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The sacred laws of the Aryas : as taught in the schools of Apastamba, Gautama, Vasishtha and Baudhayana online

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their husbands ; those who are unfaithful are born as

15. Half the body of the husband falls if his wife

n. Colebrooke IV, Dig. CXIII, where jukart, 'a sow,' is read
instead of juktika, ' a pearl-oyster/

13. ManuXI, 178. Krzshapa7MTita states correctly that an-
drayaottaram, 'succeeded by one, two, or three A!andrayaas/
may also' mean ' following one, two, or three -ffandrayawas,' and
that the number of AandrSyanas to be performed depends mi the
caste of the person with whom the adultery was committed. Thus
a Brahmaf must perform one KrikkAra. and one A'andraya^a for
adultery with a Kshatriya, one KrzHAra and two JSTandriyawas for
adultery with a Vaijya, and one Kr;ra and three Aandriyawas
for adultery with a Sudra. His view that the rule refers to wives
who commit the sin without intent or against their will, is open to
doubt. It is probably an alternative, to be adopted in lighter cases,
for the public punishment prescribed above, XXI, 1-3. Regarding
the ^andrSyawa, see below, XXIV, 44.

14. Colebrooke IV, Dig. CVIII ; ManuV, 164-165.

15. Manu IX, 80; Ya^rcavalkya I, 73.

XXI, 23. PENANCES. 1 1 3

drinks spirituous liquor. No purification is pre-
scribed for the half which has fallen.

1 6. If a Bralimawa unintentionally commits adul-
tery with the wife of a Brahmawa, (he shall perform)
a Krz/ira. penance in case (the husband) fulfils the
religious duties (of his caste), and an Atikrz//^ra
penance in case (the husband) does not fulfil his
religious duties.

17. The same .(penances are prescribed) for
Kshatriyas and Vaisyas (for adultery with women
of their respective castes).

1 8. If he kills a cow, let him perform, during six
months, a Y^rikkhrz. or a Taptakrz///&ra, dressed in
the raw hide of that (cow).

1 9. The rule for these two (penances is as follows) :

20. ' During three days he eats in the day-time
(only), and during the (next) three days at night
(only), he subsists during (another) period of three
days on food offered without asking, and (finally) he
fasts during three days/ That is a Y^rikkhrz. penance.

21. ' Let him drink hot water during three days ;
let him drink hot milk during the (next) three days ;
after drinking during (another) period of three days
hot clarified butter, he shall subsist on air during
the (last) three days.' That is a Taptakr/^ra

22. And he shall give (to a Brahmawa) a bull
and a cow.

23. Now they quote also (the following verse) :
' Through killing a spotted deer, a he-goat, and

1 6. Vishmi LIII, 2.

18. Vishmi L, 16-24; Gautama XXII, 18.

20. Vishwu XLVI, 10. 21. Vishmi XLVI, n.

23. The above translation follows the commentary of.K/Ysha-

114 VASISH7*HA. XXI, 24.

a bird three maladies (befal men), viz. jealousy,
hunger, and old age; (therefore) let him (who is
guilty of such an offence) perform (a penance) during
ninety-eight (days).'

24. Having slain a dog, a cat, an ichneumon,
a snake, a frog, or a rat, let him perform a Kri&faa.
penance of twelve days' duration, and give something
(to a Brahma^a).

25. But having slain a quantity of boneless ani-
mals, equal to the weight of a cow, let him perform
a Y^rikkhra. penance of twelve days' duration, and
give something (to a Brahma^a).

26. But (the same penance must be performed) for
each single (slain animal) that possesses bones.

27. He who extinguishes the (sacred) fires shall
perform a KrMJkra. penance of twelve days, and
cause them to be kindled again (by priests engaged
for the occasion).

28. He who falsely accuses a Guru shall bathe,
dressed in his clothes, and ask his Guru's pardon.
It is declared in the Veda that he becomes pure by
the Guru's forgiving him.

29. An atheist shall perform a "Krikkhra. penance
of twelve days' duration, and give up his infidelity.

pa<fita, who further states that the penance to be performed shall
consist of a diet of barley gruel. I feel by no means certain that
his interpretation, especially that of the last clause, is correct.
Possibly ash/anavatim aharet may mean 'he shall offer ninety-eight

24. Vishnu L, 30, 31.

25. Gautama XXII, 21. 'Something' means eight handfuls of
grain. 26. Gautama XXII, 22.

27. ViStom LIV, 13 ; Gautama XXII, 34.

28. Vishnu LIV, 14; Y%navalkya III, 283.
29-30. Vishwi LIV, 15.


30. But he who receives subsistence from infidels
(shall perform) an Atik??/fcra penance (and not
repeat his offence).

31. (The rule applicable to) a seller of Soma has
been explained hereby.

32. A hermit, on violating the rules of his order,
shall perform a KrMfaa. penance of twelve days'
duration, and continue (the observances obligatory
on him) in a great forest.

33. Ascetics, (offending in the same manner) as
hermits, shall perform for a protracted period (the
vow of regulating the quantity of their food according
to) the growth of the moon, and shall again be
initiated, in accordance with (the rules of) the Insti-
tutes applicable to them.


i. Now, indeed, man (in) this (world) speaks an
untruth, or sacrifices for men unworthy to offer a
sacrifice, or accepts what ought not to be accepted,
or eats forbidden food, or practises what ought not
to be practised.

31. Vishwu LIV, 17.

33. The penance prescribed appears to be similar to the K&a-
drayaa. The offender must eat one mouthful on the first lunar
day, two on the second, and so forth. But it is not clear for how
long a period the rule is to be observed. The Sutra is interesting
as it furnishes corroborative evidence for Pimm's statement (IV,
3, no) that Bhikshu-sutras which contained the rules applicable to
Bhikshus formerly existed.

XXII. i. As this chapter is almost identical with and probably
copied from Baudhayana III, 10, and Gautama XIX, the division
of the Sutras has not been made in accordance with Kr/sh*a-
paw^ita's commentary, but agrees with that of the chapter in
Gautama's Dharnmastra. The notes to the translation of the

I 2


2. They are in doubt if he shall perform a penance
for such (a deed), or if he shall not do it.

3. (Some) declare that he shall not do it,

4. Because the deed does not perish.

5. (The correct view is, that) he shall perform
(a penance), because it is enjoined in the revealed

6. 'He who offers a horse-sacrifice conquers all
sin, he destroys the guilt of the murder of a

7. (Moreover), ' Let an Abhi-fasta offer a Gosava
or an Agnish/ut-sacrince/

8. Reciting the Veda, austerity, a sacrifice, fasting,
giving gifts are the means for expiating such a
(blamable act).

9. (The purificatory texts are) the Upanishads,
the Vedantas, the Sawhita-text of all the Vedas, the
(Anuvakas called) Madhu, the (hymn of) Aghamar-

latter work must be consulted for the explanation of the more
difficult passages.

5-7. The text appears here to be corrupt. After Sutra 5,
Baudhayana III, 10, 6 (Gautama XIX, 7), Puna^ stomena ya^eta
puna/fc savanamaya'ntiti vi^layate, ' It is declared in the Veda, " Let
him offer a Puna/fcstoma-sacrifice, (those who offer it) again come
to partake of (the libations of) Soma," ' has been left out. This
omission caused the insertion of the words tasma*Mrutinidar.ranat
[darxanit, Bh. .], (' because it is enjoined in the revealed texts,')
at the end of Sutra 5. The proof that the sixth Sutra of Baudha-
yana has been accidentally omitted is furnished by the fact that
several MSS. of Vasish//fca read iti a after yo 'jvamedhena ya^ate
(Vas. XXII, 6). This ka. has no meaning, except if another Vedic
passage preceded Sfttra 6. In order to escape this difficulty,
Kr/'shapa/7/ita writes yo 'jvamedhena ya^ata iti, and begins the
next Sutra with iti a, which he explains by 'moreover.'

9. Kr/'shapa</ita gives before 'Vedantas' another word veda-
daya, which he explains by ' the Vedas, Smmis, and Puraas.'


shawa.the Atharvasiras,the(Anuvakas called) Rudras,
the Purusha-hymn, the two Samans called Ra^awa
and Rauhmeya, the Kushma^das, the Pavamanis,
and the Savitrf.

10. Now they quote also (the following verse) :
' He who performs once in each season the offerings
to Vaisvanara and Vratapati and the Pavitresh/i
sanctifies ten ancestors.'

11. To live on milk alone, as if one were fasting,
to eat fruit only, (to live on) barley gruel prepared
of a handful of grain, to eat gold, to drink Soma (are
modes of subsistence which) purify.

12.. All mountains, all rivers, holy lakes, places
of pilgrimage, the dwellings of TvVshis, cowpens, and
temples of the gods (are) places (which destroy sin).

13. A year, a month, twenty-four days, twelve
days, six days, three days, a day and a night are the
periods (for penances).

14. These (acts) may be optionally performed
when no (particular penance) has been prescribed.

15. (Viz.) for great sins difficult (penances), and
for trivial faults easy ones.

1 6. The K>zra and the Atikr/^//ra (as well as)
the A'andrayawa are penances for all (offences).


i. If a student has approached a woman, he shall
slay in the forest, in a place where four roads meet,

10. Kn'shwapamfita takes the last word dajapurusham to mean
ten ancestors and ten descendants.

11. ' As if one were fasting,' i. e. in small quantities. Kr/shna-

XXIII. i. Gautama XXIII, 17.


(kindling) a common fire, an ass for the Rakshas
(the goblins),

2. Or he may. offer an oblation of rice (^aru) to
Nirrzti (the goddess of hell).

3. Let him throw into the fire (four oblations
consisting) of that (sacrificial food, saying), ' To Lust
svahd ; to him who follows his lust svaha; to Nir-
ri\\ svahci ; to the divine Rakshas svaliaV

4. If, before returning home (from his teacher,
a student) voluntarily defiles himself, sleeps in the
day-time, or practises any other vow (than that of
studentship), the same (penance must be performed).

5. If he has committed a bestial crime, he shall
give a white bull (to a Brahmaa).

6. The guilt incurred by a bestial crime with a
cow, has been explained by the (rule regarding) the
killing of a female of the ^udra caste.

7. A student breaks his vow by performing
funeral rites,

8. Excepting those of his mother and his father.

9. If a (student) is sick, he may eat, at his pleasure,
all that is left by his teacher as medicine.

10. If (a student) who is employed by his teacher
(to perform some duty), meets with his death, (the
teacher) shall perform three Y^rikkhr^. penances.

4. Manu XI, 121.

5. Vishwu LIII, 7 ; Gautama XXII, 36.

6. Vishwu LIII, 3 ; Gautama XXIII, 12.

7. Manu V, 88. 8. Manu V, gi.

9. The object of the Sutra is to permit during sickness a relax-
ation of the rules regarding forbidden food. Hence a sick student
may eat honey, meat, &c.

10. Yag-wavalkya III, 283-. 'Meets with his death/ e.g. is
killed by a wild animal or a snake, while collecting fuel in the


11. If a student eats meat which has been given
to him as leavings (by his teacher), he shall perform
a Kri&Mra. penance of twelve days' duration, and
afterwards finish his vow.

1 2. The same (penance must be performed) if he
eats food given at a -Sraddha or by a person who is
impure on account of a recent death or birth.

1 3. It is declared in the Veda, that honey given
without asking does not defile (a student) of the

14. For him who committing suicide becomes an
Abhisasta, his blood-relations (sapiw^a) shall not
perform the funeral rites.

15. He is called a suicide who destroys himself
by means of wood, water, clods of earth, stones,
weapons, poison, or a rope.

16. Now they quote also (the following verse):
' The twice-born man who out of affection performs
the last rites for a suicide, shall perform a A'andra-
yaa penance together with a Taptak^^ra.'

1 7. We shall describe the ^fandrayaa below.

1 8. A fast of three days (must be performed) for
resolving to die by one's own hand.

1 1 . Manu XI, 159 ; Ya^navalkya III, 282 ; see also Apastamba's
discussion on the subject, I, I, 4, 5.

12. Manu XI, 158.

13. This Sutra may also mean, 'It is declared that, according
to the Va^asaneyaka, honey given (to a student) without his asking
for it does not defile him.' But a parallel passage of Devala, which
KnshMapaxufita quotes, makes, I think, the version given above
appear preferable. In either case the passage is explained by the
fact that, according to the .Satapatha-brahmafla, .Svetaketu, one of
the great teachers of the White Ya^ur-veda, strongly pleaded for the
use of honey; see Weber, Indische Studien X, 123 seq.

14. Vishmi XXII, 56 ; Gautama XIV, 12.

16. Vishau XXII, 58-59. 17- See below, Sutra 45-


19. 'He who attempts suicide, but remains alive,
shall perform a Krtra penance during twelve
days. (Afterwards) he shall fast for three (days and)
nights, being dressed constantly in a garment smeared
(with clarified butter), and suppressing his breath, he
shall thrice recite the Aghamarshawa;'

20. Or, following the same rule, he may also
frequently recite the Giyatri ;

2 1 . Or, having kindled a fire, he may offer clarified
butter with the Kushmdw^as.

22. ' And the guilt (of) all (offences) excepting
mortal sins is removed thereby.'

23. Now he may also sip water in the morning,
thinking of (the Mantra), * May fire and wrath and
the lords of wrath protect me/ &c., and meditating
on his sin ; (then) he may mutter the Vyhritis that
end with satya (truth), prefixing (the syllable) Om
(to each), or he may recite the Aghamarshawa*

24. If he touches a human bone to which fat still
adheres, he becomes impure during three (days and)
nights ;

25. But (on touching a bone) to which no fat
adheres, a day and a night,

26. Likewise if he has followed a corpse (to the

27. If he passes between men reciting the Veda,
he shall fast during a day and a night.

28. (Those who recite the Veda) shall sprinkle
each other with water and stay away (from their
houses) during three (days and) nights.

22. Regarding the efficacy of the Kushma/z</a texts, see above,
XXII, 9.

23. The text occurs Taitt. Ar. X, 24, i.
24-25. Manu V, 87; Vishmi XXII, 75.

26. Manu V, iot. 28. Gautama I, 58.

XXIII, 34- PENANCES. 1 2 1

29. (The same penance must be performed) for
a day and night, if a dog, a cat, or an ichneumon
pass quickly (between those who recite the Veda).

30. If he has swallowed the flesh of a dog, a cock,
a village pig, a grey heron, a vulture, a Bhasa, a
pigeon, a man, a crow or an owl, (he must) fast
during seven days, (and thus) empty his entrails ;
(afterwards he must) eat clarified butter, and be
initiated again.

31. 'But a Brahmawa who has been bitten by a
dog, becomes pure, if he goes to a river that flows
into the ocean, (bathes there), suppresses his breath
one hundred times, and eats clarified butter.'

32. ' Time, fire, purity of mind, water, looking at
the sun, and ignorance (of defilement) are the six
means by which created beings are purified.'

33. It is declared in the Veda that, on touching
a dog, a A'aw^ala, or an outcast, he becomes at once
pure, if he bathes, dressed in his clothes.

34. If (while reciting the Veda) they hear noises

29. Gautama I, 59.

30. Vishnu LI, 3-4; Gautama XXIII, 4-5; Manu XI, 157.
The Sutra is badly corrupted in Kn'shapa#<fita's edition. I read
kanka instead of vanka, leave out vayasa after bhSsa, and change
ka-kolukana-ff* sddane to kakolukama^sjldane. The latter change
is absolutely necessary ; firstly, because the penances for killing dogs
and men have been given above ; secondly, because the word manu-
sha requires a noun which it qualifies at the end of the compound ;
thirdly, because the penance which is prescribed, fasting until the
entrails are empty, is absurd for murder, but appropriate for eating
forbidden food; and fourthly, because the parallel passages of other
Smrriis actually do prescribe it for eating the flesh of excessively
impure animals and for cannibalism. The change of am a to "
is a very common mistake in Devanagari MSS.

31. Vishnu LIV, 12. 32- Vishmi XXII, 88.
33. Apastamba I, 5, 15, 1 6.


made by outcasts or K&nd&\zs, they shall sit silent
and fasting during three days ;

35. Or if they repeat that (text of the Gdyatrl)
at least one thousand times, they become pure ; thus
it is stated in the Veda.

36. By this rule (the penance to be performed by)
those who teach or sacrifice for vile men has been
explained. It is declared in the Veda that they
become pure by also relinquishing the fees (which
they received).

37. By this same (rule the penance prescribed
for) an Abhfcasta, (one accused of a heinous crime,)
has been explained.

38. (If he has been accused of) killing a learned
Brahmaa, let him subsist during twelve days on
water (only), and fast during (another) twelve days.

39. If he has falsely accused a Brahmawa of a
crime which causes loss of caste, or of a minor
offence which does not cause loss of caste, he shall
subsist during a month on water (only), and con-
stantly repeat the (Rikas called) .Suddhavatls ;

40. Or he may go to bathe (with the priests) at
(the conclusion of) a horse-sacrifice.

41. By this (rule the penance for) intercourse with
a female of the K&nd&a. caste has been declared.

42. Now (follows the description of) another
Krzra penance, applicable to all (men), where (the
rule given above) has been altered.

43. On one day (let him eat) in the morning (only),
on the (following) day at night (only), on the (next)
day food given without asking, and on the (fourth)
day (let him) fast ; the succeeding (three) periods of

36. Vishu LIV, 25, 26. 38. Ya^iavalkya III, 287.

39. Ya-avalkya 111,286. 41. Vish*u LIII, 5, 6.


four days (must be passed) in the same manner.
Wishing to show favour to the Brahmawas, Manu,
the chief among the pillars of the law, has thus
described the SisukriM/tra. (the hard" penance of
children) for infants, aged, and sick men.

44. Now follows the rule for (the performance of)
the A'andrayawa (lunar penance).

45. On the first day of the dark half (of the month)
let him eat fourteen (mouthfuls), let him diminish the
(number of) mouthfuls (each day by one), and conti-
nue in this manner until the end of the fortnight. In
like manner let him eat one mouthful on the first day
of the bright half, and (daily) increasing (the number
of) mouthfuls, continue until the end of the fortnight.

46. Meanwhile let him sing Simans, or mutter
the Vyahrztis.

47. A month during which he thus performs a
A'dndrayawa, the jRishis have called by way of
laudation, 'a means of purification ' (pavitra). It is
prescribed as an expiation of all (offences) for which
no (special penance) has been mentioned.


1. Now (follows the description of) an Atikn'^-
MTSL penance.

2. Let him eat as much as he can take at one
(mouthful, and follow the rules given) above for a
Kr^^ra, (viz.) to eat during three days in the
morning, (during another three days) in the evening,
(during further three days) food given without

44-47. Vishu XLVIL It must be understood that during the
bright half of the month the number of mouthfuls must be increased
every day by one.

XXIV. 1-2. Gautama XXVI, 18-19. ' Above,' i. e. XXI, 20.

1 24 VASISH77/A. XXIV, 3.

asking, and to fast during the last three days. That
is an Atik;V///zra.

3. A Krt&Ara, penance (during the performance
of which one) subsists on water (only is called) a

4. The peculiar observances (prescribed during the
performance) of KrifaUtra. penances (are as follows):

5. ' Having cut his nails, (the performer) shall
cause his beard and all his hair to be shaved off,
excepting the eyebrows, the eyelashes, and the lock
at the top of the head ; (wear) one garment only ; he
shall eat blameless food ; what one obtains by going
to beg once (is called) blameless food ; he shall bathe
in the morning, at noon, and in the evening ; he shall
carry a stick (and) a waterpot ; he shall avoid to
speak to women and .Sudras ; carefully keeping
himself in an upright or sitting posture, he shall
stand during the day, and remain seated during
the night/ Thus speaks the divine VasishMa.

6. Let him not instruct in these Institutes of the
sacred law anybody but his .son or a pupil who
stays (in his house at -least) for a year.

7. The fee (for teaching it) is one thousand (pawas),
(or) ten cows and a bull, or the worship of the teacher.


i. I will completely explain the purification of
those whose guilt has not been made public, both
from great crimes and for minor offences.

3. Gautama XXVI, 20; see also Vishmi XL VI, 13-14.

4-5. Gautama XXVI, 6, 8 ; Vishu XLVII, 24-25.

6. The MSS. read in the beginning of this Sutra, satayanudeti
or sataydtudeta, while Krzshapa</ita, probably as a guess, writes
saiapa" nudati. I do not think that his correction is satisfactory,
and propose in its stead, sa tadyadetad (dharma-rastram).


2. A penance prescribed in (the section on) secret
(penances) is for an Agnihotrin, an aged and a learned
man, who have subdued their senses ; but other men
(must perform the expiations) described above.

3. Those constantly engaged in suppressing their
breath, reciting purificatory texts, giving gifts, making
burnt-oblations, and muttering (sacred texts) will,
undoubtedly, be freed from (the guilt of) crimes
causing loss of caste.

4. Seated with Kara grass in his hands, let him
repeatedly suppress his breath, and again and again
recite purificatory texts, the Vyahr/tis, the syllable
Om, and the daily portion of the Veda.

5. Always intent on the practice of Yoga, let him
again and again suppress his breath. Up to the
ends of his hair and up to the ends of his nails let
him perform highest austerity.

6. Through the obstruction (of the expiration)
air is generated, through air fire is produced, then
through heat water is formed ; hence he is internally
purified by (these) three.

7. Neither through severe austerities, nor through
the daily recitation of the Veda, nor through offering
sacrifices can the twice-born reach that condition
which they attain by the practice of Yoga.

8. Through the practice of Yoga (true) knowledge
is obtained, Yoga is the sum of the sacred law, the
practice of Yoga is the highest and eternal austerity ;
therefore let him always be absorbed in the practice
of Yoga.

XXV. 4. Read praayaman in the text.

5. The MSS. read at the end of this verse, tapas tapyatam utta-
mam, while Krzshapa</ita gives tapas tapyfct tu uttamam. The
correct reading is probably tapas tapyatu uttamam.

126 VASISHrtfA. XXV, 9.

9. For him who is constantly engaged in (reciting
the syllable) Om, the seven Vyihmis, and the three-
footed Gayatr! no danger exists anywhere.

10. The Vedas likewise begin with the syllable
Om, and they end with the syllable Om, the syllable
Om is the sum of all speech ; therefore let him
repeat it constantly.

11. The most excellent (portion of the) Veda,
which consists of one syllable, is declared to be the
best purificatory text.

12. If the guilt of all sins did fall on one man^
to repeat the Gayatrl ten thousand times (would be)
an efficient means of purification.

13. If, suppressing his breath, he thrice recites
the Gayatrl together with the Vyahr/tis together
with the syllable Om and with the (text called) .Siras,
that is called one suppression of breath.


1. If, uritired, he performs three suppressions of
his breath according to the rule, the sins which he
committed during a day and a night are instantly

2. Seated during the evening prayer, he removes
by (three) suppressions of his breath all guilt which

9. I read with the MSS. bhayaw for bhave.

10. Manu II, 74.

13. Identical withVistowi LV, 9. Regarding the text called
Siras, see above, XXI, 6.

XXVI. i. The verb dharayet, 'performs,' seems to be used in
order to indicate that, according to the Yoga^stra, three Praa-
ySmas make one Dharal; see Ya^wavalkya III, 201.

2-3. Regarding the position at the Sandhya prayers, see also


he incurred during the day by deeds, thoughts, or

3. But standing during the morning prayer, he re-
moves by (three) suppressions of his breath all guilt
which he incurred during the night by deeds, thoughts,
or speeches.

4. But sixteen suppressions of breath, accompanied
by (the recitation of) the Vyihmis and the syllable

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