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The sacred laws of the Aryas : as taught in the schools of Apastamba, Gautama, Vasishtha and Baudhayana online

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XI, 29- SRADDHAS. 53

and water, as their food, to the manes of those who
died without offspring and of those who died young.'

25. ' The malevolent Asuras seek an opportunity
(to snatch away) that food intended for the manes,
which is not supported with both hands ;'

26. * Therefore let him not offer it (to the Brah-
mawas) without holding (a spoon) in his hand ; or
let him stand, holding the dish (with both hands,
until) leavings of both kinds (have been produced).'

27. 'He shall feed two (Brihrnaaas) at the
offering to the gods, and three at the offering to
the manes, or a single man on either occasion ; even
a very wealthy man shall not be anxious (to enter-
tain) a large company.'

28. 'A large company destroys these five (advan-
tages), the respectful treatment (of the invited
guests, the propriety of) time and place, purity and
(the selection of) virtuous Brihmawa (guests) ; there-
fore he shall not (invite a large number)/

29. ' Or he may entertain (at a ^Sraddha) even a
single Brahmawa who has studied the whole Veda,
who is distinguished by learning and virtue, and is
free from all evil marks (on his body).'

as the latter assigns the fragments on the ground to honest and
upright servants. Sutra 24 I read with the majority of the
MSS. ' lepanodakam ' for ' lepamodakam,' and 'annawi preteshu'
for ' anupreteshu.'

25. Manu III, 225.

26. Manu III, 224. The meaning of the last clause seems to
be that the sacrificer shall stand before the Bra*hmaas until they
have done eating.

27. Identical with Manu III, 125 ; see also Vishwu LXXIII, 3.
The offering to the gods is the Vawvadeva offering which pre-
cedes the .Sraddha.

28. Identical with Manu III, 126. 29. Manu III, 129.


30. '(But) how can the oblation to the gods be
made if he feeds a single Brahma^a at a funeral
sacrifice ? Let him take (a portion) of each (kind
of) food that has been prepared (and put it) into a
vessel ; '

31. 'Let him place it in the sanctuary of a god
and afterwards continue (the performance of) the
funeral sacrifice. Let him offer that food in the
fire or give it (as alms) to a student.'

32. ' As long as the food continues warm, as long
as they eat in silence, as long as the qualities of the
food are not declared (by them), so long the manes
feast on it.'

33. ' The qualities of the food must not be" de-
clared as long as the (Brahma^as who represent the)
manes are not satiated. Afterwards when they are
satisfied, they may say, " Beautiful is the sacrificial
food." '

34. ' But an ascetic who, invited to dine at a
sacrifice of the manes or of the gods, rejects meat,
shall go to hell for as many years as the slaughtered
beast has hairs.'

35. ' Three (things are held to) sanctify a funeral
sacrifice, a daughter's son, the midday, and sesamum
grains ; and they recommend three (other things) for
it, purity, freedom from anger and from precipitation.'

36. ' The eighth division of the day, during which
the sun's (progress in the heavens) becomes slow,
one must know to be midday ; what is (then) given
to the manes lasts (them) for a very long time.'

37. 'The ancestors of that man who has inter-

32. Identical with Vishmi LXXXII, 20, and Manu III, 237.
34. Manu V, 35. 35. Identical with Manu III, 235.

37. Vishmi LXIX, 2-4.


course with a woman after offering or having dined
at a .Sraddha, feed during a month from that (day)
on his semen.'

38. 'A child that is born from (intercourse im-
mediately) after offering a .Sraddha or partaking of
a funeral repast, is unable to acquire sacred learning
and becomes short-lived.'

39. ' The father and the grandfather, likewise the
great-grandfather, beset a descendant who is born to
them, just as birds (fly to) a fig tree ;'

40. ' (Saying), "He will offer to us funeral repasts
with honey and meat^ with vegetables, with milk
and with messes made of milk, both in the rainy
season and under the constellation Magha^." '

41. ' The ancestors always rejoice at a descendant
who lengthens the line, who is zealous in performing
funeral sacrifices, and who is rich in (images of the)
gods and (virtuous) Brahmaa (guests).'

42. ' The manes consider him to be their (true)
descendant who offers (to them) food at Gaya, and
(by the virtue of that gift) they grant him (blessings),
just as husbandmen (produce grain) on well-ploughed

43. He shall offer (a -Sraddha) both on the full
moon days of the months .5ravaa and Agrahaya^a
and on the Anvash/aki.

39-40. Vishmi LXXVIII, 51-53.

41. 'Who lengthens the line,' i. e. who himself begets sons.
Read instead of nuyantaz pitr/karmam (v. 1. muyantaw and tri-
pantaA), ' udyataw.'

42. Vishmi LXXXV, 4, 66-67.

43. .Srivaa, i.e. July-August; Agrahayana, i. e. Margajfrsha
or November-December. Anvash/aki means the day following
the Ash/aka, or eighth day, i. e. the ninth day of the dark halves of
MdrgasJrsha, Pausha, Magha, and Phalguna. The form of the
word is usually anvash/aka.

56 VASiSHr#A. xi, 44.

44. There is no restriction as to time, if (par-
ticularly suitable) materials and (particularly holy)
Brahmawas are at hand, or (if the sacrificer is) near
(a particularly sacred) place.

45. A Brahma#a must necessarily kindle the three
sacred fires.

46. He shall offer (in them) the full and new
moon sacrifices, the (half-yearly) Agraya#a Ishri,
the A'aturmasya-sacrifice, the (half-yearly) sacrifices
at which animals are slain, and the (annual) Soma-

47. For all this is (particularly) enjoined (in the
Veda), and called by way of laudation ' a debt'

48. For it is declared in the Veda, ' A Brahmawa
is born, loaded with three debts/ (and further, 'He
owes) sacrifices to the gods, a son to the manes, the
study of the Veda to the ^'shis ; therefore he is free
from debt who has offered sacrifices, who has be-
gotten a son, and who has lived as a student (with a

49. Let him (ordinarily) initiate a Br3hma/?a in
the eighth (year) after conception,

50. A Kshatriya in the eleventh year after con-

51. A VaLrya in the twelfth year after conception.

52. The staff of a Brahmawa (student may) option-
ally (be made) of Pala^a wood,

44. Gautama XV, 5. 45. Vishwu LIX, 2.

46. Vish/m LIX, 4-9.

47. Manu IV, 257. I read rmasastutam with MS. E.

48. Taitt. Sawh.VI, 3, 10, 5; -Satapatha-brShmatfa I, 7, 2, n.
49-51. Vishmi XXVII, 15-17.

5 a -54- Vishnu XXVII, 39. Regarding other kinds of sticks,
see Gautama 1, 22-24.


53. (That) of a Kshatriya optionally of the wood
of the Banyan tree,

54. (That) of a VaLrya optionally of Udumbara

55. (The staff) of a Brahmawa shall (be of such
a length as to) reach the hair,

56. (That) of a Kshatriya the forehead,

57. (That) of a Vai.fya the (tip of the) nose.

58. The girdle of a Brahmawa shall be made of
Mu^/a grass,

59. A bowstring (shall be that) of a Kshatriya,

60. (That) of a Valyya shall be made of hempen

61. The upper garment of a Brahmawa (shall be)
the skin of a black antelope,

62. (That) of a Kshatriya the skin of a spotted

63. (That) of a Vaicya a cow-skin or the hide of
a he-goat

64. The (lower) garment of a Brahmawa (shall be)
white ('and) unblemished,

65. (That) of a Kshatriya dyed with madder,

66. (That) of a Vawya dyed with turmeric, or
made of (raw) silk ;

67. Or (a dress made of) undyed (cotton) cloth
may be worn by (students of) all (castes).

68. A Brahmaa shall ask for alms placing (the
word) ' Lady ' first,

55-57- Vishmi XXVII, 22. 58-60. Vishnu XXVII, 18.

61-63. Vishmi XXVII, 20.

64-67. Vishmi XXVII, 19 ; Gautama 1, 17-21. ' Unblemished,'
i. e. new, without holes and seams.

68-70. Vishmi XXVII, 25. Le. 'Lady, give alms;' 'Give, O
lady, alms;' and ' Give alms, lady.'

58 VASISH777A, XI, 69.

69. A Kshatriya placing (the word) ' Lady ' in the

70. A Vaisya placing (the word) ' Lady ' at the
end (of the formula).

7 1 . The time (for the initiation) of a Brahmarca has
not passed until the completion of the sixteenth year,

72. (For that) of a Kshatriya until the completion
of the twenty-second,

73. (For that) of a Vaisya until the completion of
the twenty-fourth.

74. After that they become ' men whose Savitrl
has been neglected.'

75. Let him not initiate such men, nor teach
them, nor sacrifice for them ; let them not form
matrimonial alliances (with such outcasts).

76. A man whose Savitr! has not been performed,
may undergo the Uddalaka-penance.

77. Let him subsist during two months on barley-
gruel, during one month on milk, during half a
month on curds of two-milk whey, during eight days
on clarified butter, during six days on alms given
without asking, (and) during three days on water,
and let him fast for one day and one night.

78. (Or) he may go to bathe (with the priests) at
the end of an A-rvamedha (horse-sacrifice).

79. Or he may offer a Vratya-stoma.

71-73. VisbmXXVII, 26.

74. Vishmi XXVII, 27. Savitrf, literally 'the Rik sacred to
Savitr*' (Rig-veda III, 62, 10), means here 'the initiation/ see
Gautama I, 12 note.

75. Apastamba I, i, r, 28. The plural viv&hayeyuA, 'let them
(not) form matrimonial alliances,' indicates that orthodox Brh-
maas must neither give their daughters to Patitasdvitrfkas nor
take the daughters of such persons.

78. Gautama XIX, 9. 79. Gautama XIX, 8.



1. Now, therefore, the duties of a Snataka (will
be explained).

2. Let him not beg from anybody except from a
king and a pupil.

3. But let him ask, if pressed by hunger, for
some (small gift) only, a cultivated or uncultivated
field, a cow, a goat or a sheep, (or) at the last
extremity, for gold, grain or food*

4. But the injunction (given by those who know
the law) is, 'A Snataka shall not be faint with

5. Let him not dwell together with a person
whose clothes are foul ;

6. (Let him not cohabit) with a woman during
her courses,

7. Nor with an unfit one.

8. Let him not be a stay-at-home.

XII. i. 'Now* marks the beginning of a new topic. ' There-
fore,' i. e. because the duties of a Sna'taka have to be taught after
those of a student.

2. Manu IV, 33 ; Gautama IX, 63.

3. Manu X, 113-114. 4. Manu IV, 34 ; Vishnu III, 79.

5. Krzshapa<fita, whom I have followed in the translation of
this Sutra, thinks that it indicates the obligation of wearing clean
clothes, see e. g. Vishmi LXXI, 9. It seems to me, however,
probable that its real sense is, ' Let him not cohabit with a woman
during her courses,' and that the next Sutra has to be read nara^a-
svalayd, ' Nor with one of immature age.'

7. 'An unfit one,' i. e. ' one of low caste' (hina"). Kn'sto*apa-
tfite. Probably a sick wife is meant, Gautama IX, 28.

8. Gautama IX, 53. Krz'shwapaw<fita gives besides the above
interpretation of the Sutra from Haradatta's Gautamiya" MitdksharS,
another one, according to which it means, ' Let him not forsake his
own family and enter another one (by adoption and so forth).' A third

60 VASISHTff A. XII, 9.

9. Let him not step over a stretched rope to
which a calf (or cow) is tied.

10. Let him not look at the sun when he rises or

n. Let him not void excrements or urine in

12. Nor spit into it

1 3. Let him ease himself, after wrapping up his
head and covering the ground with grass that is not
fit to be used at a sacrifice, and turning towards the
north in the day-time, turning towards the south at
night, sitting with his face towards the north in the

14. Now they quote also (the following verses):
' But Snatakas shall always wear a lower garment
and an upper one, two sacrificial threads, (shall carry)
a staff and a vessel filled with water/

15. 'It is declared, that (a vessel becomes) pure
(if cleaned) with water, or with the hand, or with a
stick, or with fire. Therefore he shall clean (his)
vessel with water and with his (right) hand/

16. ' For Manu, the lord of created beings, calls
(this mode of cleaning) encircling it with fire/

1 7. ' He who is perfectly acquainted with (the
rules of) purification shall sip water (out of this
vessel), after he has relieved the necessities of

1 8. Let him eat his food facing the east.

explanation is given by Narayawa on .Sahkhayana Gr/hya-sutra IV,
12, n, who takes it to mean, 'Let him not go from one house
to the other.'

9. Gautama IX, 52 ; Vishnu LXII1, 42.

10. Visbmi LXXI, 17-18. n-ra. Vishmi LXXI, 35.

13. Gautama IX, 37-38, 41-43; Vish#u LX, 2-3.

14. Vishwi LXXI, 13-15. 18. Vishwu LXVIII, 40.


19. Silently let him swallow the entire mouthful,
(introducing it into the mouth) with the four fingers
and with the thumb ;

20. And let him not make a noise (while eating).

21. Let him approach his wife in the proper
season, except on the Parva days.

22. Let him not commit a crime against nature
(with her).

23. Now they quote also (the following verse):
' The ancestors of a man who commits an unnatural
crime with a wedded wife, feed during that month
on his semen. All unnatural intercourse is against
the sacred law/

24. It is also declared in the Kanaka, ' (When)
the women (asked) Indra, <v May even those among
us, who are soon to be mothers, (be allowed to)
cohabit with their husbands," he granted that wish/

25. Let him not ascend a tree,

26. Let him not descend into a well.

2 7. Let him not blow the fire with his mouth.
28. Let him not pass between a fire and a Brah-

29. Nor between two fires ;

30. Nor between two Brahmarcas ; or (he may do
it) after having asked for permission.

31. Let him not dine together with his wife. For
it is declared in the Va^asaneyaka, ' His children
will be destitute of manly vigour/

19. Kr/shaparfita thinks that this rule refers to the first five
mouthfuls only.

ai. Vishwu LXIX, i. The Parva days are the eighth, four-
teenth, and fifteenth of each half-month.

25-27. Gautama IX, 32. 28. Apastamba II, 5, 12, 6.

30. Apastamba II, 5, 12, 7-8.

31. .Satapatha-brahmana X, 5, 2, 9 ; Vishnu LXV1II, 46.


32. Let him not point out (a rainbow calling it)
by (its proper)- name, ' Indra's bow.'

33. Let him call it 'the jewelled bow' (mai-

34. Let him avoid seats, clogs, sticks for cleaning
the teeth, (and other implements) made of Palara

35. Let him not eat (food placed) in his lap.

36. Let him not eat (food placed) on a chair.

37. Let him carry a staff of bamboo,

38. And (wear) two golden earrings.

39. Let him not wear any visible wreath except-
ing a golden one ;

40. And let him disdain assemblies and crowds.

41. Now they quote also (the following verse) :
' To deny the authority of the Vedas, to carp at the
teaching of the ffishis, to waver with respect to any
(matter of duty), that is to destroy one's soul.'

42. Let him not go to a sacrifice except if he is
chosen (to be an officiating priest. But) if he goes,
he must, on returning home, turn his right hand
(towards the place).

43. Let him not set out on a journey when the
sun stands over the trees.

32-33. Gautama IX, 22, 34. Gautama IX, 44.

35. Vishnu LXVIII, 21. 36. Gautama IX, 32.

37. Vishnu LXXI, 13. 38. Vishnu LXXI, 16.

39. Gautama IX, 32.

40. "I read sabhasamav&ya/w.s^ava^ayeta. The corrupt read-
ings of Bh. samavaya\ya ^aviyan and of F. samavayawj^a vakshi-
yanna point to this version, the sense of which agrees with the
parallel passages of other Smr/tis, see e. g. Apastamba 1, 1 1, 32, 19,

41. Vishnu LXXI, 83. 42. Gautama IX, 54-55, 66.
43. Vishnu LXIII, 9. According to K/Yshnapawdta the time

intended is midday.


44. Let him not ascend an unsafe boat, or (any
unsafe conveyance).

45. Let him not cross a river, swimming.

46. When he has risen in the last watch (of the
night) and has recited (the Veda) he shall not lie
down again.

47. In the Muhurta sacred to Pra^pati a
Brdhmaa shall fulfil some sacred duties.


1. Now, therefore, the Upakarman (or\ .die rite
preparatory to the study) of the Veda (must be per-
formed) on the full moon day of the month 6rava#a
or Praush/^apada.

2. Having kindled the sacred fire, he offers
(therein) unground (rice) grains,

3. To the gods, to the ./frshis, and to the

4. Let them begin to study the Vedas, after
having made Brahmawas (invited for the purpose)
wish ' welfare ' (svasti), and after having fed them
with sour milk,

5. (And continue the Veda -study) during four

44. Vishnu LXIII, 47.

45. Vishmi LXIII, 46. Kr;shapa^ta omits this Sutra which
is found in the majority of the MSS.

46. Apastamba I, u, 32, 15; Vishwu XXX, 27.

47. Manu IV, 92 ; Vishu LX, i. The Muhurta sacred to
Pra^apati is the same as the Brdhma-muhurta, and falls in the last
watch of the night.

XIII. i. Vishmi XXX, i. .Sravawa, July-August. PraushMa-
pada, i. e. Bhddrapada, August-September. Krz'shapa<fita im-
properly combines this Sutra with the next.

5. Gautama XVI, 2.


months and a half or during five months and a

6. After (the expiration of) that (period), he may
study (the Vedas) during the bright half of each

7. But the supplementary treatises (Angas) of
the Veda at pleasure (both during the bright and
the dark halves of each month).

8. Interruptions of the (Veda-study shall take

9. If it thunders during the twilight,

10. During (both) the twilights (of each day),

11. In towns where a corpse (lies) or A'aWalas

1 2. At pleasure (he may study seated) in (a place)
which has been smeared with cowdung and around
which a line has been drawn.

13. (Let him not study) near a burial-ground,

14. (Nor) lying down,

1 5. Nor when he has eaten or received a gift at
a funeral sacrifice ;

1 6. And with reference to this (subject) they
quote a verse of Manu, ' Be it fruit, or water, or

6-7. Manu IV, 98.

9. Apastamba I, 3, 9, 20. 10. Gautama XVI, 12.

11. Gautama XVI, 19; Vislwu XXX, 10. The above transla-
tion follows Krtshapa<fita's gloss. But the Sutra may also be
taken differently : ' In (villages) where a corpse lies or a K&nd&l*.
stays (and) in towns.' For the prohibition to study in towns is
mentioned by Gautama XVI, 45 ; Manu IV, 1 16 ; and Apastamba

I, 3. 9 4-

12. Apastamba 1,3, 9, 5. The rule refers to places, such as
high-roads, where studying is ordinarily forbidden.

13. Vishmi XXX, 15; Apastamba I, 3, 9, 6.

14. Gautama XVI, 17. 15. Gautama XVI, 34.

1 6. Manu IV, 117 somewhat resembles the verse quoted. But


sesamum, or food, or whatever be the (gift) at a
Sraddha, let him not, having just accepted it, recite
the Veda ; for it is declared in the Smrz'ti, that the
hand of a Brihmaa is his mouth.'

1 7. (Let him not recite the Veda) while he runs,
(nor) while a foul smell and the like (are perceptible,
nor) on barren ground,

1 8. (Nor) when he has ascended a tree,

19. (Nor) in a boat or in a camp,

20. Nor after meals while his hands are moist,

21. (Nor) while the sound of a V#a (is heard),

22. (Nor) on the fourteenth day (of each half-
month, nor) on the new moon day, (nor) on the eighth
day (of each half-month, nor) on an Ash/akd,

23. (Nor) while he stretches his feet out, (nor)
while he makes a lap, (nor) while he leans against
(something), not (in any other unbecoming posture),

24. (Nor) close to his Gurus,

25. (Nor) during that night in which he has had
conjugal intercourse,

26. (Nor) dressed in that garment which he had
on during conjugal intercourse, except if it has been

its altered form shows clearly that the Mdnava DhannajSstra
known to Vasish/^a differed from the work which at present goes
by that name. Compare also .Sankhayana Grzhya-sutra IV, 7, 55.

17. Yi^wavalkya 1, 150; Gautama XVI, 19; Manu IV, 120.

1 8. Apastamba I, 3, n, 16.

19. Vishwu XXX, 1 8; Manu IV, 121.

20. Apastamba I, 3, 10, 25.

21. Gautama XVI, 7, and note.

aa. Visbu XXX, 4 ; Gautama XVI, 37-38. The Ash&kis are
the eighth days of the dark halves of the winter months, Marga-
jirsha, Pausha, M&gha, and Phalguna.

23. Vishmi XXX, 17 ; Manu IV, na. 26. Manu IV, 116.



27. (Nor) at the extremity of a village,

28. (Nor) after (an attack of) vomiting,
(Nor) while voiding urine or faeces.

(Let him not recite) the Rig-veda, the Yafur-
veda, and (the Atharva-veda) while the sound of the
Saman melodies (is audible), nor (the Saman while
the other Vedas are being recited).

31. (Let him not study) before (his food is)

32. (Nor) when a thunderbolt falls,

33. (Nor) when an earthquake happens,

34. Nor when the sun and the moon are eclipsed.

35. When a preternaturally loud sound is heard
in the sky, when a mountain falls, (and) when showers
of stones, blood or sand (fall from the sky, the Veda
must not be read) during the twenty-four hours (im~
mediately succeeding the event).

36. If meteors and lightning appear together, (the
interruption shall last) three (days and) nights.

37. A meteor (alone and) a flash of lightning
(alone cause an interruption lasting) as long as the
sun shines (on that or the next day).

38. (If rain or other celestial phenomena come)
out of season, (the Veda must not be read) during
the twenty-four hours (immediately succeeding the

27. Gautama XVI, 18. 28. Vishmi XXX, 19.

29. Gautama XVI, n. Krzshapa<flta improperly divides the
Sutra into two.

30. Vishmi XXX, 26. 31. Vishmi XXX, 21.
32-34. Vishmi XXX, 5 ; Gautama XVI, 22.

35. Gautama XVI, 22; Manu IV, 105, 115. Kr/shapa<fita
mentions digdaha, ' when the sky appears preternaturally red,' as
a various reading for ' dign&da.'

38. Apastamba I, 3, n, 29.


39. If the teacher has died, (he shall not study
the Veda) during three (days and) nights.

40. If the teacher's son, a pupil, or a wife (have
died, he shall not study) during a day and a night.

41. Let him honour an officiating priest, a father-
in-law, paternal and maternal uncles, (though they
may be) younger than himself, by rising and saluting

42. Likewise the wives of those persons whose
feet must be embraced, and the teacher's (wives),

43. And his parents.

44. Let him say to one acquainted with (the
meaning of) a salute, 'I N. N. ho! (salute thee);'

45. But him who does not know it (he shall
address with the same formula, omitting his name).

46. When a salute is returned, the last vowel (of
the noun standing) in the vocative is produced to
the length of three moras, and if it is a diphthong
(e or o) changeable according to the Sandhi rules, it
becomes ay or av, e. g, bho, bhav.

47. A father who has committed a crime causing
loss of caste must be cast off. But a mother does
not become an outcast for her son.

48. Now they quote also (the following verses) :

39. Apastamba I, 3, 10, 2-4. 40. Vishnu XXXII, 4.

42. The persons intended are, the teacher and so forth. See
Apastamba I, 4, 14, 7, note.

44. Gautama VI, 5.

45. Apastamba I, 4, 14, 23. KrtshnapaTufita combines this
Sutra with the preceding.

46. Apastamba I, a, 5, 18. In returning a salute, the name of
the person addressed is pronounced, and if it ends in a, the vowel
is made pluta, while e and o are changed to aya and ava, e. g. Hare
to Haraya.

47. Gautama XX, i ; XXI, 15 ; Apastamba 1, 10, 28, 9.

48. Manu II, 145.

F 2

68 VASISH77T A. XIII, 49.

' The teacher (&arya) is ten times more venerable
than a sub-teacher (upadhyaya), the father a hundred
times more than the teacher, and the mother a
thousand times more than the father.'

49. ' A wife, sons, and pupils who are defiled by
sinful deeds, must first be reproved, and (if they do not
amend, then) be cast off. He who forsakes them
in any other way, becomes (himself) an outcast.'

50. An officiating priest and a teacher who neglect
to teach the recitation of the Veda, or to sacrifice,
shall be cast off. If he does not forsake them, he
becomes an outcast.

5 1. They declare that the male offspring of out-
casts are (also) outcasts, but not the females.

52. For a female enters (the family of) a stranger.

53. He may marry such a (female) without a

54. ' If the teacher's teacher is near, he must be
treated like the teacher (himself). The Veda declares
that one must behave towards the teacher's son just
as towards the teacher.'

55. A Brahma^a shall not accept (as gifts)
weapons, poison, and spirituous liquor.

56. Learning, wealth, age, relationship, and occupa-

Online LibraryGeorg BühlerThe sacred laws of the Aryas : as taught in the schools of Apastamba, Gautama, Vasishtha and Baudhayana → online text (page 34 of 55)