Georg Bühler.

The sacred laws of the Aryas : as taught in the schools of Apastamba, Gautama, Vasishtha and Baudhayana online

. (page 42 of 55)
Online LibraryGeorg BühlerThe sacred laws of the Aryas : as taught in the schools of Apastamba, Gautama, Vasishtha and Baudhayana → online text (page 42 of 55)
Font size
QR-code for this ebook


his own fancies, transgresses (the rules of) the
Sastras, because he opposes the fulfilment of the
sacred law.'

9. But pot-herbs, flowers, fruit, roots, and annual
plants (must be) sprinkled (with water).

10. Having placed dry grass, wood of trees unfit
for sacrifices or a clod of earth (on the ground), let
him void faeces or urine, turning his face during the
day towards the north and at night towards the
south and wrapping up his head.

8. Dharmatantra, translated ' the fulfilment of the sacred^ law,'
is explained in the commentary by dharmasya tantram anushManam,
by ' the performance of the sacred duties/ It may also mean ' the
doctrine of or the treatises on the sacred law.' The .Sastras are
the Vedas and the whole body of the sacred literature.

9 . Vishnu XXIII, 15- 10 - VasishMaVI, 10,



1 74 BAUDHAYANA. I, 5, ro.

11. (After voiding) urine he shall clean (the
organ once) with earth and water,

12. The hand three times.

13. In like manner (he shall clean himself with
earth and water after voiding) faeces.

14. The number (of the applications of both is)
thrice three for both feet and the hand.

15. After an effusion of semen (he shall purify
himself) in the same manner as after voiding urine.

1 6. He shall wash himself, after he has untied
or put on the cloth round his loins,

1 7. Or he may touch moist grass, cowdung, or
earth.

1 8. While he is engaged in (the performance of)
religious rites, he shall avoid to touch (the part of
his body) below the navel.

19. The Veda (declares), 'A man's (body) is pure
above the navel, it is impure below the navel.'

20. .Sudras living in the service of Aryans shall
trim (their hair and nails) every month ; their mode



11-12. Vasish/4a VI, 14, 18. According to Govinda one
application of water suffices for the left hand and two for both
together.

13-14. VasishMa VI, 18. Govinda reads in Sutra 14, against
the authority of all the MSS., payo/fc, 'for the anus/ instead of
padayo^, ' for both feet'

15. Apastamba I, 5, 15, 23.

1 6. Apastamba I, 5, 1 6, 14. 17. Apastamba 1, 5, 16, 15.
iS.VishmiXXIII, 51.

19. Taittirfya Sawhita VI, i, 3, 4.

20. Apastamba II, i, 2, 4-5. The above translation follows
Govinda's explanation. But Srya'dhish/fcitsLfc, ' living in the service
of Aryans,' may also mean 'superintended by Aryans,' and the
rule be taken to refer to the special case of Sudra cooks, as in the
parallel passage of Apastamba.



I, 5 10. LAWFUL LIVELIHOOD. 175

of sipping water (shall be) the same as that of
Aryans.

21. A Vaisya may live by usury.

22. But (a sum of) twenty-five (kirshaparcas shall
bear an interest) of five mdshas (per mensem).

23. Now they quote also (the following verses):
' He who, acquiring property cheap, employs (it so
that it yields) a higher price, is called a usurer, and
blamed in all (treatises on) the sacred law.' ' (Brah-
man) weighed in the scales the crime of killing a
learned Brdhma^a against (the crime of) usury ; the
slayer of the Brahmawa remained at the top, the
usurer sank downwards.'

24. 'Let him treat Brahma^as who tend cattle,
those who live by trade, (and) those who are artisans,
actors (and bards), servants or usurers, like .Sudras.'

25. But men of the first two castes may, at their
pleasure, lend (money at interest) to one who
neglects his sacred duties, to a miser, to an atheist,
or to a very wicked man.

26. Through the neglect of sacrifices, of (lawful)
marriages, of the study of the Veda, and of (learned)
Brahmawas, (noble) families (even) are degraded.

27. The offence of neglecting a Brahma^a cannot
be committed against a fool who is unacquainted

21." Vasish/Aa II, 1 9. 22. Vasish/Aa II, 5 1 .

23. Vasish/Aa II, 41-42. 24. Vasish/Aa III, 3.

25. Vasish/fa II, 43. M. reads na dadyatam, ' shall not lend.'
According to Govinda, 'a very wicked man' is equivalent to 'a
Sudra.'

26. Manu III, 63. Govinda says that this Sutra is introduced
in connexion with the expression, ' one who neglects his sacred
duties,' which occurs in Sutra 25.

27. Vasish//5a III, 9 note, 10. This Sutra is added in explana-
tion of the term ' the offence of neglecting a Brahmaa.'



1 76 BAUDHAYANA. 1, 5, 10.

with the Veda. For (in offering sacrifices) one does
not pass by a brilliant fire and throw the oblations
into ashes.

28. Families which are deficient in (the know-
ledge of) the Veda, are degraded by (keeping) cows,
horses and vehicles, by agriculture and by serving
the king.

29. But even poor families which are rich in (the
knowledge of) the Veda obtain rank among the
(noble) families and gain great fame.

30. The (study of) the Veda impedes (the pursuit
of) agriculture, (the pursuit of) agriculture impedes
(the study of) the Veda. He who is able (to do
it), may attend to both ; but he who is unable (to
attend to both), shall give up agriculture.

31. A fat, bellowing, raging humped bull, who
does not restrain himself, who hurts living creatures
and speaks according to his pleasure, forsooth, does
not reach the (abode of) the gods ; (but) those who
are small like atoms, (being) emaciated (by austerities
and fasts), go thither.

32. If, erring, in his youth he commits at any
time good or evil acts of any kind, (they will all
remain without result). (For) if in his later age he
lives righteously, he will obtain (the reward of) that
(virtuous conduct) alone, not (the punishments of
his former) crimes.

33. Let him always be sorrowing in his heart,
when he thinks of his sins, (let him) practise
austerities and be careful; thus he will be freed
from sin.

34. ' Where drops of water touch the feet of a

28-29. Manu III, 64, 66. 34. Vasish/^a III, 42.



1.5."- IMPURITY.



177



man who offers water for sipping to others, no
defilement is caused by them. They are equally
(pure) as (water) collected on the ground.'



PRASNA I, ADHYAYA 5, KA^DIKA 11.

1. Referring to deaths and births, they declare
that the impurity of Sapi^^as lasts ten days ; ex-
cepting officiating priests, men who have performed
the initiatory ceremony of a Soma-sacrifice, and
students of the Veda.

2. But amongst Sapi#das Sapiwda-relationship
(extends) to the seventh person.

3. (If children die) before the completion of the
seventh month or before teething, (the relatives)
shall bathe.

4. In (the case of a child) that dies before the
completion of its third year or before teething, offer-
ings of funeral cakes and water are not prescribed,
and one should not burn its (body) ;

5. Nor when unmarried maidens die.

6. Some do it in the case of married daughters.

7. That (is done) in order to gain the good-will



11. i. Vasish//&a IV, 16. Officiating priests, Soma-sacrificers,
and students do not become impure by deaths or births occurring
among their relatives ; see VasishMa XIX, 48 ; Gautama XIV, i.

2. VasishMa IV, 17. For the specification of the extent of the
Sapmrfa-relationship, see below, Sutra 9.

3. Vishmi XXII, 27.

4. Vishu XXII, 28 ; Gautama XIV, 34, 43.

6. Gautama XIV, 36. 'That refers to the Sapif^as on the
father's side.' Govinda.

7. Manu IX, 18.



i;8 BAUDHAYANA. 1,5, 1 1.

of the people. Women are considered to have no
business with the sacred texts.

8. ' The relatives of unmarried women become
pure after three days. But the uterine brothers
become pure by (following) the rule mentioned
before.'

9. Moreover, the great-grandfather, the grand-
father, the father, oneself, the uterine brothers, the
son by a wife of equal caste, the grandson, (and) the
great-grandson these they call Sapiwdas, but not
the (great-grandson's) son; and amongst these a
son and a son's son (together with their father are)
sharers of an undivided oblation.

10. The sharers of divided oblations they call
Sakulyas.

8. This verse, which occurs in all my MSS. of the text, is left
out in the two copies of Govinda's commentary.

9. Colebrooke, Dayabhiga XI, r, 37 ; V. Digest CCCXCVII.
The text on which Colebrooke's two versions are based differs from
that of my MSS. and of Govinda by reading avibhaktadaySdan
instead of teshawz a putrapautram [v. 1. pautrakam] avibhakta-
dayam. The meaning of the latter clause, which is placed paren-
thetically before sapi</an a^akshate, ' (these) they call Sapiwrfas/
seems to be that a father with his son and grandson share the
cakes offered at one funeral sacrifice by the fourth descendant.
Its object is to show that the group called Sapi</as consists of two
such subdivisions, between whom the middlemost forms the con-
necting link. For the middlemost, the svayam, ' oneself/ of the
text, first offers the cakes to his three ancestors and later receives
the cakes, together with his first two descendants, from his great-
grandson. Govinda gives no help. He merely remarks that the
Sutra contains a paribhasha' or technical rule of interpretation, and
that the words api ka., ' moreover,' indicate that it is an expansion
of Sutra 2.

10. Colebrooke, loc. cit. According to Gimutavahana the Saku-
lyas are the three ascendants beyond the great-grandfather and the
three descendants beyond the great-grandson. Others, amoag



1, 5- INHERITANCE. 179

11. If no other (relations) are living, the property
(of a deceased male) descends to them (the Sa-
pindas).

12. On failure of Sapircdas, the Sakulyas (inherit).

13. On failure of them, the teacher who (holds
the place of a spiritual) father, a pupil, or an
officiating priest shall take it,

14. On failure of them, the king. Let him give
that property to persons well-versed in the three
Vedas.

15. But the king should never take for himself
the property of a Brahmaa.

1 6. Now they quote also (the following verse):
' The property of a Brahmawa destroys (him who



whom Govinda takes his place, explain the word sakulya to mean
' members of one family ' in general. Govinda says, sambandha-
viresha^-fiane sati sapim/a uyante I sambandhamatra^nane sakulySA u
Aias ka. sapm<fa api sakulya/fc II 'If a particular relationship is known,
they are called Sapw</as; and if (the fact) only is known that
relationship exists, Sakulyas. Hence the Sapir</as are also
Sakulyas.'

11. Colebrooke, loc. cit. Both the Dayabhaga and the Digest
read satsvanga^eshu, when there is male issue,' and the Vframi-
trodaya, fol. 218, p. 2, 1. 7, agrees with them. The MSS. read all
satsv anyeshu, which may, however, be taken with Govinda for
asatsv anyeshu, because the preceding word ends in e. Govinda
explains anyeshu, ' others,' by aurasSdishu, ' legitimate sons of the
body, and so forth.'

12. Colebrooke, Dayabhaga, loc. cit. The digest omits this
Sutra.

13. Colebrooke, loc. cit. imutavahana wrongly reads pita
aMrya/&, ' the father and the teacher.' Govinda gives the expla-
nation adopted above. Regarding the spiritual fatherhood of the
teacher, see e. g. Vasish/Aa II, 4.

14. Colebrooke, loc. cit. Govinda reads satsvam, ' the property
of a holy man,' instead of tatsvam, ' that property.'

15. Colebrooke V, Dig. CCCCXLIV; Vasish/Aa XVII, 86.

N 2



I So BAUDHAYANA. I, 5, IT.

takes it), together with sons and grandsons ; poison
kills one man only. (Therefore) they do not declare
poison to be (the worst) poison. The property of
a Brdhmawa is called (the worst) poison.'

17. If a birth and a death occur together, one
and the same period of ten (days and) nights (shall
serve for both).

1 8. Now if (other deaths or births) happen be-
fore the completion of the ten (days and) nights (of
impurity), the first period of ten (days and) nights
(shall suffice, provided the n?iw cause of impurity
occurs) before the end of the ninth day.

19. On a birth, indeed, the parents (alone) become
impure during ten days.

20. Some (declare that) the mother (alone be-
comes impure), because (people) avoid (lying-in
women alone).

21. Others (say that) the father (alone becomes
impure) because the semen is the chief cause (of
the generation).

22. For sons who were born without mothers,
are mentioned in the revealed texts.

23. But (the correct opinion is that) both the
parents (become impure) because they are equally
connected (with the event).



1 8. VasishMa IV, 23-25. Govinda points out that in case the
second birth or death happens after the completion of the ninth
day, the rule given (Gautama XIV, 7) applies.

19. Vasish/fca IV, 20-21.

20. Vasish/^a IV, 21-22. TatpariharanSt, literally, 'because
she is avoided, i.e. because people avoid newly -confined women
(not their husbands).' Govinda.

21. E. g. Agastya and VasishMa. See Rig-veda VII, 33, 1 i } and
Sayawa's commentary thereon.



1,5, " IMPURITY. l8l

24. But when a death (has happened, the relatives
of the deceased), allowing the youngest to begin,
shall pass their sacrificial threads over the right
shoulder and under the left arm, descend into the
water at a bathing-place, submerge (their bodies),
emerge (out of the water), ascend the bank, sip
water, pour out libations for the (deceased, repeat-
ing the last four acts) severally three times there-
after, ascend the bank, sip water, touch a coal, water
or the like at the door of their house, and sit during
ten days on mats, eating food that does not contain
pungent condiments or salt.

25. (Let him perform) a funeral sacrifice on the
eleventh or the twelfth (day).

26. In (performing) the remaining rites (one
should) conform to (the customs of) the people.

27. In case of a (death) let him also keep (a
period of impurity) for (persons who are) not (his)
Sapidfc.s, according to the degree of nearness,
three (days and) nights, a day and a night, one clay
and so forth,

24. Vasish/Aa IV, 9-15. When the libations of water are
poured out, the name of the deceased must be pronounced.
Govinda correctly states that iti, ' or the like,' which stands after
'a coal, water,' is intended to include 'cowdung, and yellow
mustard seed/ which are mentioned by Ya^wavalkya III, 13.
Regarding the clause sakr/ttri^, '(repeating these last four acts)
severally three times,' see Apastamba II, 6, 15, 10.

25. Vishmi XXI, 2 seq., and especially 19.

26. Govinda, in explanation of this Sutra, refers to the last
words of Apastamba II, 6, 15, 10, where it is said that relatives
shall perform those rites for the dead which the women declare
to be necessary/ and to Apastamba II, i i, 29, 15.

27. Gautama XIV, 20. Govinda is of opinion that the duration
of the impurity shall depend on the good qualities, learning, &c. of
the deceased.



l82 BAUDHAYANA. I, 5, 11.

28. For a teacher, a sub-teacher (upadhyaya), and
their sons, three (days and) nights,

29. Likewise for officiating priests,

30. Let him keep on account of a pupil, for one
who has the same spiritual guide, for a fellow-student
(sabrahma4rin) three (days and) nights, one day
and a night, one day and so forth (as periods of
impurity).

31. On a miscarriage females (remain impure) as
many (days and) nights as months (elapsed after
conception).

32. If he unintentionally touches the corpse of
a stranger, he becomes at once pure after bathing
dressed in his clothes.

33. (If he does it) intentionally, (he will remain
impure) during three (days and) nights.

34. And (the same rules apply if he touches a
woman) during her courses.

35. A son who is born from (intercourse with a
temporarily unclean woman) becomes an AbhLrasta.
Thereby the penances (to be performed) by him
have been explained.



28. Vishnu XXII, 42, 44. Govinda asserts that the impurity
on account of an Upadhydya lasts one night, together with the
preceding and following days, and on account of a teacher's or
Upadhyaya's sons one day only. It looks as if he had read the
words pakshinyekaham in his text.

29. Govinda asserts that a, 'likewise,' indicates that the rule
applies also on the death of persons for whom one sacrifices.

30. Vishwu XXII, 44, Govinda explains satirthya to mean ' one
who has the same guru or spiritual guide,' while according to
others it means 'one who studies under the same sub-teacher'
(upadhyaya). See also the Klrika on Pawini IV, 4, 117, and note.

31. Vishwu XXII, 25. 3 2 -33- Gautama XIV, 27.
34. Vishnu XXII, 69.



I, 5,11. IMPURITY. 183

36. On touching one who sells the Veda, a sacri-
ficial post, an outcast, a funeral pile, a dog, or a
/jfawdala he shall bathe.

37. Now if a worm is produced in an open wound
that is filled with pus and sanies, how shall, in that
case, a penance be performed ?

38. He who is bitten by a worm will become pure
on bathing (daily) during three days and drinking (a
mixture of) cow's urine, cowdung, milk, sour milk,
butter, and water boiled with Kiua grass.

39. He who has been touched by a dog shall
bathe dressed in his clothes ;

40. Or he becomes pure by washing that spot
(where he has been touched), by touching it with
fire, by (afterwards) again washing it and his feet,
and by sipping water.

41. Now they quote also (the following verses):
' But a Brahmarca who has been bitten by a dog, is
purified if he goes to a river that flows into the
ocean, (bathes there and) suppresses his breath one
hundred times and (afterwards) eats clarified butter.
He will (also) become pure at once on bathing (in
water brought) in golden or silver (vessels), or in
a cow's horn, or in new (earthen pots).'



36. This verse, which is another version of I, 5, 9, 5, is left
out in the Dekhan and Gujarat MSS.; I consider its genuineness
very doubtful.

37. Vasish/Aa XVIII, 16.

39-40. Apastambal, 5, 15, 16-17. Govinda, too, states that
the second mode of purification is to be adopted, if the dog touches
any part of the body below the navel.

41. Vasish/Aa XXIII, 31.



184 BAUDHAYANA. T, 5, 12.

PRASNA I, ADHYAYA 5, KANDIKA 12.

1. Tame animals must not be eaten,

2. Nor carnivorous and (tame) birds,

3. Nor (tame) cocks and pigs ;

4. Goats and sheep (are) excepted (from the
above prohibition).

5. Five five-toed animals may be eaten, (viz.)
the porcupine, the iguana, the hare, the hedgehog,
the tortoise and the rhinoceros, excepting the rhi-
noceros,

6. Likewise five animals with cloven hoofs, (viz.)
the white-footed antelope (Nil-gai), the (common
ravine) deer, the spotted deer, the buffalo, the (wild)
boar and the black antelope, excepting the black
antelope,

7. (Likewise) five (kinds of) birds that feed scratch-
ing with their feet, (viz.) the partridge, the blue rock-
pigeon, the francoline partridge, the (crane called)
Vardhrawasa, the peacock and the Vararca, except-
ing the Varaa,



12. i. Vasish/^a XIV, 40.

2. Vasish/Aa XIV, 48. Govinda says that the particle a, 'and,'
is used in order to indicate that the word ' tame ' must be understood.

3. Apastamba I, 5, 17, 29, 32.

5. VasishMa XIV, 39. Another explanation of the word jvavi/,
'the porcupine' (see also Gautama XVII, 27), is given in the com-
mentary, which says that it is a wild animal resembling a dog, and
belonging to the boar species. Govinda points out that there is
a dispuie among the learned regarding the rhinoceros (VasishMa
XV, 47), and that the peculiar wording of the Sutra is intended to
indicate that.

6. The permissibility of the last-named animal is again doubtful.

7. Gautama XVII, 35. The case of the last-mentioned bird,
the Varawa, is again doubtful. From the first rock-edict of Ajoka



1, 5,12. FORBIDDEN FOOD. 185

8. (And the following) fishes, (viz.) the Silurus
Pelorius (Sahasradawsh/rin), the ATili&ma, the Var-
mi, the Breha^^iras, the Ma^akari(?), the Cyprinus
Rohita, and the Ra^i.

9. The milk of a (female animal) whose offspring
is not ten days old, and of one that gives milk while
big with a young one, must not be drunk,

10. Nor that of a (cow) that has no calf or that
(suckles) a strange calf.

11. (The milk) of sheep, camels, and one-hoofed
animals must not be drunk.

12. If (he has) drunk (milk) which ought not to
be drunk, excepting cow's milk, (he must perform) a
Y^rikkhr'a. (penance).

1 3. But if (he has drunk) cow's milk (that is unfit
for use, he shall) fast during three (days and) nights.

14. Stale (food must not be eaten or drunk)
excepting pot-herbs, broths, meat, clarified butter,
cooked grain, molasses, sour milk, and barley-meal,

15. Nor (substances) which have turned sour, nor
molasses which have come into that state.

1 6. After performing the ceremony preparatory

it appears that peacocks, now considered inviolable, were actually
eaten in the third century A. D.

8. Vasish//fca XIV, 41-42. The names are much corrupted in the
MSS., and for Ma^akari, which I do not find in the dictionaries,
Sanmakari or Samasakari is also read. The Br/ha^^iras is
probably the Indian salmon, the Mahsir.

9-10. Vasish/fla XIV, 34-35; Gautama XVII, 22. The meaning
of sandhini, ' a female animal that gives milk while big with young,'
is uncertain. See also Vishmi LI, 40; Apastimba I, 5, 17, 23.

n. Gautama XVII, 24. 12. Vishwu LI, 38-41.

14. Gautama XVII, 16. 15. Vasish/Aa XIV, 37-38.

16. VasishMa XIII, 1-5. Govinda states that this SOtra has
been introduced here, because the purity of one's food ensures



1 86 BAUDHAYANA. 1,6,13.

to the beginning of the Veda-study (upakarman) on
the (full moon of the month) of Srvana. or of
Ashid^a, they shall close the term on the full moon
of Taisha or Magha.

PRASNA I, ADHYAYA 6, KANDIKA 13.

1. The gods enjoy a pure sacrifice (only) ;

2. For the gods are desirous of purity and (them-
selves) pure.

3. The following (Rifc) declares that, 'To you, O
Maruts, the pure ones, pure viands ; to you, the pure
ones, I offer a pure sacrifice. They who love the
pious rites, who are of pure origin, (themselves) pure
and purifiers (of others), came duly to the truthful
(worshipper).'

4. (He will be) pure (if there is) no blemish on
his clothes, therefore let him perform all (acts) that
are connected with sacrificing, (dressed) in unblem-
ished clothes.

5. The sacrificer and his wife as well as the officiat-
ing priests shall put on dresses which have been
washed, and dried by the wind, and which are not
in a bad condition.

purity of one's soul, and purity of soul gives strength of memory,
and thereby makes one fit to study the Veda.

13. i-2. See also above, I, 5, 10, 4. This Adhyiya and the next
ought to have been given in the Srauta Sutra.

3. Rig-vedaVII, 56, 12; Taittiriya-brahmana II, 8, 5,5. The
meaning of the last portion of the verse is somewhat doubtful.
Sayana gives two different explanations and Govinda a third.

4. Govinda points out that the dresses of the sacrificer and of
his priests must be white, because farther on (Sutras 9-10) other
colours are specially prescribed.

5. Govinda thinks that the word fa, ' as well as,' is intended to
include the lookers-on.



1)6,13- DRESSES AT SACRIFICES. 187

6. (It shall be) thus from the (beginning of the)
Prakrama,

7. And thus at the long Soma-sacrifices and the
Sattras ;

8. And (on other occasions other dresses must
be used) in accordance with the injunction (of the
Veda),

9. Thus at (all) Ish/is, animal sacrifices, and
Soma-sacrifices which may be used as spells (against
enemies), the priests shall perform (the sacred
rites), wearing red turbans and red dresses ; (when
reciting the hymn seen by) VWshikapi (he shall)
wear a dress and a mantle of many colours and
so forth.

10. At the Agnyidhina (sacrifice) the clothes
(shall be made) of flax ; on failure of such, (dresses)
made of cotton or of wool are used.

11. Clothes defiled by urine, ordure, blood, semen
and the like (shall be) cleaned with earth, water
and the like.

12. (Dresses) made of TWpa-bark and vrzkala
(shall be treated) like cotton-cloth,

6. Regarding the ceremony called Prakrama, literally ' stepping
forward from the Garhapatya fire,' see Saya/ia on Taitt. Br. I, i,
4, i. It opens the AgnyadhSna rite.

9. Govinda states that the words iti a, 'and so forth,' are in-
tended to include other incantations. The Vr/shakapi hymn is
found Rig-veda X, 86.

11. Govinda states that the word iti, 'and the like,' is intended
to include cowdung, cow's urine, and other substances used for
purification.

12. Govinda states that there is a tree called TV/pa, the bark of
which is used for dresses. Vrz"kala, which has been left untrans-
lated, is explained by jakama, a word which is not found in our
dictionaries.



1 88 BAUDHAYANA. I, 6, 13.

1 3. Deer-skins like (dresses) made of bark.

14. (Let him) not (use) a mantle which has been
wrapped (round the loins, or) on which he has been
lying (in his bed), without washing it.

15. Let him not employ for the gods anything
used by men without beating it on a stone.

1 6. If solid earth is defiled, (it must be) smeared



Online LibraryGeorg BühlerThe sacred laws of the Aryas : as taught in the schools of Apastamba, Gautama, Vasishtha and Baudhayana → online text (page 42 of 55)