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The sacred laws of the Aryas : as taught in the schools of Apastamba, Gautama, Vasishtha and Baudhayana online

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5. i. Regarding the term Snataka, see Apastamba I, n, 30, 1-4.
Govinda thinks that the following rules are intended to apply in
the first instance to a student who has performed the Samavartana
on completion of his studentship and lives unmarried at home.
For though the Smr/ti declares it necessary for a student to enter,
on completing his term, at once into one of the remaining three


159 J

2. He shall wear a lower garment and upper

3. Let him carry a staff made of bamboo,

4. And a pot filled with water.

5. Let him wear two sacrificial threads.

6. (He shall possess) a turban, an upper garment
(consisting of) a skin, shoes, and a parasol. (He
shall keep) a sacred fire and (offer) the new and
full moon (Sthalipakas).

7. He shall cause the hair of his head, of his
beard, and of his body, and his nails to be cut
on the Parva days.

8. His livelihood (he shall obtain in the following
manner) :

9. Let him beg uncooked (food) from Brahmawas,
Kshatriyas, Vai^yas, or carpenters,

10. Or (cooked) food (even from many).

11. Let him remain silent (when he goes to beg).

12. Let him perform with that all Pakaya^vzas,
offered to the gods and manes, and the rites,
securing welfare.

orders, it may happen, as the commentator observes, that the Sna"-
taka's marriage cannot take place immediately. The correctness of
this view is proved by Apastamba I, 2, 8, and by the fact that below,
II, 3> 5, the rules for a married Snataka arejjiven separately.
2-5. Vasish/tfa XII, 14. 6. Apastamba I, 2, 8, 2.

7. Regarding the Parva days, see Vasish/Aa XII, 2 1 note.

8. Vasish/tfa XII, 2-4. ' Though the Sn^taka is the subject of
the discussion, the word " his " is used (in this Sutra) in order to
introduce the remaining duties of a householder also.' Govinda.

9. The carpenter (rathakara) is a Sudra, but connected with the
Vedic sacrifices.

1 10. ' Food" (bhaiksham), i. e. a quantity of begged food. The
meaning is that in times of distress he may beg from many.'

1 2. With that, i.e. with the food obtained by begging. Regarding

l6o BAUDHAYANA. 1,3.5-

13. Baudhayana declares that by (following) this
rule the most excellent sages reach the highest
abode of Pra^apati Paramesh//nn.


1. Now (those who know the law) prescribe the
carrying of a waterpot.

2. It is declared (in the Vedas) that fire (resides)
in the right ear of a goat, in the right hand of a
Brahma^a, likewise in water (and) in a bundle of
Kara grass. Therefore after personal purification
let him wipe (his water-vessel) on all sides with his
(right) hand, (reciting the mantra), ' Blaze up, O
fire;' for that (is called) encircling it with fire and
is preferable to heating (the pot on the fire).

3. With reference to this matter they prescribe
also (the following rules) : ' If he thinks in his
heart that (the pot) has been slightly defiled, let him
light Kusa or (other) grass and heat (the pot) on all
sides, keeping his right hand turned towards it.'

4. 'If (pots) have been touched by crows, dogs, or

the Pakaya^was, see Gautama VIII, 18. Govinda gives as an
instance of the rites securing welfare (bhutikarmai) the ayushya-
aru, a. rice-offering intended to procure long life.

13. Govinda explains Baudhayana by Ka"vayana, and adds
that either the author speaks of himself in the third person or
a pupil must have compiled the book.

6. r. As Govinda observes, the rules regarding the waterpot (ka-
maw</alu) are introduced here in connexion with I, 3, 5, 4.

2. Vasish/^a XII, 15-16. The mantra is found, Taiuiriya-Ara-
wyaka X, i, 4.

3. The word upadiranti, ' they prescribe,' stands at the end of
Sutra 4, as it refers to both rules.

4. Vasish/Aa III, 59. The paryagnikarawa is the rite prescribed
in Sutra 2.

Ii 4,6. THE WATERPOT. l6l

other (unclean animals, they shall be heated, until
they are of) the colour of fire, after the (paryagni-
karawa has been performed).'

5. (Pots) which have been defiled by urine,
ordure, blood, semen, and the like must be thrown

6. If his waterpot has been broken, let him offer
one hundred (oblations) reciting the Vydhmis, or
mutter (the Vyahmis as often).

7. (Reciting the text), ' Earth went to earth, the
mother joined the mother ; may we have sons and
cattle ; may he who hates us be destroyed/ he shall
collect the fragments, throw them into water, repeat
the Gayatrl at least ten times and take again another

8. Taking refuge with Varuwa, (he shall recite
the mantra), ' That (belongs) to thee, Varuwa ; again
to me, Om,' (and) meditate on the indestructible.

g. Vasish//$a III, 59.

6. Regarding the Vyihrztis, see Gautama I, 51.

7. Govinda says that Vamadeva is the ^?/shi of the mantra.
The fragments of the pot are to be thrown into a river or tank,
in order to preserve them from defilement. See also Journ. Bo.
Br. Roy. As. Soc., No. XXXIV A, p. 55 note.

8. ' Taking refuge with Varua, i. e. saying, " I flee for safety to
Varua." (The words), " That for thee, Varuwa, again to me, Om,"
(are) the mantras (to be recited) on taking (a new vessel). Its
meaning is this : " Those fragments which 1 have thrown into the
water shall belong to thee, Varuwa." (Saying), " Come, thou (who
art) a lord of water-vessels, again to me, Ora," he shall meditate on
another visible pot as indestructible, i.e. at the end of the Vedic
(word) " Om," let him meditate, (i. e.) recollect, that not everything
will be turned topsy-turvy, (but that some things are) also inde-
structible, i. e. that that is not destroyed, does not perish. 1 Go-
vinda. The explanation of the last clause of our Sutra seems to
be that, on pronouncing the syllable (akshara) Om, the reciter is

[14] M

1 62 BAUDHAYANA. I, 4, 6.

9. ' If he has received (the new vessel) from a
.Sftdra, let him recite (the Gayatri) one hundred
(times). (If he has received it) from a Vai^ya, fifty
(repetitions of the Gayatri) are prescribed, but (on
receiving it) from a Kshatriya twenty-five, (and on
taking it) from a Brahmawa ten/

10. Those who recite the Veda are doubtful
whether he shall fetch water after the sun has set
or shall not fetch it.

11. The most excellent (opinion is) that he may
fetch it.

12. Let him restrain his breath, while he fetches

13. Fire, forsooth, takes up water.

14. It is declared (in the Veda), ' When he has
washed his hands and feet with water from his
water-vessel, he is impure for others, as long as the
moisture (remains). He purifies himself only. Let
him not perform other religious rites (with water
from his pot)/

to recollect the etymological import of the word akshara, ' inde-
structible/ and thus to guard the new vessel against the mishap
which befell the old one.

9. According to Govinda, either the prawava, the syllable Om,
or the Gayatri are the mantras to be recited, and the recitation is
a penance to be performed when the vessel is received. The
MSS. of the text mark the verse as a quotation by adding the
word ' iti/ which the commentary omits.

13. According to Govinda, a Brahmaa who goes to fetch
water at night, which he may want for personal purification, is
ordered to restrain his breath, because thereby the air in the body
becomes strong, and fire or heat (agni) is produced. Now as at
night the sun is stated to enter the fire and to become subject to
it, a BrShmawa, who by restraining his breath has produced fire,
has secured the presence of the sun, when he goes to fetch water.

14. Govinda expressly states that the word v^wa'yate/it is declared,'

I>4>7- THE WATERPOT. 163

15. Baudhayana (says), 'Or if on the occasion
of each personal purification (he washes himself
with other water) up to the wrist, (he will become)

1 6. Now they quote also (the following verses):


1. ' Formerly (the use of) a waterpot has been
prescribed by Brahman and the chief sages for the
purification of twice-born men. Therefore he shall
always carry one/

1 He who desires his own welfare, shall use it
without hesitation, for purifying (his person), for
drinking, and for performing his twilight devotions.'

2. Let him do it with a believing heart ; a wise
man must not corrupt his mind. The self-existent

literally, ' it is .distinctly known,' always indicates that the passage
quoted is taken from the Veda. The rites for which water from
the waterpot is not to be used, are libations to the manes, the
gods, and the fire. See also below, I, 4, 7, 5.

15. The words enclosed between parentheses are Govinda's.

7. i. The division of this chapter into two sections occurs
in the M. manuscript only. The Dekhan MSS., which give the
division into Ka</ikas, do not note it, and have at the end of the
Pra-ma the figure 20, while M. has 2 1 and in words ekavwwjatiA
after the enumeration of the Pratikas.

2. ' A wise man must not corrupt his mind/ i. e. must not doubt
or adopt erroneous views regarding the teaching of the .SSstras
with respect to the waterpot. It seems to me that this passage
indicates the existence of an opposition to the constant carrying
of the waterpot in BaudhSyana's times. This is so much more
probable, as the custom is now obsolete, and is mentioned in
some Puras and versified Smrrtis as one of the practices for-
bidden in the Kali age; see e.g. the general note appended to
Sir W. Jones' translation of Manu.

M 2

1 64 BAUDHAYANA. 1,4,7-

(Brahman) came into existence with a water-vessel.
Therefore let him perform (his rites) with a water-

3. Let him hold it in his right hand when he
voids urine and excrements, in the left when
he sips water. That is (a) settled (rule) for all good

4. For as the sacrificial cup (&amasa) is declared
to be pure on account of its contact with the Soma-
juice, even so the water-vessel is constantly pure
through its contact with water.

5. Therefore let him avoid (to use) it for the
worship of the manes, the gods, and the fire.

6. Therefore let him not go on a journey without
a waterpot, nor to the boundary of the village, nor
from one house to the other.

7. Some (declare that he must not go without it)
a step further than the length of an arrow.

8. Baudhayana (says that he shall not go without
it) if he wishes to fulfil his duties constantly.

9. (The divine) Word declares that (this is con-
firmed) by a ./?zk-shaped (passage).


i. Now (follows the description of) the means of

5. According to Govinda the word ' therefore ' refers back to
Sutra I, 4, 6, 14.

9. ' ^zgvidhara, " a Rik -shaped (passage)." means ^?z'gvidhanam,
"a prescription consisting of a Rt\" The Brahmana is indi-
cated by (the word) vale, (" the goddess of) speech." The meaning
is, " The Brhmaa says that, there is also a J?z"k-verse to this
effect. That is as follows, tasyaisha 1 bhavati yat te jilpam ityadi '
(Taittiriya-Arawyaka I, 7, i). Govinda.


2. The body is purified by water, the understand-
ing by knowledge, the soul by abstention from
injuring living beings, the internal organ by truth.

3. Purifying the internal organ (is called) internal

4. We will explain (the rules of) external purifi-

5. The sacrificial thread (shall be made) of
Kura grass, or cotton, (and consist) of thrice three

6. (It shall hang down) to the navel.

7. (In putting it on) he shall raise the right arm,
lower the left, and lower the head.

8. The contrary (is done at sacrifices) to the

9. (If the thread is) suspended round the neck,
(it is called) nivtta.

10. (If it is) suspended below (the navel, it is
called) adhopavita.

11. Let him perform (the rite of personal) puri-
fication, facing .the east or the north, (and) seated
in a pure place ; (let him) place his right arm be-
tween his knees and wash both hands up to the
wrist and both feet (up to the ankles).

12. Let him not use for sipping the remainder
of the water with which he has washed his feet.

13. But if he uses (that) for sipping, let him do
it, after pouring (a portion of it) on the ground.

8. 2. Vasish/^a III, 60. 7-9. Manu II, 63.

ii. Vasish//fa III, 26. Govinda points out that the word jau-
/fam, ' (rite of) purification/ has here the meaning of a^amanam,
' sipping water.' He thinks that the a, ' and, 1 which stands after
padau, ' both feet,' indicates that other portions of the body which
have been defiled must be washed also.

1 66 BAUDHAYANA. I, 5, 8.

14. He shall sip out of the Tlrtha sacred to

15. The part (of the hand) at the root of the
thumb (is called) the Ttrtha sacred to Brahman.

1 6. The part above the thumb (is called the
Tlrtha) sacred to the manes, the part at the tips
of the fingers that sacred to the gods, the part at
the root of the fingers that sacred to the Tfrshis.

1 7. (Let him not use for sipping water that has
trickled) from the fingers, nor (water) that is
covered with bubbles or foam, nor (water that is)
hot, or alkaline, or salt, or muddy, or discoloured,
or has a bad smell or taste.

1 8. (Let him not sip water) laughing, nor talking,
nor standing, nor looking about, nor bending his
head or his body forward, nor while the lock on
his crown is untied, nor while his throat is wrapped
up, nor while his head is covered, nor when he is
in a hurry, nor without wearing the sacrificial thread,
nor stretching his feet out, nor while his loins are
girt (with a cloth), nor without holding his right
arm between his knees, nor making a sound.

19. Let him thrice drink water that reaches his

20. Let him wipe (his lips) thrice.

21. Some (declare that he shall do it) twice.

14. VasishMa III, 26.

1 6. Vishmi LXII, 3-4. All the MSvS. except M. place the
Tfrtha sacred to the gods at the root of the fingers, and that sacred
to the 7?;shis at the tips of the fingers, and Govinda has the same
erroneous reading.

17. Vasish//fa III, 36. 1 8. Vasish//fca III, 30.
19-20. Vasish/Aa III, 26 ; Apastamba I, 5, 16, 3.

21. Vasish//fa III, 27 ; Apastamba I, 5, 16, 4.


22. A woman and a .Sudra (shall perform) both
(acts) once (only).

23. Now they quote also (the following verse):
* A Brdhma#a is purified by water that reaches his
heart, a Kshatriya by (water) reaching his throat,
a VaLrya by (water barely) taken into the mouth,
a woman and a .Sttdra by touching (it) with the
extremity (of the lips).

24. ' If (drops) adhere to his teeth, (they must
be considered pure) like the teeth, because they are
fixed (in the mouth) like the teeth. Let him not
sip water on their account in case they fall. If they
flow out, he will be pure.'

25. Now they quote also (the following verse);
' If anything adheres to the teeth, (it is pure) like
the teeth ; and if he swallows (it or) whatever else
may be in the mouth (or) may remain after sipping
water, (he will become) pure.'

26. (After sipping) he shall touch the cavities (of
the head) with water, the feet, the navel, the head,
(and) lastly the left hand.

27. If he becomes impure while holding (a vessel)
made of metal, he shall put it down, sip water and
sprinkle it, when he is going to take it up.

28. Now if he becomes impure (while he is
occupied) with food, he shall put it down, sip water
and sprinkle it, when he is going to take it up.

29. Now if he becomes impure (while occupied)

23. VasishMa III, 31-34'

24. The MSS. read in the last pada of this verse, teshaw s&m-
sraye [ya or va]-uirftL I think sawsravaaMu*ir iti is the
correct reading.

2 g. Vasish/Aa 111, 41. a'6. VasishMa III, 28-29.

28. VasishMa III, 43~44-

T68 BAUDHAYANA. I, 5> 8.

with water, he shall put it down, sip water and
sprinkle it, when he is going to take it up.

30. That is contrary (to the rule) in (the case of
an earthen) vessel.

31. In (the case of a vessel) made of wood there
is an option.

32. Denied (objects) made of metal must be
scoured with cowdung, earth, and ashes, or with one
of these (three).

33. Copper, silver, and gold (must be cleaned)
with acids.

34. Earthen vessels must be heated.

35. (Objects) made of wood must be planed.

36. (Objects) made of bamboo (must be cleaned)
with cowdung,

37. (Objects) made of fruits with a rope of cow-

38. Skins of black deer with (ground) Bel nut
and rice,

39. Blankets (of the hair of the mountain goat)
with Areka nuts,

40. (Cloth) made of (sheep's) wool by the (rays of
the) sun,

41. Linen (cloth) with a paste of yellow mustard,

30. ' (The word) amatram, literally " a vessel," denotes here an
earthen vessel. The meaning is that such a one, if it is very
much defiled, shall only be put down and not be taken back.
Any other (earthen vessel) -shall be heated.' Govinda.

32. Vasish/^a III, 49.

33. ManuV, 114; Vasish/fo. Ill, 63.

34~35 Vasish/a III, 49. 36. Vasish/^a III, 53.

37. Vasish//4a III, 54. Govinda thinks that the word raggu,
' a rope,' is used here in the sense of ' a conglomeration/ and
merely indicates that a quantity of cowhair must be used.

39. ManuV, 120. 41. Vasish/fo III, 55.


42. Cotton cloth with earth,

43. Skins (other than deer-skins shall be treated)
like cotton cloth,

44. Stones and gems like (objects) made of metal,

45. Bones like wood,

46. Conch-shells, horn, pearl-shells, and ivory like
linen cloth.

47. Or (they may be cleaned) with milk.

48. (Objects) which have been defiled by urine,
ordure, blood, semen, or a dead body, (but) are
agreeable to the eye and the nose, shall be rubbed
seven times with one of the substances mentioned

49. (Objects) not made of metal which are in the
same condition must be thrown away.

50. The cups and vessels (used) at a sacrifice
(must be cleaned) according to the injunction (of
the Veda).

51. The Veda (declares), 'They do not become
impure through Soma.'

52. ' Time, fire, purity of mind, water and the like
(fluids), smearing with cowdung and ignorance (of
defilement) are declared to be the sixfold (means of)
purification for created beings/

53. Now they quote also (the following verse):

42. VasishMa III, 49. 43. Vasish/a III, 53.

44. VasishMa III, 50. 45. VasishMa III, 52.

46. VasishMa III, 51. 49. Vasish/Via III, 59.

50. Govinda explains this Sutra differently. He says : ' The fault
of defilement by remnants does not affect sacrificial cups and
vessels. This must be understood. If they are defiled by urine
and the like, they must be thrown away.' My explanation is
based on the parallel passage of Apastamba I, 5, 17, 13. See also
below, I, 6, 13, ii seq.

52. Vishmi XXII, 88.

1 7O BAUDHAYANA. I, 5, 9,

' A clever man, who knows (the rules of) purification
and is desirous of righteousness, shall perform (the
ritesj of) purification, after having fully considered
the time, and the place (of the defilement), likewise
himself, (as well as) the object (to be cleaned) and
the substance (to be employed), the purpose of the
object, the cause (of the defilement), and the con-
dition (of the thing or person defiled).'


1. The Veda declares that the hand of an artisan
is always pure, so is every vendible commodity
exposed for sale and food obtained by begging,
which a student holds in his hand.

2. A calf is pure on the flowing (of the milk),
a bird on the fall of the fruit, women at the time
of dalliance, and a dog when he catches a deer.

3. All mines and places of manufacture are pure
excepting distilleries of spirituous liquor; con-
tinuously flowing streams of water and dust raised
by the wind cannot be contaminated.

4. The flowers and fruit of flowering and fruit-
bearing trees which grow in unclean places are
likewise not impure.

9. i. Vishmi XXIII, 48.

2. Vishmi XXIII, 49.

3. Vishmi XXIII, 48. The term akara, translated by 'mines
and places of manufacture,' is explained in the commentary by
'places of production, i.e. of sugar and honey.' It is no doubt
intended to apply to any place where articles of consumption or
use are produced. Govinda adds that as ' continuous streams of
water' are always pure, one must take care that the water for
sipping flows out of the vessel in an unbroken stream.


5. On touching a tree standing on a sacred spot,
a funeral pile, a sacrificial post, a A'aWila or a
person who sells the Veda, a Brahmawa shall bathe
dressed in his clothes.

6. One's own couch, seat, clothes, wife, child, and
waterpot are pure for oneself; but for strangers
they are impure.

7. A seat, a couch, a vehicle, ships (and boats),
the road and grass are purified by the wind, if they
have been touched by TTa^dlas or outcasts.

8. Grain on the threshing-floor, water in wells
and reservoirs, and milk in the cowpen are fit for
use even (if they come) from a person whose food
must not be eaten.

9. The gods created for Brahmawas three means
of purification, (viz.) ignorance of defilement, sprink-
ling with water, and commending by word of mouth.

10. Water collected on the ground with which

5. Vasish/Aa IV, 37. JTaityavrz'ksha, ' a tree standing on sacred
ground,' means literally, ' a memorial-tree.'

7. Govinda points out that couches and seats and the like, on
which JZa.nda.las and outcasts have lain or sat down, must be

8. ' That must be referred to grain on a threshing-floor, and so
forth, which has been produced by men whose food must not be
eaten, and again is considered to be common to all. In this case,
too, what has been received from outcasts and Aarfalas, that is
defiled. Milk which has been received just at milking-time may
be drunk out of a vessel that stands in the cowpen.' Govinda.
As regards the grain produced by low-caste people, the rule
probably refers to cases where the land of an Agrahira 01 other
village is cultivated by men of the lowest castes. The author
means to say that in such cases a Brahmaa may take his share
from the threshing-floor, where the whole produce of the village-
land is stored, without hesitation.

9. VasishMa XIV, 24 ; Manu V, 127.

10. Vasish//$a III, 35-36.

172 BAUDHAYANA. 1,5,9.

cows slake their thirst is a means of purification,
provided it is not strongly mixed with unclean
(substances), nor has a (bad) smell, nor is dis-
coloured, nor has a (bad) taste.

11. But land becomes pure, according to the
degree of the defilement, by sweeping the (defiled)
spot, by sprinkling it with water, by smearing it
with cowdung, by scattering (pure earth) on it, or
by scraping it.

12. Now they quote also (the following verse) :


1. 'A drop of water which is allowed to fall (on
the ground) purifies a bull's hide of land, whether
(the land) has been (previously) swept or not, pro-
vided no impure substance is visible on it/

2. Food which is cooked out of sight must be
illuminated (with fire) and be sprinkled with water,

3. Likewise eatables bought in the market.

4. For the Veda (declares), * For the gods who
are (easily) disgusted and desirous of purity do not

ii. Vasish/^a III, 56.

10. i. Regarding the term 'a bull's hide' of land, see Vishu
V, 181-183, XCII, 4.

2. Apastamba II, 2, 3, 9. ' Out of sight,' i. e. not before the
eyes of him who eats it.' Govinda. It would, however, seem that
this rule refers to food prepared by Sudras, without the super-
visions of Aryans. For Apastamba's Sutra, which contains the
same word, paroksham, ' out of sight,' certainly has reference to
that case only, and there is no reason why food prepared by
Brahman cooks should be purified before it is eaten.

3. Apastamba I, 5, 17, 19. The eatables here intended are,
according to Govinda, LaVus and other sweet-meats which are
frequently bought ready made.


enjoy the offerings made by a man destitute of

5. After reflecting (for a long time on the re-
spective value of) the (food) of a pure man destitute
of faith and of an impure person who has faith,
the gods declared both to be equal. But the Lord
of created beings said to them, ' That is not equal,
it is unequal. The food of a man destitute of faith
is worthless, that which is purified by faith is

6. Now they quote also (the following verses) :
' Want of faith is the greatest sin ; for faith is the
highest austerity. Therefore the gods do not eat
offerings given without faith.'

7. ' A foolish man does not reach heaven, though
he may offer (sacrifices) or give (gifts).'

8. 'He is called a foolish man whose conduct
is blemished by doubts, and who, clinging to

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