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Om, repeated daily, purify after a month even the
slayer of a learned Brahma#a.

5. Even a drinker of spirituous liquor becomes
pure, if he mutters the (hymn seen) by Kutsa, ' Apa
na^ sosu&ad agham,' and (the hymn seen) by Vasish-
tkm (which begins with the word) ' Prati,' the Mahitra
(hymn), and the .Suddhavatis.

6. Even he who has stolen gold becomes instantly
free from guilt, if he once mutters (the hymn begin-
ning with the words) 'Asya vamasya' and the
.Sivasawkalpa.

7. The violator of a Guru's bed is freed (from sin)
if he repeatedly recites the (hymn beginning) ' Havish
pantam a^aram ' and that (beginning) ' Na tarn a*#ha/& '
and mutters the hymn addressed to Purusha.

8. Or plunging into water he may thrice mutter
the Aghamarshawa. Manu has declared that the
(effect is the) same as if he had gone to bathe at
a horse-sacrifice.

4. Identical with Manu XI, 249; see also Vishwu LV, 2.

5. Identical with Manu XI, 230. The Vedic texts mentioned
are Rig-veda I, 97, i ; VII, 80; X, 185; VIII, 84, 7-9.

6. Manu LI, 251. The Vedic texts alluded to are Rig-veda I,
164 ; and an Upanishad.

7. Identical with Manu XI, 252. The Vedic texts mentioned
are Rig-veda X, 88; X, 126; X, 90.

8. Manu XI, 260-261 ; Vishwu LV, 7.



128 VASISH77/A. XXVI, g.

9. An offering consisting of muttered prayers is
ten times more efficacious than a sacrifice at which
animals are killed ; a (prayer) which is inaudible (to
others) surpasses it a hundred times, and the mental
(recitation of sacred texts) one thousand times.

10. The four Pakaya^as and those sacrifices
which are enjoined by the rules of the Veda are all
together not equal in value to the sixteenth part of
a sacrifice consisting of muttered prayers.

11. But, undoubtedly, a Brahma^a reaches the
highest goal by muttering prayers only ; whether he
perform other (rites) or neglect them, he is called a
Brahmawa who befriends all creatures (maitra).

12. The sins of those who are intent on muttering
prayers, of those who offer burnt-oblations, of those
who are given to meditation, of those who reside in
sacred places, and of those who have bathed after
performing the vows called K$iras, do not remain.

13. As a fire, fanned by wind, burns brighter, and
(as its flame grows) through offerings (of butter),
even so a Brahmaa who is daily engaged in

9. Manu II, 85; Vish/m LV, 19. The term a-ambhaya^na,
translated by ' an offering at which animals are slain/ is taken by
Kr/shflapa</ita to mean pa./kayagna,, ' an offering consisting of
Vedic mantras recited aloud.' The word may be taken in several
ways, but the various reading vidhiya^tla in Manu's verse induces
me to adopt the translation given above.

10. Identical with Manu II, 86, and Vishnu LV, 20. Regarding
the four Pakaya^was, see Professor Jolly's note on Vishmi. In
my opinion the four classes of rites huta, ahuta, prahuta, and prd-
j-ita are meant.

11. Identical with Manu II, 87.

1 2. ' After performing the vows (called) Siras,' i. e. those which
are known in the Upanishads, which are called agnidhdrana and
so forth, and whose head (jiras) consists in the worship of the
teacher. Kr/shapa#</ita. Mu</aka Upanishad III, 2, 10.



XXVII, i. SECRET PENANCES. 129

muttering sacred texts shines with a brilliant
lustre.

14. The destruction of those who fulfil the duty
of daily study, who constantly restrain themselves,
who mutter prayers and offer sacrifices has never
been known (to happen).

15. Let him who is desirous of purification repeat,
though he be charged with all sins, the divine (Gaya-
trl), at the most one thousand times, or one hundred
times as a medium (penance), or at least ten times
(for trivial faults).

1 6. A Kshatriya shall pass through misfortunes
which have befallen him by the strength of his arms,
a Vawya and iSttdra by their wealth, the highest
among twice-born men by muttered prayers and
burnt-oblations.

1 7. As horses (are useless) without a chariot, as
chariots (are useless) without horses, even so austerity
(is useless) to him who is destitute of sacred learn-
ing, and sacred learning to him who practises no
austerities.

1 8. As food mixed with honey, or honey mixed
with food, even so are austerities and learning, joined
together, a powerful medicine.

19. No guilt taints a Brahma^a who possesses
learning, practises austerities, and daily mutters sacred
texts, though he may constantly commit sinful acts.

CHAPTER XXVII.

i. If a hundred improper acts, and even more,
have been committed, and the (knowledge of the)



14. Manu IV, 146.

XXVII. 1-2. Manu XI, 347.



CM]



1 30 VASISH7W A. XXVII, 2.

Veda is retained, the fire of the Veda destroys all
(the guilt) of that man just as a (common) fire con-
sumes fuel.

2. As a fire that burns strongly consumes even
green trees, even so the fire of the Veda destroys
one's guilt caused by (evil) deeds.

3. A Brahmawa who remembers the Rig-veda is
not tainted by any guilt, though he has destroyed
these (three) worlds and has eaten the food of all,
(even of the most sinful) men.

4. If (a Brahma#a) relies on the power of the
Veda, he cannot find pleasure in sinful acts. Guilt
(incurred) through ignorance and negligence is de-
stroyed, not (that of) other (intentional offences).

5. If a hermit subsisting on roots and fruit prac-
tises austerities in a forest, and (a householder)
recites a single Rik, the merit of the acts of the one
and of the other is equal.

6. Let him strengthen the Veda by (studying)
the Itihasas and Puraas. For the Veda fears a man
of little learning, (thinking) ' He will destroy me.'

7. The daily recitation of the Veda and the per-
formance, according to one's ability, of the series
of Mahaya^as quickly destroy guilt, even that of
mortal sins,

8. Let him daily perform, without tiring, his par-
ticular rites which the Veda enjoins. For if he does
that according to his ability, he will reach the most
blessed state.

9. Through sacrificing for wicked people, through
teaching them, through intermarrying with them,
and through receiving gifts from them, (learned)

3. Identical with Manu XI, 262.

8. ' The most blessed state,' i. e. final liberation, or moksha.



XXVII, i6. SECRET PENANCES.



Brahmaas do not contract guilt, for (a learned
Brahmawa) resembles a fire and the sun.

10. I will now declare the .purification prescribed
for (eating) food, regarding which doubts have arisen,
whether it may be called fit to be eaten or not.
Listen to my words !

11. Let a Brahma^a drink during three days the
astringent decoction of the Brahmasuvar/ala plant,
unmixed with salt or pungent condiments, and (a de-
coction of) the .Sahkhapushpl plant, together with milk.

12. Let him drink water, after boiling in it Pali\ya
and Bilva leaves, Kusa. grass, and (leaves of) lotuses
and Udumbara trees ; after three days and no more
he becomes pure.

13. (Subsisting) during one day on each (of the
following substances), cow's urine, cowdung, milk,
sour milk, butter, and water in which Kuja grass has
been boiled, and fasting on the seventh day purify
even (him who fears that he has partaken of the
food of) a 6Vapaka.

14. He who lives during five days on cow's urine,
cowdung, milk, sour milk, and clarified butter, is
purified by means of (that) Pa#/agavya, (the five
products of the cow.)

15. He who, in accordance with the rule, uses
barley (for his food), becomes pure even by ocular
proof. (For) if he is pure, those (barley grains) will
be white, if he is impure they will be discoloured.

1 6. (If he makes) three morning meals of food



12. Vishmi XL VI, 23. I read

13. Vishmi XLVI, 19.

15. The rule is described by Vishmi XLVIII.
1 6. The meaning of the Sutra is that each mode of subsistence
is to be continued during three days.

K 2



132 VASISHJTHA. XXVII, 17.

fit for a sacrifice and three evening meals in like
manner, and if food given without asking (is his
subsistence) in the same manner, (he will thus per-
form) three fasts.

17. Now if he is in haste to make (himself pure),
(let him) subsist on air during a day, and pass the
night standing in water; (that penance) is equal to
a Pra^-apatya (Krtra).

1 8. But if at sunrise he mutters the Gayatri eight
thousand times, he will be freed from all mortal sins,
provided he be not the slayer of a Brihmaa.

19. He, forsooth, who has stolen (the gold of
a Brahma#a), has drunk spirituous liquor, has slain
a learned Brahmarca, or has violated his Guru's
bed, will become free from all (these) mortal sins
if he studies the Institutes of the sacred law.

20. For unlawful acts, for unlawful sacrifices, and
for great sins (let him perform) a Krifaa. and
a A'andraya^a, which destroy all guilt.

21. Let him add daily one mouthful (to his food)
during the bright (half of the month), let him dimi-
nish it (daily by one mouthful) during the dark (half),
and let him fast on the new-moon day ; that is the
rule for the ^fandraya^a (or lunar penance).

CHAPTER XXVIII.

i. A woman is not defiled by a lover, nor a Brah-
ma#a by Vedic rites, nor water by urine and ordure,
nor fire by consuming (impure substances).

1 8. Ash/asahasram, 'eight thousand times/ may also mean 'one
thousand and eight times.'

21. See above, XXIII, 44-47.

XXVIII. i. 'Is not denied by a lover,' i.e. does not become
irrevocably an outcast, but may be restored to her position after



XXVIII, g. SECRET PENANCES. 133

2-3. A wife, (though) tainted by sin, whether she
be quarrelsome, or have left the house, or have suf-
fered criminal force, or have fallen into the hands of
thieves, must not be abandoned ; to forsake her is
not prescribed (by the sacred law). Let him wait
for the time of her courses; by her temporary
uncleanness she becomes pure.

4. Women (possess) an unequalled means of
purification ; they never become (entirely) foul.
For month by month their temporary uncleanness
removes their sins.

5. Women belong first to three gods, Soma (the
moon), the Gandharva, and Fire, and come after-
wards into the possession of men ; according to the
law they cannot be contaminated.

6. Soma gave them cleanliness, the Gandharva
their melodious voice, and Fire purity of all (limbs);
therefore women are free from stains.

7. Those versed in the sacred law state that there
are three acts (only) which make women outcasts, (viz.)
the murder of the husband, slaying a learned Brah-
mawa, and the destruction of the fruit of their womb.

8. A calf is pure when the milk flows, a bird when
it causes fruit to fall, women during dalliance, and
a dog when he catches a deer.

9. Pure is the mouth of a goat and of a horse,
pure is the back of a cow, pure are the feet of a Brah-
mawa, but women are pure in all (limbs).

performing a penance, provided her lover was a man of equal
caste. Krz'shtfapa</ita.

2-3. For the last clause compare Ya^navalkya I, 72.

4. See above, V, 3-4.

5. Paraskara Grzliya-sutra I, -4, 16.

6. Ya^navalkya I, 71. 7- Ya^wavalkya I, 72.
8. Vishu XXIII, 49. 9- Vishnu XXIII, 40.



1 34 VASISHFHA. XXVIII, 10.

10. I will now declare the purificatory texts (which
are found) in each Veda ; by muttering them or re-
citing them at a burnt-oblation (men) are doubtlessly
cleansed (from sin).

11. (They are) the Aghamarshawa, the Devakrzta,
the Buddha vatls, the Taratsamas, the KushmaWas,
the Pavamanis, and the Durgisavitrl ;

12. The Atlshahgas, the Padastobhas, and the
Samans (called) Vyahrzti, the Bharuwak Samans,
the Gayatra (Saman), and the Raivata ;

13. The Purushavrata and the Bhasa, and like-
wise the Devavrata (Samans), the Ablihga, the Bar-
haspatya, the hymn addressed to VSJs, likewise the
Rifas (called) Madhu ;

14. The 6atarudriya, the Atharvajiras, the Tri-
supar^a, the Mahavrata, the Gosukta, and the A^va-
sukta, and the two Samans (called) -Suddhlfuddhtya.

15. The three (Samans called) A^yadohas, the
Rathantara, the Agnervrata, the Vamadevya, and
the Br^hat, being muttered, purify (all) living beings,
(He who sings them) may obtain the recollection of
former existences, if he desires it.

1 6. Gold is the firstborn of Fire, through Vishwu
exists the earth, and the cows are children of the



10-15. Vishu LVT, and preface, p. xviii. The explanation of
the various terms used will be found in the notes to Professor
Jolly's translation of Vishmi.

12. MSS. and K>*shapa;fcfita, Abhishahg&fc. Krz'shapa<fita
and MS. B. bharadaw^dni ; E. bh&fani ; Bh. and F. omit w. 1 2
and 1 3 a.

1 3. Kn'shnapaw/ita and B. artvigam ; Bh. E. F. as above. The
Bhasa begins, according to Krz'shapa<fita, ague -vratapate.

14. Kr/shapa<fita and B. indr&mddhe; Bh. E. F. juddhaw-
iuddhena.



XXVIII, 22. GIFTS. 135

Sun ; he who bestows as gifts gold, a cow, and land
will obtain rewards without end for them.

17. A cow, a horse, gold, (and) land, bestowed
on an unlearned Brahmarca who neglects his sacred
duties, prevent the giver (from attaining heaven).

18-19. (If he presents), on the full moon of the
month of Vawakha, (to) seven or five Brahmawas,
black or white sesamum grains (mixed) with honey,
(saying), 'May the king of justice (Yama) rejoice!'
or (expressing) some other (wish) which he may have
in his mind, the guilt which he has incurred during
his (whole) life will instantly vanish.

20. But hear (now) the reward of the merit
acquired by that man who gives the skin of a black
antelope, to which the hoofs are (still) attached and
the navel of which is adorned with gold, covering it
with sesamum grains.

21. 'Without doubt he has bestowed (through
that gift) the four-faced earth, together with its
caves filled with gold, and together with its moun-
tains, groves, and forests.'

22. 4 He who, placing on the skin of a black ante-
lope, sesamum, gold, honey, and butter, gives it to
a Brdhmawa, overcomes all sin.'



17. Manu IV, 190, 193-194. Kr;shapa<fita and MSS. B. and
E. read uparudanti dataraw, MSS. Bh. and F. uparundanti. I change
the latter reading to uparundhanti.

18-19. Vishnu XC, 10.

20-22. -Vishnu LXXXVII, 8-10, and Professor Jolly's preface,
p. xviii.

21. 'The four-faced earth,' i.e. the earth which is surrounded
by the four oceans.



136 VASISHZTfA. XXIX, i.



CHAPTER XXIX.

1 . Through liberality (man) obtains all his desires,

2. (Even) longevity, (and he is born again as)
a student of the Veda, possessed of beauty.

3. He who abstains from injuring (sentient beings)
obtains heaven.

4. By entering a fire the world of Brahman (is
gained).

5. By (a vow of) silence (he obtains) happiness.

6. By staying (constantly) in water he becomes
a lord of elephants.

7. He who expends his hoard (in gifts) becomes
free from disease.

8. A giver of water (becomes) rich by (the fulfil-
ment of) all his desires.

9. A giver of food (will have) beautiful eyes and
a good memory.

10. He who gives a promise to protect (some-
body) from all dangers (becomes) wise.

1 1. (To bestow gifts) for the use of cows (is equal
to) bathing at all sacred places.

12. By giving a couch and a seat (the giver
becomes) master of a harem.

13. By giving an umbrella (the giver) obtains
a house.



XXIX. 4. This Sutra, which recommends self-cremation, is of
some importance, as it confirms the teaching of the Puraas and
explains the accounts of the Greeks regarding the self-immolation
of Brahmaas who visited Europe.

9. Vishnu XCII, 21.

12. Vish/m Xdl, 27; Manu IV, 232. 'Master of a harem,'
i. e. the possessor of many beautiful wives and concubines.



XXIX, 21. GIFTS.



14. He who gives a house obtains a town.

15. He who gives a pair of shoes obtains a vehicle.

1 6. Now they quote also (the following verses) :
' Whatever sin a man distressed for livelihood com-
mits, (from that) he is purified by giving land, (be
it) even " a bull's hide." '

17. 'He who gives to a Brahmawa a vessel filled
with water for sipping, will obtain after death com-
plete freedom from thirst and be born again as a
drinker of Soma.'

1 8. ' If a gift of one thousand oxen fit to draw
a carriage (has been bestowed) according to the rule
on a perfectly worthy man, that is equal to giving
a maiden.'

19. ' They declare that cows, land, and learning
are the three most excellent gifts. For to give
learning is (to bestow) the greatest of all gifts, and
it surpasses those (other gifts).'

20. ' A learned man who. free from envy, follows
this rule of conduct which procures endless rewards,
and which through final liberation frees him from
transmigration ;'

21. ' Or who, full of faith, pure, and subduing his



14. Vishmi XCII, 31. 15. Vishmi XCII, 28.

1 6. Vishmi XCII, 4. Kr/shapa<fita quotes a passage of the
Matsya-purawa according to which ' a bull's hide ' is a measure
equal to 1 40 square hastas ; see, however, notes to Vishnu loc. cit.
and V, 183.

17. Manu IV, 229.

1 8. Read in the text vidhivaddanam kanyidanena tatsamam.

19. Kr;shapaw^ta wrongly makes two Sutras out of this verse.

20. Kr/srmapa<fita and MS. B. read, against the metre and
sense, yoginaw sampuritam vidvan, another reading yoginSw saw-
matam vidv&n. F. reads yonasawyurimawz vidv&n. I read yo 'na-

vidvan.



1 38 VASISH7WA. XXX, I.

senses, remembers or even hears it, will, freed from
all sin, be exalted in the highest heaven.'



CHAPTER XXX.

1. Practise righteousness, not unrighteousness ;
speak truth, not untruth ; look far, not near ; look
towards the Highest, not towards that which is not
the Highest.

2. A Brahmawa is a fire.

3. For the Veda (says), ' Agni, forsooth, is a
Brahma^a,'

4. And how is that ?

5. And it is also declared in the Kanaka, 'On
that (occasion) the body of the Brahmaa who repre-
sents the sacrificial seat is the altar, the vow to per-
form the rite is the sacrifice, the soul is the animal
to be slain, the intellect the rope (with which the
animal is bound), the mouth of (the Brahma^a) who
represents the seat is the Ahavanlya fire, in his
navel (is the Dakshi^a fire), the fire in his abdomen
is the Garhapatya fire, the Prawa is the Adhvaryu
priest, the Apana the Hotrt priest, the Vyana the
Brahman, the Samana the Udgit^' priest, the organs
of sensation the sacrificial vessels. He who knowing
this offers a sacrifice to the organs through the
organs.' ...

6. Now they quote also (the following verses) :
' An offering placed in the mouth-fire of a Brah-

XXX. 2. See above, III, 10.

3. .Satapatha-brahmafla I, 4, 22.

5. Krzshapa#(/ita divides the passage into thirteen Sfitras, and
connects tatra, 'on that occasion/ with the preceding Sutra. 'On
that (occasion),' i. e. if a Brahmaa is fed.



XXX, p. GIFTS. 139

maa which is rich in Veda-fuel, protects and saves
the giver and (the eater) himself from sin.'

7. ' But the offering made through the mouth of a
Brahmawa, which is neither spilt nor causes pain (to
sentient creatures), nor assails him (who makes it), is
far more excellent than an Agnihotra.'

8. After performing a mental sacrifice at which
meditation (takes the place of the sacred) fire, truth-
fulness (the place of) the sacred fuel, patience (the
place of) the oblation, modesty (the place of) the
sacrificial spoon, abstention from injuring living
beings (the place of the) sacrificial cake, contentment
(the place of) the sacrificial post, (and a promise
of) safety given to all beings which is hard to keep
(the place of) the reward given to the priests, a wise
man goes to his (eternal) home.

9. The hair of an aging man shows signs of age,
(and) the teeth of an aging man show signs of age,
(but) the desire to live and the desire for wealth do
not decay even in an aging man.

7. ManuVII, 84; YagTiavalkya I, 315. Krjshapa<fita's read-
ing, nainam adhya^ate fa yaJi, which occurs also in B., is nonsense.
I read with Bh. nainamadhypatea yat, and take adhyapatet,
' assails (the giver)/ in the sense of ' troubles him by causing the
performance of penances, on account of mistakes committed.
Manu's version, na vinajyati karhi&t, ' and never perishes,' is of
course an easier one, but it seems to me doubtful whether it is
older than Vasish//5a's.

8. The passage, which is probably a quotation from an Upani-
shad, is very corrupt in the MSS. and Kr;shapa</ita's text I cor-
rect it as follows :

DhyanagniA satyopa^ayanawz kshintyahutiA
sruva/nhri^ purooSsamahiflzsi saMosho
yupa/ lirtkkhrzm bhutebhyo 'bhayadakshinyam iti
kr/tva" kratum ma"nasaw yati kshayam budhaA.
But I am not confident that all tho difficulties ha\ ~- been removed.



I4O VASISHiTtfA. XXX, 10.

10. Happiness (is the portion) of that man who
relinquishes (all) desire, which fools give up with
difficulty, which does not diminish with age, and
which is a life-long disease.

1 1. Adoration to VasishMa .Satayatu, the son of
Mitra and Varuwa and Urva^l !



BAUDHAYANA.



BAUDHAYANA.



PRASNA I, ADHYAYA 1, KAJVDIKA 1.

1. The sacred law is taught in each Veda.

2. We will explain (it) in accordance with that.

3. (The sacred law), taught in the Tradition
(Smmi, stands) second.

4. The practice of the 51sh/as (stands) third.

5. .Sish&is, forsooth, (are those) who are free
from envy, free from pride, contented with a store
of grain sufficient for ten days, free from covetous-
ness, and free from hypocrisy, arrogance, greed,
perplexity, and anger.

6. '(Those are called) ,Sish/as who, in accordance
with the sacred law, have studied the Veda together

1. i. Vasish//fca I, 4. Each Veda, i. e. each j&kha or redaction
of the Veda. Govinda.

3. VasishMa I, 4. Govinda takes smr/ti, ' the tradition/ in the
sense of works (grantha) explaining the recollections of the
/iLi'shis, and is no doubt right in doing so.

4. Vasish//$a I, 5. The explanation of Sgama by ' practice' rests
on the authority of Govinda and the parallel passages where jila
and a^ara, ' conduct/ are used.

5. Apastambal, 7, 20, 8; Gautama XXVIII, 48. Kumbhidhanya,
translated according to Govinda by ' contented with a store of grain
sufficient for ten days/ means, according to others, ' contented with
a store of grain sufficient for six days or for a year.'

6. Vasish//$a VI, 43. Govinda omits the word 'hi/ given by the



144 BAUDHAYANA. I, i, i.

with its appendages, know how to draw inferences
from that, (and) are able to adduce proofs perceptible
by the senses from the revealed texts.'

7. On failure of them, an assembly consisting at
least of ten members (shall decide disputed points
of law).

8. Now they quote also (the following verses):
1 Four men, who each know one of the four Vedas,
a Mlmawsaka, one who knows the Angas, one who
recites (the works on) the sacred law, and three
Brahmawas belonging to (three different) orders,
(constitute) an assembly consisting, at least, of ten
members.'

9. 'There may be five, or there may be three, or
there may be one blameless man, who decides (ques-
tions regarding) the sacred law. But a thousand
fools (can)not (do it).'

10. 'As an elephant made of wood, as an antelope
made of leather, such is an unlearned Brahmarca :
those three having nothing but the name (of their
kind).'

MSS. after the verse, whereby it is marked as a quotation. ' The
appendages/ i. e. the Itihasas and Purawas. Govinda.

8. Vasish/Aa III, 20. Govinda, quoting Gautama XXVIII, 49,
says that Vanaprasthas cannot serve as members of Parishads, be-
cause they live in the forest. He also notices a different reading,
not found in my MSS., 'Ajramasthas trayo mukhyaA.' He asserts
that thereby professed students are intended, because professed
students are declared to be particularly holy in the Dharmaskandha-
brahmawa.

9. Vasish/>5a III, 7. Itare, translated by 'fools,' means literally,
'those different from the persons enumerated in the preceding
verse.' Govinda remarks that according to Sutra 12 one learned
Brahmaa must be taken only in cases of the most pressing
necessity.

10. Vasish/^a III, n.



I, I, i. SOURCES OF THE LAW.



145



ii. 'That sin which dunces, perplexed by ignor-
ance and unacquainted with the sacred law, declare
(to be duty), falls, increased a hundredfold, on those
who propound it.'

1 2. ' Narrow and difficult to find is the path of the
sacred law, towards which many gates lead. Hence,
if there is a doubt, it must not be propounded by
one man (only), however learned he may be.'

13. 'What Brahmawas, riding in the chariot of
the law (and) wielding the sword of the Veda, pro-
pound even in jest, that is declared to be the highest
law.'

14. 'As wind and sun will make water, collected
on a stone, disappear, even so the sin that (cleaves)
to an offender completely vanishes like water.'



Online LibraryGeorg BühlerThe sacred laws of the Aryas : as taught in the schools of Apastamba, Gautama, Vasishtha and Baudhayana → online text (page 39 of 55)