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with a vow, and so forth, during a month or any other fixed period
. . . . sacred duties (dharma), i. e. giving gifts and the like.'


23. The qualities by which a (true) Brahmawa
may be recognised are, the concentration of the
mind, austerities, the subjugation of the sejises, libe-
rality, truthfulness, purity, sacred learning, compas-
sion, worldly learning, intelligence, and the belief (in
the existence of the deity and of a future life).

24. One may know that bearing grudges, envy,
speaking untruths, speaking evil of Brihmawas,
backbiting, and cruelty are the characteristics of a

25. Those Brahmawas can save (from evil) who
are free from passion, and patient of austerities,
whose ears have been filled with the texts of the
Veda, who have subdued the organs of sensation
and action, who have ceased to injure animated
beings, and who close their hands when gifts are

26. Some become worthy receptacles of gifts
through sacred learning, and some through the
practice of austerities. But that Brihmarca whose
stomach does not contain the food of a .Sudra, is even
the worthiest receptacle of all.

27. If a Brahma^a dies with the food of a .Sudra
in his stomach, he will become a village pig (in his
next life) or be born in the family of that (,5Yklra).

28. For though a (Brdhmawa) whose body is
nourished by the essence of a ^udra's food may

24. Kr/shapad^ita connects brahmawadushaam, translated
above by ' speaking evil of Brahmawas/ with .yfcdralakshaam, and
renders the two words thus, ' the characteristics of a <Sudra which
degrade a Brahmaa.'

25. ' Close their hands/ i. e. are reluctant to accept

26. Krz'shapa<fita takes ki0zit, translated by 'some,' to mean
4 somewhat/ ' to a certain degree/ i..e. neither very distinguished nor
very despicable.


daily recite the Veda, though he may offer (an
Agnihotra) or mutter (prayers, nevertheless) he will
not find the path that leads upwards.

29. But if, after eating the food of a .Sudra, he
has conjugal intercourse, his sons will belong to the
giver of the food, and he shall not ascend to heaven.

30. They declare that he is worthy to receive
gifts, who (daily) rises to recite the Veda, who is
of good family, and perfectly free from passion, who
constantly offers sacrifices in the three sacred fires,
who fears sin, and knows much, who is beloved among
the females (of his family), who is righteous, protects
cows, and reduces himself by austerities.

31. Just as milk, sour milk, clarified butter, and
honey poured into an unburnt earthen vessel, perish,
owing to the weakness of the vessel, and neither the
vessel nor those liquids (remain),

32. Even so a man destitute of sacred learning,
who accepts cows or gold, clothes, a horse, land, (or)
sesamum, becomes ashes, as (if he were dry) wood.

33. He shall not make his joints or his nails crack,

34. Nor shall he make a vessel ring with his nails.

35. Let him not drink water out of his joined hands.

36. Let him not strike the water with his foot
or his hand,

37. Nor (pour) water into (other) water;

38. Let him not gather fruit by throwing brick-

39. Nor by throwing another fruit at it.

40. He shall not become a hypocrite or deceitful.

32. Manu IV, 188. Read in the text 'evaw ga v' instead of
'evaw givo.'

33. Gautama IX, 51.- 35. Gautama IX, 9.
40. Manu IV, 177.


41. Let him not learn a language spoken by bar-

42. Now they quote also (the following verses):
' The opinion of the 61sh/as is, that a man shall
not be uselessly active, neither with his hands and
his feet, nor with his eyes, nor with his tongue and
his body.'

43. 'Those Brahmaas, in whose families the
study of the Veda and of its supplements is heredi-
tary, and who are able to adduce proofs perceptible
by the senses from the revealed texts, must be known
to be 6"ish/as.'

44. ' He is a (true) Brdhmawa regarding whom no
one knows if he be good or bad, if he be ignorant
or deeply learned, if he be of good or of bad conduct'


1. There are four orders,

2. Viz. (that of) the student, (that of) the house-
holder, (that of) the hermit, and (that of) the ascetic.

3. A man who has studied one, two, or three
Vedas without violating the rules of studentship,
may enter any of these (orders), whichsoever he

4. A (professed) student shall serve his teacher
until death ;

5. And in case the teacher dies, he shall serve the
sacred fire.

42. Mann IV, 177 ; Gautama IX, 50-51.

43. Manu XII, 109.

VII. 1-2. Gautama III, a. 3. Gautama III, i.

4. Vishau XXVIII, 43.

5. Vishnu XXVIII, 46. I agree with Kr/shoapaWita in thinking
that the apparently purposeless particle 'and,' which is used in


6. For it has been declared in the Veda, ' The
fire is thy teacher.'

7. (A student, whether professed or temporary),
shall bridle his tongue ;

8. He shall eat in the fourth, sixth, or eighth
hour of the day.

9. He shall go out in order to beg.

10. He shall obey his teacher.

11. He either (may wear all his hair) tied in a
knot or (keep merely) a lock on the crown of his
head tied in a knot, (shaving the other parts of the

12. If the teacher walks, he shall attend him
walking after him ; if the teacher is seated, standing ;
if the teacher lies down, seated.

13. He shall study after having been called (by
the teacher, and not request the latter to begin the

14. Let him announce (to the teacher) all that he
has received (when begging), and eat after permission
(has been given to him).

this Sutra, indicates Vasish/a's approval of the rules given in
other Smr;'tis, according to which the student, on the death of
-the teacher, shall serve the teacher's son, a fellow-student, or the
teacher's wife, and the service of the sacred fire is the last resource
only. See Vishnu XXVIII, 44-45 ; Gautama III, 7-8.

6. These words form part of one of the Mantras which the
teacher recites at the initiation of the student ; see e. g. Sinkhi-
yana Grzhya-sfttra.

7. Gautama II, 13, 22.

8. According to Kr/shapaaSta a Icala, 'hour,' is the eighth
part of a day.

9. Vishnu XXVIII, 9. 10, Vislwu XXVIII, 7.

11. Gautama I, 27; Vishmi XXVIII, 41.

12. Vishnu XXVIII, 18-22. 13, Vishmi XXVIII, 6.
14. Vishnu XXVIII, 10; Apastamba I, i, 3, 25.

42 VASISHrffA. VII, 15.

15. Let him avoid to sleep on a cot, to clean
his teeth, to wash (his body for pleasure), to apply
collyrium (to his eyes), to anoint (his body), and to
wear shoes or a parasol.

1 6. (While reciting his prayers) he shall stand in
the day-time and sit down at night.

1 7. Let him bathe three times a day.


1. (A student who desires to become) a house-
holder shall bathe, free from anger and elation,
with the permission of his teacher, and take for a
wife a young female of his own caste, who does
neither belong to the same Gotra nor has the
same Pravara, who has not had intercourse (with
another man),

2. Who is not related within four degrees on the
mother's side, nor within six degrees on the father's

3. Let him kindle the nuptial fire.

15. Gautama II, 1-3.

1 6. Vishu XXVIII, 2-3. .The prayers intended are the so-
called Sandhyas, which are recited at daybreak and in the evening.

17. Gautama 11,8. 'Three times a day,' i. e. morning, noon,
and evening, Krzsh#apa</ita thinks that he shall perform three
ablutions at midday.

VIII. i. Vish/m XXIV, 9; Gautama IV, 1-2. Regarding the
bath at the end of the studentship, see Vishnu XXVIII, 42, and
Professor Jolly's note.

2. Vishmi XXIV, 10; Gautama IV, 2.

3. Vishmi LIX, i, and Professor Jolly's note. The fire intended
is the gr/hya ox smarta, the sacred household fire, which according
to this Sutra must be kindled on the occasion of the marriage cere-
mony, while other Smri'tis permit of its being lighted on the division
of the paternal estate.


4. Let him not turn away a guest who comes in
the evening.

5. (A guest) shall not dwell in his house without
receiving food.

6. If a Brahmawa who has come for shelter to
the house of a (householder) receives no food, on
departure he will take with him all the spiritual
merit of that (churlish host).

7. But a Brahma^a who stays for one night only
is called a guest. For (the etymological import of
the word) atithi (a guest) is ' he who stays for a
short while only.'

8. A Brahmaa who lives in the same village
(with his host) and a visitor on business or pleasure
(are) not (called guests. But a guest), whether he
arrives at the moment (of dinner) or at an inop-
portune time, must not stay in the house of a
(householder) without receiving food.

9. (A householder) who has faith, is free from
covetousness, and (possesses wealth) sufficient for
(performing) the Agnyadheya-sacrifice, must become
an Agnihotrin.

10. He (who possesses wealth) sufficient for (the
expenses of) a Soma-sacrifice shall not abstain from
offering it.

4. Vishnu LXVII, 28-29. 8- Vi shu LXVII, 30.

6. Vishmi LXVII, 33.

7. Identical with Vishnu LXVII, 34; Manu III, 102.

8. Vishnu LXVII, 35 ; Manu III, 105.

9*. Vishnu LIX, 2. The AgnHiotra which is here intended is, of
course, the Srauta Agnihotra, to be performed with three fires. The
Agnyadheya is one of the Havirya^was with which the .Srautagni-
hotrin has to begin his rites.

10. Vishnu LIX, 8.

44 VASisnrtfA. VHI, 1 1.

11. (A householder) shall be industrious in reciting
the Veda, offering sacrifices, begetting children, and
(performing his other duties).

12. Let him honour visitors (who come) to his
house by rising to meet them, by (offering them)
seats, by speaking to them kindly and extolling
their virtues,

13. And all creatures by (giving them) food ac-
cording to his ability.

14. A householder alone performs sacrifices, a
householder alone performs austerities, and (there-
fore) the order of householders is the most distin-
guished among the four.

15. As all rivers, both great and small, find a
resting-place in the ocean, even so men of all orders
find protection with householders.

1 6. As all creatures exist through the protection
afforded by their mothers, even so all mendicants sub-
sist through the protection afforded by householders.

1 7. A Brahma#a who always carries water (in his
gourd), who always wears the sacred thread, who
daily recites the Veda, who avoids the food of
outcasts, who approaches (his wife) in the proper
season, and offers sacrifices in accordance with the

11. I agree with Kr/shaparc<fita that the word 'and' used in
this enumeration serves the purpose of calling to mind that there
are other minor duties. The three named specially are the so-
ralhd ' three debts ;' see below, XI, 48.

12. Vislwu LXVII, 45 ; Gautama V, 38-41.

13. Vishmi LX VII, 26.

14-17. Vistotm LIX, 27-30; ManuVI, 89.

15. Identical with ManuVI, 90.

17. 'Who always carries water (in his gourd)' (nityodakt) may
also be translated, 'who always keeps water (in his house);' see
Apastamba II, i, i, 15. 'Who always wears the sacred thread'

IX, ll. HERMIT. 45

rules (of the Veda, after death) never falls from
Brahman's heaven.


1. A hermit shall wear (his hair in) braids, and
dress (in garments made of) bark and skins ;

2. And he shall not enter a village.

3. He shall not step on ploughed (land).

4. He shall gather wild growing roots and fruit

5. He shall remain chaste.

6. His heart shall be full of meekness.

7. He shall honour guests coming to his hermi-
tage with alms (consisting of) roots and fruit,

8. He shall only give, not receive (presents).

9. He shall bathe at morn, noon, and eve.

10. Kindling a fire according to the (rule of the)
Sramawaka (Sutra), he shall offer the Agnihotra.

1 1. After (living in this manner during) six months,

may also mean ' who always wears his upper in the manner re-
quired at a sacrifice,' i. e. passes it over the left and under the
right arm.

IX. i. Vishnu XCIV, 8-9 ; Gautama III, 34. Kr*shapa<fita
takes ira, * bark,' to mean ' (made of) grass,' e. g. of Mui^a or

a. Gautama III, 33. The particle 'and' probably indicates
that the hermit is not to enter any other inhabited place.

3. Gautama III, 32. 4. Vishmi XCV, 5.

5. Vishmi XCV, 7. 6. ManuVI,8.

7. Gautama III, 30. 9. Vishmi XCV, 10.

10. Gautama III, 27. Knshapadita and MSS. B. F. read
jrtvawakena, and the rest avarakena. I read jr&nanakena,. ' ac-
cording to the rule of the 5rSmaaka Sutra,' in accordance with
Gautama's text. Baudhlyana, too, uses the same word.

11. Manu VI, 25.


he shall dwell at the root of a tree, keeping no fire
and having no house.

12. He (who in this manner) gives (their due) to
gods, manes, and men, will attain endless (bliss in)


1. Let an ascetic depart from his house, giving a
promise of safety from injury to all animated beings.

2. Now they quote also (the following verses) :
' That ascetic who wanders about at peace with all
creatures, forsooth, has nothing to fear from any
living being.'

3. ' But he who becomes an ascetic and does not
promise safety from injury to all beings, destroys the
born and the unborn ; and (so does an ascetic) who
accepts presents.'

4. ' Let him discontinue the performance of all
religious ceremonies, but let him never discontinue the
recitation of the Veda. By neglecting the Veda he
becomes a .Sftdra ; therefore he shall not neglect it.'

5. '(To pronounce) the one syllable (Om) is the
best (mode of reciting the) Veda, to suppress the
breath is the highest (form of) austerity; (to subsist
on) alms is better than fasting ; compassion is pre-
ferable to liberality.'

6. (Let the ascetic) shave (his head); let him have
no property and no home.

X. i. Manu VI, 39; Ya^wavalkya III, 61.

2. Manu VI, 40.

3. 'The born and the unborn,' i.e. his ancestors who lose
heaven, and his descendants who lose their caste.

4. Manu VI, 39. 5. Manu II, 83.

6. Gautama III, n, 22. The term parigraha, 'home,' includes
the wife, the family, attendants, and a house.

X, 20. ASCETIC. 47

7. Let him beg food at seven houses which he
has not selected (beforehand),

8. (At the time) when the smoke (of the kitchen-
fire) has ceased and the pestle lies motionless.

9. Let him wear a single garment,

10. Or cover his body with a skin or with grass
that has been nibbled at by a cow.

11. Let him sleep on the bare ground.

12. Let him frequently change his residence,

13. (Dwelling) at the extremity of the village, in a
temple, or in an empty house, or at the root of a tree.

14. Let him (constantly) seek in his heart the
knowledge (of the universal soul).

15 (An ascetic) who lives constantly in the forest,

1 6. Shall not wander about within sight of the

1 7. ' Freedom from future births is certain for
him who constantly dwells in the forest, who has
subdued his organs of sensation and action, who has
renounced all sensual gratification, whose mind is
fixed in meditation on the Supreme Spirit, and who
is (wholly) indifferent (to pleasure and pain).'

1 8. (Let him) not (wear) any visible mark (of his
order), nor (follow) any visible rule of conduct.

19. Let him, though not mad, appear like one out
of his mind.

20. Now they quote also (the following verses) :
' There is no salvation for him who is addicted to

7. Vishmi XCVI, 3.

8. Vishmi XCVI, 6 ; Manu VI, 56.

9. Vishnu XCVI, 13. It is very probable that the single gar-
ment mentioned in the Sutra is, as Kmhapa<fita thinks, a small
strip of cloth to cover the ascetic's nakedness.

12-13. Vishmi XCVI, 10-12. 14. Manu VI, 43, 65.

20. I read 'ramyavasathapriyasya,' with the majority of the MSS.

48 VASISHrffA. X, 21.

the pursuit of the science of words, nor for him who
rejoices in captivating men, nor for him who is fond
of (good) eating and (fine) clothing, nor for him who
loves a pleasant dwelling.'

21. ' Neither by (explaining) prodigies and omens,
nor by skill in astrology and palmistry, nor by casuistry
and expositions (of the 6astras), let him ever seek to
obtain alms/

22. ' Let him not be dejected when he obtains
nothing, nor glad when he receives something. Let
him only seek as much as will sustain life, without
caring for household property/

23. ' But he, forsooth, knows (the road to) salva-
tion who cares neither for a hut, nor for water, nor
for clothes, nor for the three Pushkaras' (holy tanks),
nor for a house, nor for a seat, nor for food/

24. In the morning and in the evening he may
eat as much (food) as he obtains in the house of one
Brahma#a, excepting honey and meat,

25. And he shall not (eat so much that he is
quite) satiated.

26. At his option (an ascetic) may (also) dwell in
a village.

2 7. Let him not be crooked (in his ways) ; (let
him) not (observe the rules of) impurity on account

21. Identical with Manu VI, 50.

22. Vishmi XCVI, 4. Identical with Manu VI, 57.

23. There are three Tirthas called Pushkara; see Professor
Jolly's note on Vish/m LXXXV, t.

24. Krz'shapa</ita thinks that this rule is a concession to those
ascetics who are unable to subsist on one meal a day, as Manu
VI, 55 prescribes.

25. Manu VI, 59. 26. Manu VI, 94-95.

27. The text is here probably corrupt. But I follow Knsha-
pafita. Several MSS. read aja/^o, ' he shall not be a rogue,' for
aravo, ' he shall not observe the rules of impurity.'


of deaths (or births); let him not have a house; let
him be of concentrated mind.

28. Let him not enjoy any object of sensual

29. Let him be (utterly) indifferent, avoiding to
do injury or to show kindness to any living being.

30. To avoid backbiting, jealousy, pride, self-con-
sciousness, unbelief, dishonesty, self-praise, blaming
others, deceit, covetousness, delusion, anger, and envy
is considered to be the duty of (men of) all orders.

31. A Brahmawa who wears the sacred thread,
who holds in his hand a gourd filled with water,
who is pure and avoids the food of .Sudras will not
fail (to gain) the world of Brahman.


1. Six persons are (particularly) worthy to receive
the honey-mixture (madhuparka),

2. (Viz.) an officiating priest, the bridegroom of one's
daughter, a king, a paternal uncle, a Snataka, a mater-
nal uncle, as well as (others enumerated elsewhere).

3. (A householder) shall offer, both at the morning
and the evening (meals, a portion) of the prepared
(food) to the Vuve Devas in the (sacred) domestic fire.

30. Vishmi II, 16-17.

31. Kr/shaparfita believes that this Sutra again refers to ascetics.
But that is hardly possible, as ascetics are not allowed to wear a
sacrificial thread (see above, Sutra 18). I think that it is meant to
emphatically assert that a Brahmaa who is free from the short-
comings enumerated in the preceding Sutra, and who follows the
rule of conduct, will obtain salvation, whether he passes through
the order of Sa/nyasins or not.

XL 1-2. Gautama V, 27-30. The persons enumerated else-
where are the teacher, the father-in-law, and so forth. Regarding
the Snsitaka, see Apastamba I, n, 30, 1-4.

3. Vishmi LXVII, 1-3.

f'4] E

5O VASISH2"#A. XI, 4.

4. Let him give a Bali-offering to the (guardian)
deities of the house,

5. (Thereafter) let him give a portion, one Pala
in weight, to a 6rotriya or to a student, (and after-
wards an offering) to the manes.

6. Next let him feed his guests in due order, the
worthiest first,

7. (Thereafter) the maidens, the infants, the aged,
the half-grown members of his family, and pradatas,

8. Then the other members of his family.

9. (Outside the house) he shall throw (some food)
on the ground for the dogs, A'awdalas, outcasts, and

10. He may give to a .SYldra either the fragments
(of the meal) or (a portion of) fresh (food).

11. The master of the house and his wife may
eat what remains.

4. Vishmi LXVII, 4-22.

5. Vishmi LIX, 14; LXVII, 23, 27. Krzshapamfita does not
take 'agrabh&ga' as a technical term, but explains it by 'a first por-
tioi sufficient for a dinner, or as much as one is able to spare.'

6. Vishmi LXVII, 28, 36-38.

7. Yishmi LXVII, 39. The majority of the MSS. read bdlavnd-
dhataruapradatas [tato]. Kr/shapa<fita corrects the last word
to pradStd, while the editor of the Calcutta edition writes prabhri-
ttwzs [tato]. Both conjectures are inadmissible. As the same
phrase occurs once more, below, XIX, 23 (where Kr/shapadTita
writes praddtiraA), I think that it is not permissible to change the
text. Prad&taA must be the correct reading, and a technical
name for a class of female relatives. Etymologically it may mean
' those who have been perfectly cleansed.' But I am unable to
trace its precise technical import, and have left it untranslated.

8. Vishmi LXVII, 41. 9. Vishmi LXVII, 26.
10. Gautama V, 25, and note. 'A Sudra, i.e. one who is his

servant.' K/Ysh#apa<fita. It is, however, possible, that a visitor
of the Sudra caste is meant; see Apastamba II, 2, 4, 19-20.
it. Vish//u LXVII, 41.


12. A fresh meal for which all (the same mate-
rials as for the first) are used (may be prepared), if
a guest comes after the Vairvadeva has been offered.
For such a (guest) he shall cause to be prepared
food (of a) particularly (good quality).

13. For it has been declared in the Veda, 'A
Brahmawa guest enters the house resembling the
Vawvanara fire. Through him they obtain rain,
and food through rain. Therefore people know
that the (hospitable reception of a guest) is a
ceremony averting evil.'

14. Having fed the (guest), he shall honour him.

1 5. He shall accompany him to the boundary (of the
village) or until he receives permission (to return).

1 6. Let him present (funeral offerings) to the
manes during the dark half of the month (on any
day) after the fourth.

17. After issuing an invitation on the day pre-
ceding (the .Sraddha, he shall feed on that occasion)
three ascetics or three virtuous householders, who are
Srotriyas, who are not very aged, who do not follow
forbidden occupations, and neither (have been his)
pupils, nor are (living as) pupils in his house.

1 8. He may also feed pupils who are endowed
with good qualities.

19. Let him avoid men neglecting their duties,

12. Apastamba II, 3, 6, 16; Gautama V, 32, 33. A guest, i. e.
one to whom the definition given above, VIII, 6, 7, applies. I read
according to my MSS. puna/5pako instead of puna^pSke.

14-15. Gautama V, 38.

1 6. Vishu LXXVI, 1-2 ; Gautama XV, 3.

17. Vish/ra LXXIII, i; LXXXII, 2-4 ; LXXXIII, 5, 19 ; Gau-
tama XV, 10; Apastamba II, 7, 17, 4.

18. Apastamba II, 7, 17, 6.

19. Gautama XV, 16, 18. The explanation of the word nagna,

E 2

52 VASISH77/A. XI, ao.

those afflicted with white leprosy, eunuchs, blind men,
those who have black teeth, those who suffer from
black leprosy, (and) those who have deformed nails.

20. Now they quote also (the following verses) :
' Now, if a (Brahmaa) versed in the Vedas is
afflicted with bodily (defects) which exclude him
from the company, Yama declares him to be irre-
proachable. Such (a man) sanctifies the company.'

21. 'At a funeral sacrifice the fragments (of the
meal) must not be swept away until the end of the
day. For streams of nectar flow (from them, and
the manes of) those who have received no libations
of water drink (them).'

22. ' But let him not sweep up die fragments (of
the meal) before the sun has set. Thence issue rich
streams of milk for those who obtain a share with

23. ' Manu declares that both the remainder (in
the vessels) and the fragments (of the meal) cer-
tainly are the portion of those members of the
family who died before receiving the sacraments.'

24. ' Let him give the fragments that have fallen
on the ground and the portion scattered (on the
blades of Kara grass), which consists of the wipings

' neglecting their duties,' is doubtful. I have followed Kr/sha-
pawdTita, who quotes the Ma"rkarfeya Puraa in support of his view.
The word occurs in the same connexion, Vishwu LXXXII, 27,
where it is rendered by ' naked.' Possibly it may refer to ascetics
who go entirely naked.

20. The Sutra gives an exception to the preceding rule.

21. I read ' j^yotante hi ' instead of ' ofyotante vaL'

22. ' Those who receive a share with difficulty,' i. e. the manes
of uninitiated children, mentioned in the next verses.

23-24. Vishnu LXXXII, 22 ; Manu HI, 245-246. These rules,
however, do not fully agree with the teaching of our Manu-smriti,

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