Georg Bühler.

The sacred laws of the Aryas : as taught in the schools of Apastamba, Gautama, Vasishtha and Baudhayana online

. (page 32 of 55)
Online LibraryGeorg BühlerThe sacred laws of the Aryas : as taught in the schools of Apastamba, Gautama, Vasishtha and Baudhayana → online text (page 32 of 55)
Font size
QR-code for this ebook

57. Now they quote also (the following verses) :
' Land is purified by these four methods, by digging,
burning, scraping, being trodden on by cows, and
fifthly by being smeared with cowdung/

58. 'A woman is purified by her monthly dis-
charge, a river by its current, brass by (being
scoured with) ashes, and an earthen pot by another

59. ' But an earthen vessel which has been de-
filed by spirituous liquor, urine, ordure, phlegm, pus,
tears, or blood cannot be purified even by another

60. ' The body is purified by water, the internal
organ by truth, the soul by sacred learning and
austerities, and the understanding by knowledge.'

6 1. Gold is purified by water alone,
6.2. Likewise silver,

56. Vishmi XXIII, 56-57. Kn'shwapawfiTita takes upakarana,
' heaping (pure earth) on (the defiled spot),' to mean ' lighting a
fire on it ' or ' digging it up.' The translation given above rests on
the parallel passages of Gautama I, 32, and of Baudhayana I, 5, 52,
bhumes tu saOTmSr^anaprokshaopalepanSvastaraopalekhanair-
yathasthanam doshavueshat prayatyam, 'land becomes pure, ac-
cording to the degree of the defilement, by sweeping the (defiled)
spot, by sprinkling it, by smearing it with cowdung, by scattering
(pure earth) on it, or by scraping it.' Bhumi, 'land,' includes also
the mud-floor of a house or of a verandah.

57. Some MSS: have instead of gharshat, ' by scraping,' varshdt,
'by rain ;' see also note on Gautama I, 32.

58. Vishmi XXII, 91. 59. Vishnu XXIII, 5.
60. Identical with Manu V, 109, and Vishu XXII, 92.
61-62. Visrmu XXIII, 7. Krjshapa0Tita points out that these


63. Copper is cleansed by acids.

64. The Tirtha sacred to the Gods lies at the
root of the little finger,

65. That sacred to the jRtshis in the middle of
the fingers,

66. That sacred to Men at the tips of the fingers,

67. That sacred to Agni (fire) in the middle of
the hand,

68. That sacred to the Manes between the fore-
finger and the thumb.

69. He shall honour (his food at) the evening
and morning meals (saying), ' It pleases me,'

70. At meals in honour of the Manes (saying),
' I have dined well,'

71. At (a dinner given on the occasion of) rites
procuring prosperity (saying), ' It is perfect.'


1. The four castes are distinguished by their
origin and by particular sacraments.

2. There is also the following passage of the
Veda, ' The Brahmawa was his mouth, the Ksha-
triya formed his arms, the Vairya his thighs ; the
Sttdra was born from his feet'

3. It has been declared in (the following passage

two rules and that given in the next Sutra refer to cases in which gold,
silver, and copper have not been stained by impure substances.

63. Vishmi XXIII, 25.

64-68. Vishu LXII, 1-4; Apastamba II, 2, 3, n.

69. Vishwi LXVIII, 42. The Sutra is also intended to prescribe
that the number of the daily meals is two only.

70. Manu III, 251.

71. The rites referred to are, according to Krzsrmapa<fita,
marriages, feeding Brahmawas, Nandijraddhas, and the like.

IV. i. Manu I, 87. 2. Rig-veda X, 90, 12.

26 VASISHTffA. IV, 4

of) the Veda that (a .Sildra) shall not receive the
sacraments, ' He created the Brahmawa with the
Giyatrl (metre), the Kshatriya with the Trish/ubh,
the Vai-sya with the ^agatl, the .Sudra without any

4. Truthfulness, suppression of anger, liberality,
abstention from injuring living beings, and the pro-
creation of offspring (are duties common to) all

5. The Manava (Sutra states), ' Only when he
worships the manes and the gods, or honours guests,
he may certainly do injury to animals.'

6. ' On offering a Madhuparka (to a guest), at a
sacrifice, and at the rites in honour of the manes,
but on these occasions only may an animal be slain ;
that (rule) Manu proclaimed.'

4. Vishnu II, 17.

5. Manavam, ' the Manava (Sutra),' means literally ' a work pro-
claimed by Manu' (mamma" proktam). It is probable that the
work referred to by Vasish/^a is the lost Dharma-sutra of the
M&nava Saliha, which is a subdivision of the Maitrayawiyas, and
On which the famous metrical Manava -Dharnmastra is based.
The words of the Sutra may either be a direct quotation or
a summary of the opinion given in the Manava-sutra. I think
the former supposition the more probable one, and believe that
not only Sutra 5, but also Sutras 6-8 have been taken bodily
from the ancient Dharma-sutra. For Sutra 6 agrees literally with
a verse of the metrical Manusmrz'ti, and at the end of Sutra 8
several MSS. have the word iti, the characteristic mark that a
quotation is finished, while the language of Sutra 8 is more anti-
quated than Vasish/^a's usual style. If my view is correct, it
follows that the lost Minava Bharma-sutra consisted, like nearly all
the known works of this class, partly of prose and partly of verse.

6. Identical with Manu V, 41 ; Vishnu LI, 64 ; and Sarikha'-
yana GrzTiya-sutra II, 16, r. I take pitr/'daivata, against Kul-
luka's and Kr/shapa</ita's view, as a bahuvrihi compound, and
dissolve it by pitaro daivatawz yasmiazstat, literally ' such (a rite)
where the manes are the deities.' The other explanation, ' (rites)

IV, 12. IMPURITY. 27

7. ' Meat can never be obtained without injuring
living beings, and to injure living beings does not
procure heavenly bliss ; therefore the (sages declare)
the slaughter (of beasts) at a sacrifice not to be
slaughter (in the ordinary sense of the word).'

8. ' Now he may also cook a full-grown ox or
a full-grown he-goat for a Brahma^a or Kshatriya
guest ; in this manner they offer hospitality to such
(a man).'

9. Libations of water (must be poured out) for
all (deceased relatives) who completed the second
year and (their death causes) impurity.

10. Some declare that (this rule applies also to
children) that died after teething.

1 1. After having burnt the body (of the deceased,
the relatives) enter the water without looking at (the
place of cremation),

1 2. Facing the south, they shall pour out water
with both hands on (those -days of the period of
impurity) which are marked by odd numbers.

to the manes or to the gods,' which is also grammatically correct,
recommends itself less, because the rites to the gods are already
included by the word yagne, ' at a sacrifice/ As to the Madhu-
parka, see Apastamba II, 4, 8, 8-9, and below XI, i.

7. Manu V, 48, and Vishmi LI, 71, where, however, the conclu-
sion of the verse has been altered to suit the ahiwsS-doctrines of the
compilers of the metrical Smr/tis. The reason why slaughter at a
sacrifice is not slaughter in the ordinary sense may be gathered
from Vishmi LI, 61, 63.

8. Satapatha-brahmana III, 4, t, 2 ; Ya^navalkya I, 109.
9-10. Vishmi XIX, 7 ; Manu V, 58. Regarding the length of

the period of impurity, see below, Sutras 16, 26-29.

11. Vishmi XIX, -6.

1 2. Vishmi XIX, 7; Gautama XIV, 40. ' On those days of the
period of impurity which are marked by odd numbers/ i. e. 'on the
first, third, fifth, seventh, and ninth, as has been declared by Gau-
tama/ Krzshapad l i ta.


13. The south, forsooth, is the region sacred to
the manes.

14. After they have gone home, they shall sit
during three days on mats, fasting.

15. If they are unable (to fast so long), they shall
subsist on food bought in the market or given

1 6. It is ordered that impurity caused by a death
shall last ten days in the case of Sapi*/a relations.

17. It has been declared in the Veda that Sa-
pida relationship extends to the seventh person (in
the ascending or descending line).

1 8. It has been declared in the Veda that for
married females it extends to the third person (in
the ascending or descending line).

19. Others (than the blood-relations) shall per-
form (the obsequies) of married females,

20. (The rule regarding impurity) should be
exactly the same on the birth of a child for those
men who desire complete purity,

21. Or for the mother and the father (of the
child alone) ; some (declare that it applies) to the

14. Vishnu XIX, 16; Gautama XIV, 37.

15. Vish/m XIX, 14. 17. Vishmi XXII, 5.

19. Gautama XIV, 36; Paraskara Grz'hya-sutra III, 10,42.
' Others than the blood-relations/ i. e. ' the husband and his rela-
tives.' The MSS. have another Sutra following this, which Kr/'sh-
apa<fita leaves out. Tr'a tesham, 'and they (the married
females shall perform the obsequies) of those (i. e. their husbands
and his Sapimfes).' It seems to me very probable that the passage
is genuine, especially as Paraskara, Grj'hya-sutra III, 10, 43, has the
same words.

20. Vishu XXII, i.

21. Gautama XIV, 15-16. The Sutra ought to have been
divided into two.

IV, 30. IMPURITY. 29

mother (only), because she is the immediate cause
of that (event).

22. Now they quote also (the following verse) :
' On the birth (of a child) the male does not become
impure if he does not touch (the female) ; on that
(occasion) the menstrual excretion must be known
to be impure, and that is not found in males/

23. If during (a period of impurity) another
(death or birth) happens, (the relatives) shall be
pure after (the expiration of) the remainder of that
(first period) ;

24. (But) if one night (and day only of the first
period of impurity) remain, (they shall be pure) after
two (days and nights) ;

25. (If the second death or birth happens) on the
morning (of the day on which the first period of
impurity expires, they shall be purified) after three
(days and nights).

26. A Brahma^a is freed from impurity (caused
by a death or a birth) after ten days,

27. A Kshatriya after fifteen days,

28. A Vai^ya after twenty days,

29. A -Sttdra after a month.

30. Now they quote also (the following verses) :
' But (a twice-born man) who has eaten (the food)
of a iSudra during impurity caused by a death or a

23. Vishnu XXII, 35. 24. Vishmi XXII, 36.

25. Vishmi XXII, 37. Kn'shapa<fita explains prabhate, 'on
the morning (of the day on which the first period of impurity
expires)/ in accordance with Nandapa<fita's explanation of Vishmi's
text by 'during the last watch (of the last night of the period
of impurity).' See also the slightly different explanation of the
identical words by Haradatta, Gautama XIV, 8.

26. Vishu XXII, i. 29. Vishmi XXII, 4.

3O VASTSHrtfA. IV, 31.

birth, will suffer dreadful (punishment in) hell and
be born again in the womb of an animal.'

31. 'A twice-born man who eats by appointment
in the house of a stranger whose ten days of impurity,
caused by a death, have not expired, after death will
become a worm and feed on the ordure of that (man
who fed him).'

32. It has been declared in the Veda, ' (Such a
sinner) becomes pure by reciting the Sazwhita of
the Veda for twelve months or for twelve half-
months while fasting.'

33. On the death of a child of less than two years
or on a miscarriage, the impurity of the Sapi#</as
lasts three (days and) nights.

34. Gautama (declares that on the former occa-
sion they become) pure at once.

35. If (a person) dies in a foreign country and (his
Sapi^das) hear (of his death) after ten days (or a longer
period), the impurity lasts for one (day and) night.

36. Gautama (declares that) if a person who has
kindled the sacred fire dies on a journey, (his Sa-
piwdas shall) again celebrate his obsequies, (burning
a dummy made of leaves or straw), and remain im-
pure (during ten days) as if (they had actually buried)
his corpse.

37. When he has touched a sacrificial post, a pyre,
a burial-ground, a menstruating or a lately confined
woman, impure men or (Afaftd&las and so forth), he
shall bathe, submerging both his body and his head.

32. Regarding the penance prescribed here, the so-called ana-
jnatparayawa, see below XX, 46, and BaudhSyana III, 9.
3^,. Vishwu XXII, 27-30.
34. Gautama XIV, 44, and introduction to Gautama, p. liii.

36. Introduction to Gautama, pp. liii and liv.

37. Vishu XXII, 69. Kr/'shapa/wTita and MS. B. read puya,

V, 3- WOMEN. 31


1. A woman is not independent, the males are
her masters. It has been declared in the Veda, ' A
female who neither goes naked nor is temporarily
unclean is paradise.'

2. Now they quote also (the following verse) :
' Their fathers protect them in childhood, their hus-
bands protect them in youth, and their sons protect
them in age ; a woman is never fit for independence.'

3. The penance (to be performed) by a (wife) for
being unfaithful to her husband has been declared in
the (section on) secret penances.

' pus/ instead of yupa, ' a sacrificial post.' The reading is, how-
ever, wrong, because the parallel passages of most Sm/Ytis enjoin
that a man who has touched a sacrificial post shall bathe. The
cause of the mistake is probably a mere clerical error. The MSS.
repeat the last word of this chapter, apa ityapa^. The reason
is not, as Kr/shapa<fita imagines, that the author wishes to indi-
cate the necessity of bathing when one touches a person who has
touched some impure thing or person. It is the universal practice
of the ancient authors to repeat the last word of a chapter in order
to mark its end, see e.g. Gautama note on I, 61. If it is neg-
lected in the earlier chapters of the Va"sish///a Dharma-sutra, the
badness of the MSS. is the cause.

V. i. Vishmi XXV, 12. The second clause ought to have been
given as a separate Sutra. 'A female who no longer goes naked/
i. e. one who has reached the age of puberty. Amrz'tam, ' is para-
dise/ i. e. procures bliss in this life and heaven after death through
her children.

2. Vishmi XXV, 13. Identical with Manu IX, 3,

3. 'The penance which has been ordained in case a wife is
unfaithful to her husband, i. e. goes to a lover and so forth, must be
performed in secret, i. e. in solitary places.' Kr*'shapa<fita. The
explanation is clearly erroneous. Rahasyeshu cannot mean 'in
secret' or 'in secret places.' It might refer either to a work
or works called Rahasydni or to the rahasyani prayaf&ttani. As

32 VAS1SHTHA. V, 4.

4. For month by month the menstrual excretion
takes away her sins.

5. A woman in her courses is impure during three
(days and) nights.

6. (During that period) she shall not apply colly-
rium to her eyes, nor anoint (her body), nor bathe in
water ; she shall sleep on the ground ; she shall not
sleep in the day-time, nor touch the fire, nor make a
rope, nor clean her teeth, nor eat meat, nor look at
the planets, nor smile, nor busy herself with (house-
hold affairs), nor run ; she shall drink out of a large
vessel, or out of her joined hands, or out of a copper

7. For it has been declared in the Veda, ' When
Indra had slain (Wztra) the three-headed son of
Tvash/rz, he was seized by Sin, and he considered
himself to be tainted with exceedingly great guilt
All beings cried out against him (saying to him),

the next Sutra contains a half-verse taken from the section on secret
penances, XXVIII, 4, it is evident that VasishMa here makes a
cross-reference. Similar cross-references occur further on.

4. Ya^wavalkya I, 72, and below, XXVIII, 4.

5. Vishu XXII, 72.

6. Taitt. Sa/rch. II, 5, r, 6-7. I read with the majority of the
MSS., grah&nna niriksheta instead of gr*Mn na niriksheta,
which latter phrase Kr/shapadlta renders by ' she shall not look
out of the house/ My reading is confirmed by his quotation from
the Smr/'timaHg-art, where grahaVza'wz nirikshaam, ' looking at the
planets, i. e. the sun, moon,' &c., is forbidden. 'A large vessel/ i. e.
an earthen jar. Kr;'shaparfita.

7. Taitt. Sawh. II, 5, i, 2-5. The name 'slayer of a learned
Brahmaa ' is applied to Indra, because Vrrtra is said to have been
deeply versed in the Vedas. Regarding the 'proper season of
women/ see Manu III, 46-48. In the clause 'That guilt of
Bra" hm ana-murder appears/ &c., I read Svir bhavati with the
majority of the MSS. For the prohibition to accept food from
a ra^asvala, see Vishu LI, 16-17.

V, g. WOMEN. 33

' O thou slayer of a learned Brahma#a ! O thou
slayer of a learned Brahmaa!' He ran to the wo-
men for protection (and said to them), ' Take upon
yourselves the third part of this my guilt (caused by)
the murder of a learned Brahmawa/ They answered,
' What shall we have (for doing thy wish) ?' He re-
plied, ' Choose a boon/ They said, ' Let us obtain off-
spring (if our husbands approach us) during the proper
season, at pleasure let us dwell (with our husbands)
until (our children) are born/ He answered, ' So be
it/ (Then) they took upon themselves (the third
part of his guilt). That guilt of Brahmawa-murder
appears every month as the menstrual flow. There-
fore let him not eat the food of a woman in her
courses; (for) such a one has put on the shape of
the guilt of Brahmawa-murder.

8. (Those who recite the Veda) proclaim the fol-
lowing (rule) : ' Collyrium and ointment must not be
accepted from her ; for that is the food of women.
Therefore they feel a loathing for her (while she is)
in that (condition, saying), " She shall not approach/' '

9. 'Those (Brahmawas in) whose (houses) men-
struating women sit, those who keep no sacred fire,

8. Taitt. Sawh. II, 5, i, 6. I read the text of this Sutra as
follows: 'Taddhu^ ag r ana'bhyang r anam eva'sya' na pratigr&hyaw*
taddhi striya" annam iti tasmat tasyai fa tatra fa bibhatsante me-
yam up&g&d iti.' The MSS. give the following readings in the
second clause : tasmat tasmai fa (B. Bh. E. F.), tatra na (F.), me-
dhamupaga'd (Bh. F.), medha updgdd (E.), seyamupdgSd (B.)
Kr*shapadita follows as usually MS. B. His explanation of the
whole Sutra is erroneous. ' That is the food of women/ i. e. that is
as necessary to women as their food, because to beautify themselves
is one of their duties.

9. The meaning of the Sutra is that a Br&hmanical beggar must
not accept any alms from Brahma;;as whose wives are in their

[14] D


and those in whose family there is no .Srotriya, all
these are equal to


1. (To live according to) the rule of conduct is
doubtlessly the highest duty of all men. He whose
soul is defiled by vile conduct perishes in this world
and in the next.

2. Neither austerities, nor (the study of) the Veda,
nor (the performance of) the Agnihotra, nor lavish
liberality can ever save him whose conduct is vile
and who has strayed from this (path of duty).

3. The Vedas do not purify him who is deficient
in good conduct, though he may have learnt them
all together with the six Angas ; the sacred texts de-
part from such a man at death, even as birds, when
full-fledged, leave their nest.

4. As the beauty of a wife causes no joy to a
blind man, even so all the four Vedas together with
the six Arigas and sacrifices give no happiness to
him who is deficient in good conduct.

courses, who keep no sacred fire, and do not attend to the duty of
Veda-study. Regarding sinners of the latter two kinds, see also
Apastamba I, 6, 18, 32-33.

VI. i. Manu IV, 155. The word &Hra, which has been vari-
ously translated by ' conduct,' ' rule of conduct,' and ' good con-
duct,' includes the observance of all the various rules for every-day
life, taught in the Smn'tis, and the performance of the prescribed
ceremonies and rites.

4. I read with MSS. Bh. and E., sha</ahgastvakhila^ saya^naA.
The reading of MS. B., which KrzsrmapawdTita adopts, shadahgaA
sakhila/fc means, 'together with the six Angas, (and) the Khila
(spurious) portions of the Veda.'


5. The sacred texts do not save from sin the
deceitful man who behaves deceitfully. But that
Veda, two syllables of which are studied in the
right manner, purifies, just as the clouds (give be-
neficent rain) in the month of Isha.

6. A man of bad conduct is blamed among men,
evils befal him constantly, he is afflicted with disease
and short-lived.

7. Through good conduct man gains spiritual merit,
through good conduct he gains wealth, through good
conduct he obtains beauty, good conduct obviates the
effect of evil marks.

8. A man who follows the rule of conduct esta-
blished among the virtuous, who has faith and is
free from envy, lives a hundred years, though he
be destitute of all auspicious marks.

5. Isha is another name for A.rvina, the month September-
October. Though the rainy season, properly so called, is over in
September, still heavy rain falls in many parts of India, chiefly
under the influence of the beginning north-east monsoon, and is
particularly important for the Rabi or winter crops. I think,
therefore, that it is not advisable to take, as Knshapa<fita does,
yatha ishe 'bda both with the first and the second halres of the
verse, and to translate, ' As the clouds (in general remain barren)
in the month of Isha, even so the texts of the Veda do not save
from evil the deceitful man who behaves deceitfully. But that
Veda, two syllables of which have been studied in the right manner,
sanctifies, just as the clouds in the month of Isha, (which shed a
few drops of rain on the day of the Svati conjunction, produce
pearls).' ' In the right manner,' i. e. with the due observance of
the rules of studentship.

6. Identical with Manu IV, 157.

7. Manu IV, 156. By the 'inauspicious marks' mentioned in
this verse, and the ' auspicious marks ' occurring in the next, the
various lines on the hands and feet &c. are meant, the explanation
of which forms the subject of the S^mudrika .Sastra.

8. Identical with Manu IV, 158; Vishmi LXXI, 92.

D 2


9. But a man who knows the sacred law shall
perform in secret all acts connected with eating, the
natural evacuations and dalliance with (his wife) ;
business to be accomplished by speech or intellect,
likewise austerities, wealth, and age, must be most
carefully concealed.

10. And a man shall void both urine and faeces,
facing the north, in the day-time, but at night he
shall do it turning towards the south ; for (if he
acts) thus, his life will not be injured.

11. The intellect of that man perishes who voids
urine against a fire, the sun, a cow, a Brahmawa, the
moon, water, and the morning or evening twilights.

12. Let him not void urine in a river, nor on
a path, nor on ashes, nor on cowdung, nor on a
ploughed field, nor on one which has been sown,
nor on a grass-plot, nor in the shade (of trees) that
afford protection (to travellers).

1 3. Standing in the shade (of houses, clouds, and
so forth), when it is quite dark, and when he fears
for his life, a Brahmawa may void urine, by day and
by night, in any position he pleases.

14. (Afterwards) he shall perform the necessary
(purification) with water fetched for the purpose
(from a tank or river, and with earth).

15. For a bath water not fetched for the purpose
(may also be used).

1 6. (For the purpose of purification) a Brdhmawa

10. Vishwi LX, 2. I read with the majority of the MSS., na

it. Identical with Manu IV, 32.

13. Vishnu LX, 3-22.

13. Identical with Manu IV, 51. 14. Vishnu LX, 24.

15. I. e. one may bathe also in a tank or river.


shall take earth that is mixed with gravel, from the
bank (of a river).

17. Fiye kinds of earth must not be used, viz.
such as is covered by water, such as lies in a temple,
on an ant-hill, on a hillock thrown up by rats, and that
which has been left by one who cleaned himself.

i&. The organ (must be cleaned by) one (appli-
cation of) earth, the (right) hand by three, but
both (feet) by two, the anus by five, the one (i. e. the
left hand) by ten, and both (hands and feet) by seven
(applications of earth).

19. Such is the purification ordained for house-
holders ; it is double for students, treble for hermits,
but quadruple for ascetics.

20. Eight mouthfuls are the meal of an ascetic,
sixteen that of a hermit, but thirty-two that of a
householder, and an unlimited quantity that of a

21. An Agnihotrin, a draught-ox, and a student,
those three can do their work only if they eat (well);
without eating (much), they cannot do it.

22. (The above rule regarding limited allowances
of food holds good) in the case of penances, of self-
imposed restraint, of sacrifices, of the recitation of
the Veda, and of (the performance of other) sacred

1 8. Vishmi LX, 25.

19. Identical with Vishmi LX, 26, and Manu V, 137.

20-21. Identical with Apastamba II, 5, 9, 13, and S. 21, with
.Ssihkhayana Gr /hya-sutra II, 1 6, 5.

22. 'Penances (vrata), i.e. the K>/&^ras and the rest; self-
imposed restraint (niyama), i. e. eating certain food in accordance

Online LibraryGeorg BühlerThe sacred laws of the Aryas : as taught in the schools of Apastamba, Gautama, Vasishtha and Baudhayana → online text (page 32 of 55)