya. The rule, of course, refers to other castes also,
and to those cases where no periodical interest is taken, but the
loan returned in kind.

47. The Ratnakara quoted by Colebrooke loc. cit. takes 'what
is sold by weight ' to be ' camphor and the like.' Kr*'shapa#<fita
thinks that ' clarified butter, honey, spirituous liquor, oil, molasses,
and salt ' are meant. But most of- these substances fall under the
term rasaA, 'flavouring substances.' The proper explanation of
the words seems to be, ' any other substance not included among
those mentioned previously, which is sold by weight.'

48. Vishmi VI, 2, and especially ManuVIII, 142. The lowest
rate of interest is to be taken from the highest caste, and it becomes
greater with decreasing respectability. According to Kn'shwa-
pawdita and the commentators on the parallel passage of Vishmi,
Manu, and other Smr/tis, this rule applies only to loans for which
no security is given a statement which is doubtlessly correct.

49-50. Both the reading and the sense of this verse, which in
some MSS. is wanting, are somewhat doubtful. I read with my
best MSS.,

ra^a tu mr/tabhavena dravyavrz'ddhiw vinjIUayet \
pund r%abhishekea dravyamulawz a vardhate \\
and consider that it gives a rule, ordering all money transactions
to be stopped during the period which intervenes between the
death of a king and the coronation of his successor. I am, how-
ever, unable to point out any parallel passages confirming this

1 6 VASISH7V/A. II, 5 r,

51. ' Hear the interest for a money-lender declared
by the words of VasishMa, five mshas for twenty
(kirshcipawas may be taken every month) ; thus the
law is not violated.'

i. (Brihma/zas) who neither study nor teach the

Veda nor keep sacred fires become equal to

2. And they quote a verse of Manu on this (sub-
ject), 'A twice-born man, who not having studied the
Veda applies himself to other (and worldly study),
soon falls, even while living, to the condition of a
Sttdra, and his descendants after him.'

3. '(A twice-born man) who does not know the

view. KrjshttapawdTita's text shows two important various readings,
' bhrztibhSvena ' and ' ra^abhishikena,' which I think are merely
conjectures, unsupported by the authority of MSS. He explains
the verse as follows : ' The king shall destroy, i.e. himself not take,
the interest on money by giving [it away] as a salary. But, after
thus giving away interest received, he may increase his capital by
[an extra tax imposed on] the cultivators, i. e. take from them the
highest rate, consisting of one-fourth of the produce.'

51. Gautama XII, 29; Colebrooke I, Dig. XXIV. The rule
given in this Sutra refers, as Knsh#apa</ita correctly states, to
loans, for which security is given. The rate is i^ per cent for the
month, or 1 5 per annum ; see the note to Gautama loc. cit. Manu,
VIII, 140, especially mentions that this rate is prescribed by

III. i. I read Sudrasadharma'wa^, 'equal to .Sudras,' instead
of judrakarmaa^, which occurs in MS. B. only. Krzshapa<fita
explains the latter reading by judravatkarma yeshu te judravatte-
shva^arawtyamityartha^, ' shall be treated like Sudras.' But the
verses quoted in the following Sutras show that the former reading
is the better one.

2. Identical with Manu II, 168.

3. This and the following nine verses are, as the word 'id, 1
which the best MSS. give at the end of Sutra 12, quotations.


Veda (can)not be (called) a Brahmaa, nor he who
lives by trade, nor he who (lives as) an actor, nor he
who obeys a .Sttdra's commands, nor (he who like) a
thief (takes the property of others), nor he who makes
his living by the practice of medicine.'

4. ' The king shall punish that village where
Brahmaas, unobservant of their sacred duties and
ignorant of the Veda, subsist by begging; for it
feeds robbers.'

5. ' Many thousands (of Brahmawas) cannot form
a (legal) assembly (for declaring the sacred law), if
they have not fulfilled their sacred duties, are unac-
quainted with the Veda, and subsist only by the name
of their caste.'

6. ' That sin which dunces, perplexed by ignorance
and unacquainted with the sacred law, declare (to be
duty) shall fall, increased a hundredfold, on those
who propound it.'

7. ' What four or (even) three (Brahmawas) who
have completely studied the Vedas proclaim, that
must be distinctly recognised as the sacred law, not
(the decision) of a thousand fools/

8. ' Offerings to the gods and to the manes must
always be given to a .Srotriya alone. For gifts

Anrrk, ' who does not know the Veda,' means, literally, ' unac-
quainted with the 7?/g-veda.'

5. This verse, which is identical with Manu XII, 114, and
the next two are intended to show that a Brahmaa who neglects
the study of the Veda, is unfit to decide points of the sacred law,
which are not settled either by the Smmi or the .Sruti, and become
a member of a parishad or ' Paw.'

6. The verse contains a better version of Manu XII, 115.

7. Regarding the term VedapSraga, see Gautama V, 20, note.
Itaresham, 'fools,' means literally, 'different from (those who
have mastered the Vedas).'

CM] c

l8 VASISHTHA. Ill, 9.

bestowed on a man unacquainted with the Veda,
reach neither the ancestors nor the gods.'

9. ' If a fool lives even in one's house and a (Brah-
maa) deeply learned in the Veda lives at a great
distance, the learned man shall receive the gift. The
sin of neglecting (a Brahma^a is not incurred) in (the
case of) a fool.'

i.o. ' The offence of neglecting a Bralimawa cannot
be committed against a twice-born man who is igno-
rant of the Veda. For (in offering sacrifices) one
does not pass by a brilliant fire and throw the obla-
tions into ashes..'

1 1. ' An elephant made of wood, an antelope made
of leather, and a Brahma^a ignorant of the Veda, those
three have nothing but the name (of their kind).'

12. 'Those kingdoms, where ignorant men eat
the food of the learned, will be visited by drought ;
or (some other) great evil will befall (them)/

13. If anybody finds treasure (the owner of) which
is not known, the king shall take it, giving one sixth
to the finder.

14. If a Brahmaa who follows the six (lawful)
occupations, finds it, the king shall not take it.

9-10. Regarding the crime of 'neglecting a Brahmaa/ see
Manu VIII, 392-393, where fines are prescribed for neglecting
to invite to dinner worthy neighbours and .Srotriyas.

10. A learned Brahmaa resembles a sacrificial fire, see e.g.
below, XXX, 2-3 ; Apastamba I, i, 3, 44.

n. Manu II, 157. Kr/shapadita and MS. B. give the un-
grammatical construction which occurs in Manu and other Dhar-
majdstras, while the other MSS. read more correctly, 'yaj/fra
kash/Aamayo h. ya*a armamayo m.' &c.

13-14. This rule agrees exactly with Gautama X, 45; see also
Vishmi III, 56-61. The matter is introduced here in order to show
the prerogative of a learned Brahmawa. Regarding the six lawful
occupations, see above, II, 13-14.

Ill, 19. DEFINITIONS. 19

15. They declare that the slayer commits no
crime by killing an assassin.

1 6. Now they quote also (the following verses):
' An incendiary, likewise a poisoner, one who holds a
weapon in his hand (ready to kill), a robber, he who
takes away land, and he who abducts (another man's)
wife, these six are called assassins (itatayin).'

17. 'He may slay an assassin who comes with the
intention of slaying, even though he knows the whole
Veda together with the Upanishads ; by that (act)
he (does) not (incur the guilt of) the slayer of a

1 8. ' He who slays an assassin learned in the Veda
and belonging to a noble family, does not incur by
that act the guilt of the murderer of a learned Brah-
mawa; (in) that (case) fury recoils upon fury.'

19. Persons who sanctify the company are, a Tri-
cliketa, one who keeps five fires, a Trisupanza, one
who (knows the texts required for) the four sacrifices
(called A^vamedha, Purushamedha, Sarvamedha, and
Pitrzmedha), one who knows the Va^asaneyi-sakha
of the White Ya^ur-veda, one who knows the six
Angas, the son of a female married according to the
Brahma-rite, one who knows the first part of the
Scima-veda Sawhiti, one who sings the ^yesh^a-
saman, one who knows the Sawhita and the Brah-
mawa, one who studies (the treatises on) the sacred
law, one whose ancestors to the ninth degree, both

15. Vishnu V, 189192. The connexion of this subject with
the main topic consists therein that it furnishes an instance where
learning does not protect a Brahmawa.

1 7. I read with the majority of the MSS., ' api vedantapSragam,'
instead of * vedantagawz rae/ as Knshapa#<fita has.

19. For the explanations of the terms left untranslated, see the

C 2

2O VASISHrtfA. Ill, 20.

on the mother's and on the father's side, are dis-
tinctly known to have been .Srotriyas, and learned
men and Snatakas.

20. (Four students of) the four Vedas, one who
knows the Mtmiwsa, one who knows the Angas,
a teacher of the sacred law, and three eminent men
who are in three (different) orders, (compose) a (legal)
assembly consisting at least of ten (members).

21. He who initiates (a pupil) and teaches him
the whole Veda is called the teacher (a^arya).

22. But he who (teaches) a portion (of the Veda
only is called) the sub-teacher (upadhyaya);

23. So is he who (teaches) the Angas of the Veda.

24. A Brdhma^a and a Vaisya may take up arms
in self-defence, and in (order to prevent) a confusion
of the castes.

25. But that (trade of arms) is the constant (duty)
of a Kshatriya, because he is appointed to protect
(the people),

26. Having washed his feet and his hands up to

note on Apastamball, 8, 17, 22 ; Gautama XV, 28; and the notes
on Vishmi LXXXIII, 2-21. Regarding the meaning of -Oandoga,
' one who knows the first part of the Sama-veda SawhitS,' see
Weber, Hist. Ind. Lit., p. 63, note 59. ' One who knows the
Sa/whitS and the Bra"hmaa, i. e. of the Rig-veda.' Krz'shapa^ita.
Regarding the various classes of Snatakas, see Ipastambal, n,

30, i-3-

20. Manu XII, in. KnshwapawflTita reads Mturvidyas
trikalpf a, 'one who knows the four Vedas and one who knows
three different Kalpa-sutras.' My translation follows the reading
of the MSS., aturvidya#z vikalpi a, which is corroborated
by the parallel passage of Baudhayana I, i, 8, 'Mturvaidyaw
vikalpt ka..' The explanation of the latter word is derived from
Govindasvamin. ' Men who are in three orders, i. e. a student,
a householder, and ascetic,' see Gautama XXVIII, 49.

21-23. Vishwu XXIX, 1-2. 24. Gautama VII, 25.

25. Vishmi. II, 6. 26-34. Vishnu LXII, 1-9.

Ill, 36. PURIFICATION. 2 1

the wrist, and sitting with his face turned towards
the east or towards the north, he shall thrice sip
water out of the Tirtha sacred to Brahman, (i.e.)
the part of the hand above the root of the thumb,
without uttering any sound ;

27. He shall twice wipe (his mouth with the root
of the thumb);

28. He shall touch the cavities (of the head)
with water;

29. He shall pour water on his head and on the
left hand ;

30. He shall not sip water while walking, standing,
lying down or bending forward.

31. A Brahmawa (becomes pure) by (sipping) water,
free from bubbles and foam, that reaches his heart,

32. But a Kshatriya by (sipping water) that reaches
his throat,

33. A Vawya by (sipping water) that wets his

34. A woman and a .Sudra by merely touching
water (with the lips).

35. Water (for sipping may) even (be taken) out
of a hole in the ground, if it is fit to slake the thirst
of cows.

36. (He shall not purify himself with water) which
has been defiled with colours, perfumes, or flavouring
substances, nor with such as is collected in unclean

30. Kr;shapa<fita is probably right in thinking that the word
va, ' or,' inserted before ' bending forward, 1 is intended to forbid
other improper acts, gestures or postures, which are reprehended in
other Smrj'tis.

35. Vishmi XXIII, 43 ; Manu V, 128.

36. 'Collected in uuclean places, e.g. in a burial-ground.'

22 VASISHTffA. Ill, 37.

37. Drops (of saliva) falling from the mouth, which
do not touch a limb of the body, do not make (a man)

38. If, after having sipped water, he sleeps, eats,
sneezes, drinks, weeps or bathes, or puts on a dress,
he must again sip water,

39. Likewise, if he touches (that part of) the lips
on which no hair grows.

40. No defilement is caused by the hair of the
moustache (entering the mouth).

41. If (remnants of food) adhere to the teeth, (they
are pure) like the teeth, and he is purified by
swallowing those which (become detached) in the

42. He is not defiled by the drops which fall on
his feet, while somebody gives to others water for
sipping; they are stated to be equally (clean) as
the ground.

43. If, while occupied with eatables, he touches
any impure substance, then he shall place that thing
(which he holds in his hand) on the ground, sip
water and afterwards again use it.

44. Let him sprinkle with water all objects (the
purity of) which may be doubtful.

45. ' Both wild animals killed by dogs, and fruit
thrown by birds (from the tree), what has been spoilt
by children, and what has been handled by women,'

37. Gautama I, 41. 38. Gautama I, 37.

39. Apastamba I, 5, 16, 10. 40. Apastamba I, 5, 16, n.

41. Gautama I, 38-40. 42. Manu V, 142.

43. Vishmi XXIII, 55. ' Occupied with eatables/ i. e. ' eating.'

45. Vishmi XXIII, 50. This and the following two Sutras are
a quotation, as appears from the use of the particle iti at the end
of Sutra 47.

111,55' PURIFICATION. 23

46. ' A vendible commodity tendered for sale
and what is not dirtied by gnats and flies that have
settled on it/

47. * Likewise water collected on the ground that
quenches the thirst of cows, enumerating all these
things, the Lord of created beings has declared them
to be pure.'

48. Anything denied by unclean (substances) be-
comes pure when the stains and the smell have
been removed by water and earth.

49. (Objects) made of metal must be scoured
with ashes, those made of clay should be thoroughly
heated by fire, those made of wood should be planed,
and (cloth) made of thread should be washed.

50. Stones and gems (should be treated) like ob-
jects made of metal,

51* Conch-shells and pearl-shells like gems,

52. (Objects made of) bone like wood,

53. Ropes, chips (of bamboo), and leather be-
come pure (if treated) like clothes,

54. (Objects) made of fruits, (if rubbed) with (a
brush of) cow-hair,

55. Linen cloth, (if smeared) with a paste of yellow
mustard (and washed afterwards with water).

46. Manu V, 129. 47. Vishnu XXIII, 43.

48. Gautama I, 42. For the explanation of the term amedhya,
'unclean substances,' see Manu V, 135, and the passage from
Devala translated in Professor Jolly's note on Vishwu XXIII, 38.

49. Gautama I, 29; Vishwu XXIII, 26, 33, 27, 18.
50-51. Gautama I, 30.

52. Gautama I, 31 and note; Vishwu XXIII, 4.

53. Gautama I, 33.

54. Vishmi XXIII, 28. Cups and bottles made of the shell of the
cocoa-nut or of the Bilva (Bel) fruit and of bottle-gourds are meant.

55. Vishwu XXIII, 2ft.

24 VASisnra A. in, 56.

5.6. But land becomes pure, according to the de-
gree of defilement, by sweeping (the defiled spot), by
smearing it with cowdung, by scraping it, by sprink-
ling (water) or by heaping (pure earth) on (it).

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