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15. ' He who knows the sacred law shall fix the
penances with discernment, taking into consideration
the constitution, the strength, the knowledge, and the
age (of the offender), as well as the time and the

11. Vasish//&a III, 6.

12. The gates' of the sacred law are the Vedas, the Smrrtis, and
the practice of the Sish/as. They are many, because the redactions
of the Vedas and Smr;'tis are numerous and the practices vary in
different countries.

14. I. e. provided the offender performs the penance imposed by
learned and virtuous Brahmaas. Prawajayet, ' will make disappear,'
is ungrammatical, as the subject stands in the dual. Grammatical
accuracy has probably been sacrificed to the exigencies of the

15. VasishMa XIX, 9. .Sariram, literally ' the body,' means here
the constitution, which may be bilious, ' windy,' and so forth. AyuA,
literally ' life ' or ' long life,' has been translated by ' knowledge,'
in accordance with Govinda's explanation, ^fianam. As the word
vaya/*, ' age,' also occurs in this verse, it is clear that ayuA cannot
have its usual meaning.

146 BAUDHAYANA. i, i, I.

1 6. ' Many thousands (of Brahmawas) cannot form
a (legal) assembly (for declaring the sacred law), if
they have not fulfilled their sacred duties, are unac-
quainted with the Veda, and subsist only by the
name of their caste/


1. There is a dispute regarding five (practices)
both in the south and in the north.

2. We will explain those (peculiar) to the south.

3. They are, to eat in the company of an uniniti-
ated person, to eat in the company of one's wife, to
eat stale food, to marry the daughter of a maternal
uncle or of a paternal aunt.

4. Now (the customs peculiar) to the north are,
to deal in wool, to drink rum, to sell animals that
have teeth in the upper and in the lower jaws, to
follow the trade of arms, to go to sea.

1 6. Vasish/^a III, 5. The two copies of the commentary omit
this Sutra, though it is quoted in the explanation of Sutra 9. The
best MSS. repeat the last words of the Sutra in order to show that
the Kawdfika' ends here. The same practice is observed, though
not quite regularly, in the sequel.

2. i . The boundary between the north and south of India is, as
Govinda also points out, the river Narmada.

3. Some of the customs mentioned here still prevail in parts of
southern India. Thus the marriages between cousins occur among
the Dejastha and Karha</a IMhmaflas of the Dekhan.

4. The first two customs mentioned still prevail in the north,
especially in Kajmir, where Brahmawas commonly deal in wool
and woollen cloth. Spirituous liquor is not now drunk openly, but
its use is sanctioned in the Kajmirian Nilamata-puraa. Many
Brahmanical families in the north, especially in the North-western
Provinces,' subsist by enlisting as soldiers in the British and native


5. He who follows (these practices) in any other
country than where they prevail, commits sin.

6. For each (of these customs) the (rule of the)
country should be (considered) the authority.

7. Gautama declares that that is false.

8. And one should not take heed of either (set of
practices) because they are opposed to the tradition
of the 61sh/as.

9. The country of the Aryas (Aryavarta) lies to
the east of the region where (the river Sarasvati)
disappears, to the west of the Black-forest (Kala-
kavana), to the north of the Paripatra (mountains),
to the south of the Himalaya. The rule of conduct
which (prevails) there, is authoritative.

10. Some (declare) the country between the
(rivers) Yamuna and Ganges (to be the Aryavarta).

1 1. Now the Bhallavins quote also the (following)
verse :

12. 'In the west the boundary-river, in the east
the region where the sun rises, as far as 'the black
antelopes wander (between these two limits), so far
spiritual pre-eminence (is found).'

5-6. A similar argument is given by the Kajmtrians for the
lawfulness of the consumption of meat, which they justify by a
de^aguna or ' virtue of their country.'

7. Gautama XI, 20.

9. Vasish/Aa I, 8, 10. Many MSS., and among them the Telugu
copy of the commentary, read Pariyatra instead of Paripatra, vrhich
latter I consider to be the correct form of the word.

10. Vasish/^a 1, 12.

11. Vasish/Aa 1, 14. Govinda remarks that the Bhallavins are
a school studying the Sama-veda. See also Max Mtiller, Hist.
Anc. Sansk. Lit., pp. 193, 364.

12. VasishMa 1, 15. There is a great uncertainty in the MSS.
about the word following sindhuA. I have adopted the reading of

L 2

148 BAUDHAYANA. !,!,*

13. The inhabitants of Avanti, of Ahga, of Maga-
dha, of Surdsh/ra, of the Dekhan, of Upavrzt, of
Sindh, and the Sauviras are of mixed origin.

14. He who has visited the (countries of the)
Ara^as, Karaskaras, Pimafras, Sauviras, Vahgas, Ka-
lihgas, (or) - Pranunas shall offer a Punastoma or a
Sarvaprz'shMji (ish/i).

15. Now they quote also (the following verses):
' He commits sin through his feet, who travels to
the (country of the) Kalingas. The sages declare
the Vai-yvinari ishti to be a purification for him.'

M., sindhur vidharawi, ' the boundary-river,' which occurs also in
the parallel passage of VasishMa. The Dekhan and Gujarat MSS.
read vi^aram or vU'arawa, and the two copies of the commentary
visarani. The sense of these various readings appears to be ' the
river that vanishes or looses itself,' i. e. the Sarasvati.

13. This and the following two Sutras are intended to show
that the customs prevailing in the countries named have no autho-
rity and must not be followed. Avanti corresponds to western
Malva, Ahga to western Bengal, Magadha to Bihar, and Surash/ra
to southern Ka/Wava</. The Sauviras, who are always associated
with the Sindhians, probably dwelt in the south-west of the P&ngab,
near Multan. The Upavr/ts probably are the same as the Upa-
vrz'ttas mentioned MahabharataVI, 49. But I am unable to deter-
mine their seats.

14. The Ara//as dwelt in the Pan^ab (Lassen, Ind. Alth. I, p. 973,
sec. ed.), and are greatly blamed, Mahlbharata VIII, 44, 36 seq..
The Karaskaras are named in the same chapter of the Maha-
bharata as a degraded tribe, but seem to belong to the south of
India. The Kalingas are the inhabitants of the eastern coast of

. India, between Orissa and the mouth of the Kr/shwa river. The
Pu</ras, who are mentioned as a degraded tribe in the Aitareya-
brahmaa VII, 18, and occur frequently in the Mahabha'rata, and
the Vangas belong to Bengal (see Lassen, Ind. Alth. I, 669, sec.
ed. ; Cunningham, Anc. Geog. p. 480). Regarding the Puna-
stoma, see Gautama XIX, 7 note ; and regarding the Sarvapr?sh//4a
ish/i, Taittiriya-sazwhita II, 3, 7, 1-2.

15. Apastamba I, u, 32, 18.


1 6. 'Even if many offences have been committed,
they recommend for the removal of the sin the
Pavitresh/i. For that (sacrifice) is a most excellent
means of purification.'

17. Now they quote also (the following verse):
'He who performs (by turns) in each season the
VaLrvanari (ish/i), the Vratapatt (ish/i), and the
Pavitresh/i is freed from (all) sins.'


1. The (term of the) studentship for (learning
the) Veda, as kept by the ancients, (is) forty-eight

2. (Or) twenty-four (years), or twelve for each

3. Or at the least one year for each KaWa,

4. Or until (the Veda has been) learned; for life
is uncertain.

5. A passage of the revealed texts declares, ' Let
him kindle the sacred fires while his hair is (still)

17. Vasish///a XXII, 10. The meaning is that in each of the
three seasons of the year, Grishma, Varsha, Hemanta, one of the
three sacrifices is to be offered.

3. i. Apastamba I, i, 2, 12. Govindasviimin gives four explana-
tions of the adjective pauraam, ' kept by the ancients/ viz. i. old,
i. e. kept by the men of the Krz'ta or Golden age ; 2. revealed to
and kept by the ancients, such as Manu ; 3. found in the ancient,
i.e. eternal Veda; 4. found in the known Itihasas and Puraas.

2. Apastamba I, i, 2, 14-16.

3. Each Ka</a, i. e. each of the seven books of the Taittiriya-

4. Manu III, r.

5. The object of the Su^ra is to prove that the period of student-
ship must not be protracted too long, lest the duty of offering the
.SVauta Ajniihotra be neglected.

1 50 BAUDHAYANA. I, 2, 3.

6. They do not put any (religious) restrictions on
the acts of a (child) before the investiture with the
girdle (is performed). For he is on a level with a
-Sudra before (his second) birth through the Veda.

7. The number of years (must be calculated) from
the conception. Let him initiate a Brahma^a in the
eighth (year) after that,

8. A Kshatriya three (years) later (than a Brah-

9. A Vaisya one year later than a (Kshatriya).

10. Spring, summer, and autumn are the seasons
(for the initiation) according to the order of the

1 1 . (Let him perform the initiation reciting), ac-
cording to the order (of the castes), a Gayatrl, a
Trish/ubh, (or) a ^agatl (verse).

12. Up to the sixteenth, the twenty-second, and
the twenty-fourth (years) respectively (the time for
the initiation) has not passed.

13. The girdles (shall consist of a rope) made of
Mua grass, a bow-string, (or a rope) made of

14. The skins (shall be) those of a black antelope,
of a spotted deer, (or) of a he-goat.

15. The staff shall reach the crown of the head,
the forehead, (or) the tip of the nose, (and be made)
of a tree fit for a sacrifice. The details have been
stated above.

6. VasishMa II, 6; Gautama II, i.

7-9. VasishMa XI, 49-51.

10. Apastamba I, i, i, 18. 12. Vasish/Aa XI, 71-73.

13. Vasish/^a XI, 58-60. With this and the next two Sutras
the words ' according to the order of the castes' must be understood.

14. Vasish/Aa XI, 6163.

15. Vasish/^a XI, 55-57. The details referred to are to be


1 6. Let him beg, (employing a formula) consisting
of seven syllables, with the word bhavat in the
beginning, with the word bhiksha in the middle,
and with the (verb expressing) the request at the
end ; and let him not pronounce loudly (the sylla-
bles) ksha and hi.

17. A Brahmawa (student) shall ask for alms,
placing (the word) ' Lady ' first, a Kshatriya placing

found in the Baudhayana Gri"hya-sutra II, 7, where the various
kinds of trees from which the staff may be taken are specified.
The Sutra shows that the Gr*hya-sutra preceded the Dharma-sQtra
in the collection.

1 6. The text of this Sutra is corrupt. I read, ' bhavatpurvaw
bhikshamadhyaOT yawanta#* aret saptaksharaw bhik-shaw ksha/w
a him a na vardhayet.' The various readings of the MSS. are,
bhiksha#z madhy&w yikkh&.ml&.m aret saptdksharawz bhim a na
vardhayet, C. T. ; y&&n&mt2im aret saptSksharawzni kshaw a bhim
a narvyayet, D. ; y&&n&mta.m /fcaret saptaksharawstuw rksha ba him
na vardhayet, K.; y&n&mt&m tikshaw aret saptdksharan kshawz ^a
him ^a na vardhayan, M. ; ya.fanas&zmt&m >5aret saptdksharan bhik-
shaw ^a him fa na vardhayet, C. I. The most serious corruption lies
in the syllables following saptaksharaw, and I am not certain that
my emendation bhikshaw is correct. The commentary on the
first half of the Sutra runs as follows : bhikshamantraw vyaktam
evo^aret bhava&Wabdapurvam bhikshajabdamadhyaw/ ya^naprati-
pa[pa]dakajabdawtSz jabdaksharaw [saptakshariw] ka. cvam hi
bhavati bhiksh^/w dehi sawpanno bhavati, ' let him pronounce dis-
tinctly the formula employed in begging, beginning with the word
bhavat, having the word bhiksha in the middle, and ending with
the word conveying the sense of giving, and containing seven
syllables. For thus (the formula), " Lady, give alms," becomes com-
plete.' It is curious that Govinda says nothing about the form
saptaksharam and the feminine terminations of the other adjectives,
which do not agree with mantra m, a masculine.

17. Vasish/Aa XI, 68-70; Gautama II, 35. Govinda thinks
that a student should, if possible, beg from people of his own
caste. Three castes only are intended by the term 'from all
castes.' But see Apastamba I, i, 3, 25 ; Gautama VII, i seqq.

152 BAUDHAYANA. 1,2,3.

it in the middle, (and) a Vaisya placing it at the
end (of the formula), from (men of) all castes.

1 8. The (persons fit to be asked) are Brahmawas
and so forth, who follow (their lawful) occupations.

1 9. Let him daily fetch fuel out of the forest and
offer (it in the sacred fire).

20. (A student shall be) truthful, modest, and
devoid of pride.

21. He shall rise before (his teacher in the
morning) and go to rest after (him in the evening).

22. He shall never disobey the words of his
teacher except (when he is ordered to commit) a
crime causing loss of caste.

23. Let him converse with women so much (only)
as his purpose requires.

24. Let him avoid dancing, singing, playing
musical instruments, the use of perfumes, garlands,
shoes, (or) a parasol, applying collyrium (to his
eyes), and anointing (his body).

25. Let him take hold (of his teacher's) right
(foot) with the right (hand), and of the left (foot)
with the left hand.

26. If he desires long life and (bliss in) heaven,

19. Vishmi XXVIII, 4.

20. Gautama II, 8 ; Apastamba I, i, 3, 20.

21. Vishmi XXVIII, 13.

22. Apastamba I, i, 2, 19; Vasish/fla VII, 10.

23. Apastamba I, i, 3, 16.

24. Vishwu XXVIII, ii ; Vasish/AaVII, 15.

25. Vishmi XXVIII, 15. The details regarding the times when
this kind of salutation is to be performed are found Apastamba I,
2, 5, 2iseqq.

26. The two copies of the commentary connect the clause, 'if
he is desirous of long life and (bliss in) heaven,' with the preceding
Sutra. But see Apastamba I, 2, 5, 15, where the identical words



(he may act) at his pleasure (in the same manner)
towards other holy (men), after having received
permission from his teacher.

27. (Let him say), 'I N. N., ho! (salute thee),'
touching his ears, in order to compose the internal

28. (Let him embrace his teacher's leg) below the
knee down to the feet

29. (A student shall not embrace his teacher)
when he (himself) is seated, or lying down, or im-
pure, nor when (his teacher) is seated, lying down,
or impure.

30. If he can (find water to sip), he shall not
remain impure even during a muhurta.

31. If he carries a load of fuel or holds a pot,
flowers, or food in his hands, he shall not salute ;
nor (shall he do it) on similar occasions.

32. Let him not salute (the teacher) standing too

33. Nor, if he has reached the age of puberty,
the young wives of brothers and the young wives
of the teacher.

occur. The commentary omits the remainder of the Sutra, which
all my MSS. give here, and inserts it below, after Sutra 29.

27. Apastamba I, 2, 5, 12; Vasish///a XIII, 44. Regarding the
phrase, ' in order to compose his internal organ,' see Manu II, 1 20.

28. Apastamba I, 2, 5, 22. The meaning seems to be that the
pupil is first to stroke his teacher's legs from the knee downwards,
and then to take hold of it at the ankle.

29. Apastamba I, 4, 14, 14-20. 30. Apastamba I, 5, 15, 8.
31. Apastamba I, 4, 14, 22. 'On similar occasions,' i.e. when

he himself is engaged in the worship of the manes, of the gods, or
of the fire, or when his teacher is occupied in that way.

33. The salutation which is meant, is probably the embrace of
the feet ; see also Gautama II, 32. Govinda thinks that the words
samavaye 'tyantyaja/;, ' standing too close,' must be understood.

154 BAUDHAYANA. 1,2,3-

34. To sit together with (these persons) in a boat,
on a rock, on a plank, on an elephant, on the roof of a
house, on a mat, or in wheeled vehicles is permissible.

35. (The pupil) must assist his teacher in making
his toilet, shampoo him, attend him while bathing,
eat his leavings, and so forth.

36. (But he) should avoid the remnants of food
left by his (teacher's) son, though he may know the
Veda together with the Afigas,

37. And to assist at the toilet of, to shampoo, to
attend in the bath, and to eat the remnants of food
left by a young wife of his (teacher).

38. Let him run after (his teacher) when he runs,
walk after him when he walks, attend him standing
when he stands.

39. Let him not sport in the water while bathing.

40. Let him swim (motionless) like a stick.

41. To study under a non-Brahmanical teacher
(is permitted) in times of distress.

34. Govinda adds that to sit with young wives of his teachers-
on other occasions is sinful.

35. I read utsadana, ' to shampoo/ while the MSS. have either
a lacuna or read u/WMdana, and the commentary aMdana, which
is explained by Mattradharawa, ' to hold a parasol,' or malapa-
karshawa, ' to clean/ The kkhz. is, however, merely'owing to a very
common faulty pronunciation of tsa. Govinda remarks correctly
that the word ' hi,' which follows the enumeration of the services to
be performed by the pupil, has the force of ' and so forth.'

36-37. The meaning of the two Sutras is that the pupil shall
serve the son of his teacher, especially if he is learned, and aged
wives of his teacher, but not eat their leavings. The explanation
of anu/fcana, 'who knows the Ahgas,' is given by Baudhayana,
Gr/hya-sutra I, n, 4.

38. Apastamba I, 2, 6, 7-9 ; Vasish/AaVII, 12.

39-40. Apastamba I, i, 2, 30 ; Vishu XXVIII, 5.

41. Apastamba II, 2, 4, 25. Govinda combines this Sutra with
the next two and makes one of the three.

I>2, 4- STUDENTSHIP. 155

42. (The pupil shall) obey and walk after him as
long as the instruction (lasts).

43. (According to some this is improper, because)
just that (mutual relation) sanctifies both of them.

44. And (the behaviour) towards brothers, sons,
and (other) pupils (of the teacher shall be regulated)
in the same manner.

45. But officiating priests, a father-in-law, paternal
and maternal uncles who are younger than (oneself
must be honoured by) rising and (by being) addressed.

46. Katya (declares that) the salutation shall be

47. For (the propriety of that rule) is apparent
(from the story) about Sisu Angirasa.


i. If merit and wealth are not (obtained by teach-
ing), nor (at least) the due obedience, one should
die with one's learning; one should not sow it on
barren soil.

42. Apastamba II, 2, 4, 26; Gautama VII, 2-3.

43. The words between brackets belong to Govinda.

44. I. e. if they are younger than oneself.

45. Instead of pratyutthayabhibhashawam, ' (shall be honoured
by) rising and being addressed,' which is the reading of the two
copies of the commentary and of M., the MSS. from the Dekhan
and Gujarat read, pratyutthayabhivadanam. The latter reading
might be translated by 'shall be saluted by rising;' see Gautama
VI, 9. Govinda says, in explanation of this rule : ' This restrictive
rule also (refers) to teachers only, officiating priests, and the rest ;
to address (means) to use words such as "welcome."'

46. 'Katya, i.e. a descendant of the 7?;shi Kata. He was of
opinion that officiating priests and the rest must return the salute.
As the return of a salute is prescribed for them, it is understood

. that the other (party) must salute.' Govinda.

47. The story of Sisu Angirasa is told, Manu II, 151-153-
4. i. Manu II, 112.

156 BAUDHAYANA. 1,2,4.

2. As fire consumes dry grass, even so the Veda,
asked for, (but) not honoured, (destroys the en-
quirer). Therefore let him not proclaim the Veda
to those who do not show him honour according
to their ability.

3. They proclaim to him a command to the fol-
lowing effect ;

4. ' Brahman, forsooth, made the created beings
over to Death. The student alone it did not make
over to him.' He (Death) spake, ' Let me have
a share in him.' (Brahman answered), ' That night
in which, he may neglect to offer a piece of sacred
fuel (shall belong to thee).'

5. ' Therefore^ student who passes a night with-
out offering a piece of sacred fuel, cuts it off from
the length of his life. Therefore let the student
offer a piece of sacred fuel, lest he spend a night,
shortening his life.'

6. ' A long sacrificial session begins he who com-
mences his studentship. That (night) in which,
after being initiated, he (first) offers a piece of sacred
fuel corresponds to the Prayawlya (Atir&tra of a
sacrificial session) ; that night in which (he offers it
last), intending to take the final bath, corresponds
to the Udayanlya (Atiratra). Those nights which
(lie) between (these two terms correspond) just to
the nights of his sacrificial session.'

2. Vasish/^a II, 12.

3'. 'They, i. e. the Va^asaneyins ; to him, i. e. to the student.'

4. The quotation, which begins here and ends with the end of
the section, is taken from .SatapatlKi-brahmaa XI, 2, 6. In the
text the word Brahman is a neuter.

6. MSS. M. and K., as well as the commentary, read dirghasat-

1,2,4- STUDENTSHIP. 157

7. 'A Brahmawa who becomes a student of the
Veda, enters existent beings in a fourfold manner,
(viz.) with one quarter (he enters) Fire, with one
quarter Death, with one quarter the Teacher, the
fourth quarter remains in the Soul. When he offers
to Fire a piece of sacred fuel, he thereby buys back
even that quarter which (resides) in Fire, hallowing
it, he places it in himself; that enters into him.
Now when making himself poor and, becoming
shameless, he asks for alms (and) lives as a student
of the Veda, he thereby buys back the quarter
which (resides) in Death ; hallowing it, he places it
in himself; that enters into him. Now when he
obeys the orders of his Teacher, he thereby buys
back that quarter which (resides) in the Teacher ;
hallowing it, he places it in himself; that enters into
him. [Now when he recites the Veda, he thereby
buys back the quarter which resides in the Soul.
Hallowing it, he places it in himself; that enters
into him.] Let him not go to beg, after he has
bathed (on finishing his studentship). . ". . If he does
not find another woman whom he can ask for alms,
let him beg even from his own teacher's wife or
from his own mother. The seventh (night) shall
not pass without his asking for alms. [(He com-
mits) sin if he does not go out to ask for alms and
does not place fuel on the fire. If he neglects that
during seven (days and) nights, he must perform the

tram ha va esha upaiti, while the MSS. from the Dekhan and Gujarat,
like the printed edition of the Sat. Br., omit the particle ' ha.' Pra-
yaTya means, literally, 'initial,' and udayaniya, ' final.' Each sattra
or sacrificial session begins and ends with an Atiratra sacrifice.

7. This portion of the quotation shows, besides some minor
deviations from the published text of the Madhyandinas, several

158 BAUDHAYANA. 1,2,4.

penance prescribed for one who has broken the
vow of studentship.] All the Vedas come to him
who knows that and acts thus.'

8. ' As a blazing fire shines, even so shines he
who, knowing this, thus fulfils the duties of student-
ship, after he has bathed (on leaving his teacher).'
Thus speaks the Brahma^a.

i. Now (follow the duties) of a Snataka.

interpolations and corruptions. The minor discrepancies are,
' brahmawo vai brahmaaryam upayan ' (upaya&an, C. I. and T.) ;
padatmanyeva ^aturthaA pada^ ; yadagnaye samidham adadhati ;
atha yad atma'naflz daridrikr/tyahrir bhutva bhikshate brahma/fcarya/w
arati ; atha yad &fcaryavaa/6 karoti ya evasy&Hrye. In the second
passage the Dekhan MSS. read, however, like the printed text.
The interpolations are, ' Now when he recites the Veda,' &c., and
the verse, ' He commits sin if he neglects,' &c. The former
passage entirely destroys the sense of the whole and the con-
nexion of the parts. Both have, however, been retained, as they
occur in all the MSS. and the two copies of the commentary, and
have been enclosed in brackets. The corrupt passage is so bad
that it makes no sense at all. The best MSS. read as follows :
1 api hi vai snatva bhikshaw /fcaratyavi^nanana-ranayaya pitria-
manyabhya^ kriyabhya^' sa yadanyam, &c., D. ; 'api ha vai snatva'
bhish/aflz ^arasapi ^nani najanaya ya [v& sec. m.] pitrfVz&m anya-
bhya^ kriyabhya^,' K. ; api ha vai sn&tva bhikshaw /iarati pa^watl
naw janayapi pitrz'nam anydbhyaA kriyasas, M. ; api ha vai
snatva" bhiksh&m /6aratyavi^-atinamajanayapi pitr/am anyabhya
kriyabhya^, C. I. As it is by no means certain that Baudhayana's
reading agreed with that of the printed text, I have left the
passage out.

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