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The sacred laws of the Aryas : as taught in the schools of Apastamba, Gautama, Vasishtha and Baudhayana online

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with cowdung.

1 7. Loose (earth must be cleansed by) ploughing,

1 8. Moist (earth) by bringing pure (earth) and
covering (it with that).

19. Land is purified in four (ways), by being trod
on by cows, by digging, by lighting a fire on it, by
rain falling on it,

20. Fifthly by smearing it with cowdung, and
sixthly through (the lapse of) time.

21. Grass placed on unconsecrated ground (must
be) washed.

22. (Grass) defiled out of one's sight, (shall be)
sprinkled (with water).

23. Small pieces of sacred fuel (shall be purified)
in the same manner.

24. Large pieces of wood (must be) washed and

13. Govinda says that, as the treatment of valkala, ' bark-dresses,'
has not been prescribed, the meaning of the Sutra can only be,
that bark-dresses and black-buck skins are to be treated alike,
i. e. that they are to be cleaned with Bel-nut and rice ; see above.

15. Govinda explains apalpulitam by 'without beating it with
the hand on a stone.' He mentions as an instance the skin which
is used in preparing the Soma.

1 6. According to Govinda, solid earth is such on which the fire-
altars are built.

21. E. g. grass intended for the barhis, if it has been placed on
a spot which has not been sprinkled with water.

22. 'Defiled out of one's sight,' i.e. brought by Sudras.


25. But a great quantity (of wood shall be)
sprinkled (with water).

26. Wooden vessels which have been touched by
impure men (shall be) scraped ;

27. (And) those which are defiled by stains of
remnants (shall be) planed.

28. (Wooden vessels) defiled by urine, ordure,
blood, semen, and the like (very impure substances
shall be) thrown away.

29. These (rules must be followed) except in case
a (special) injunction (is given) ;

30. Thus, for instance, (purification by) washing
with Kara grass and water (is prescribed) on all the
following (occasions, viz.) at the Agnihotra, the
Gharmo////ish/a, the Dadhigharma, the Ku;^apa-
yinam Ayana, the Utsargiwam Ayana, the Daksha-
ya#a sacrifice, the Ardhodaya, the A'atu^akra, and
the Brahmaudanas,

31. (Again) at all Soma-sacrifices (the cups must
be) cleaned with water only on (the heap of earth
called) the Mar^aliya ;

32. If these same (cups are defiled) by urine, ordure,

27. Govinda says that this rule is optional.

28. Govinda adds that fuel, Kuja grass, and the like, which have
been defiled in this manner, must also be thrown away.

30. Regarding the Dadhigharma, a homa, see Vaitina Sutra
21, 18; regarding the KuWap&yina'm Ayana, A-rval&yana .Srauta
Sutra XII, 4 ; and regarding the Dakshayana sacrifice, a variety of
the new and full-moon offering, Arvalayana II, 14. The Ardho-
daya is possibly the vrata of that name mentioned in the Purawas.
According to Govinda, the Aatujakra, which is otherwise known
as a TSntric rite, is a sacrifice, ish/akakosh/a (?) madhyavasamo
ya^ante tathetaradaya^ (?). Regarding the Brahmaudana, see Ajva-
layana .Srauta Sutra I, 4.

32. Govinda says that the injunction to throw away defiled


blood, semen, and the like (they must be) thrown


1. Earthen vessels that have been touched by
impure persons (must be) exposed to (the flame of)
a fire of Kara grass.

2. Those which have been defiled by stains of
remnants (of food must be) exposed to another

3. Those which have been defiled by urine,
ordure, blood, semen, and the like (must be) thrown

4. (Vessels) made of metal (must be) washed,
after having been scrubbed as (directed) above.

5. The materials (to be used) for scrubbing (are)
cowdung, earth, ashes, and so forth.

6. Those which have been defiled by urine,
ordure, blood, semen, and the like (must be) recast,

7. Or (they must) be kept during seven (days
and) nights completely immersed in cow's urine,

8. Or in a great river for as long (a period).

9. (Vessels) made of stone or of fruits, (i. e.)
gourds, Bel-fruit, and VinaYas, (shall be) brushed
with (a brush of) cow's hair.

vessels has been repeated, in order to prevent a misconception.
For as Soma is said to be a great means of purification, it might
be supposed that it was powerful enough to prevent the defile-
ment of vessels into which it is poured at a sacrifice. But com-
pare the next Sutras.

14. 8. A great river, i. e. one which directly flows into the
ocean. Govinda.

9. A Vina/a, i. e. (a vessel) made of bamboo or Vidagdhaa/a ; it
is called a ' long vessel' (dirghabha^anam), and is used for carrying
the Prawita water and the like purposes. Govinda. The vessel


10. (Sacrificial implements made of) plaited Na/a-
reeds, bamboo, or 6ara-reeds (shall be) washed with
cowdung, water, and the like.

11. If unhusked rice has been denied, (it must
be) washed (and afterwards be) dried.

12. But a great quantity (of unhusked rice must
be) sprinkled.

13. Husked rice (which has been defiled must be)
thrown away.

14. The same (rule applies) to cooked sacrificial

15. But if a great quantity has been defiled by
(the touch of) dogs, crows, and the like (unclean
beings), one must throw away that portion (as) food
for men, and sprinkle (the rest with water), reciting
the Anuvaka, ' Pavamina^ suvar^ana^.'

1 6. Hydromel and preparations of milk (are)
purified by pouring them from one vessel into

intended is no doubt the flask made of a bamboo which is cut
below the joint, and is commonly used as a bottle for oil. Govinda
adds that this mode of purification is to be adopted in case the
vessels have been touched by impure persons.

10. Na/a-reeds, i.e. Amphidonax Karka; Sara, i.e. Saccharum
Sara. Govinda says that the rule applies to cases where such
implements have been defiled by remnants of food (uish/a-

ir. 'Defiled, i.e. touched by a JTaadUa.' (The rule) refers to
a quantity less than a Droa (66 or 132 Ibs.). Govinda.

13. 'If it has been defiled by urine and the like and the quan-
tity is small;' this must be understood, because he will declare
(below, Sutra 15) that if there is a great quantity (the defiled)
portion only shall be thrown away. Govinda.

14. This, too, refers to small quantities only.

15. The Anuvaka referred to is Taittiriya-brihmaa I, 4, 8.

1 6. ' Hydromel, Le. sour milk, honey, clarified butter, water, and


17. In like manner let him pour oil and clarified
butter which have been touched by an impure
(person) into water, and (afterwards) use them.

1 8. If (any) impure (substance) is thrown (into
the sacrificial fire) let him place (the two Arais
one) on (the other), produce fire by friction, (and
offer) a Pavamanesh/i.

19. If (the rules regarding) purity, the proper
place, the mantras, the series of actions, the object,
the materials, (their) consecration, and the proper
time are conflicting, each earlier-named (point) is
more important (than the following ones).


1. The sacred fires (shall be) approached from
the north,

2. (And be) left in the same manner.

3. The contrary (proceeding should be adopted
at sacrifices offered) to the manes.

grain ; a preparation of milk, i. e. curd of two-milk whey (dmiksha),
if these are blemished by the fault of men, and that (blemish must
have been caused by) the touch of an impure (person, u&ishte)
only.' Govinda.

17. 'And that must be done in such a manner that the oil and
the clarified butter are not lost.' Govinda.

18. 'Any impure substance, i.e. urine, ordure, and the like.'

19. Avn't, 'the series of actions/ i.e. the growth (pramubhlva)
of the ceremonial (prayoga). Gbvinda.

15. i. Manava .Srauta Sutra I, i, i, and Rumania thereon in
Professor Goldstiicker's lithographed copy and Katyayana -Srauta
Sutra I, 8, 24. See also Professor Haug's map of ' the sacrificial
compound,' Aitareya-brahmaa, vol. i.

3. I. e. the entrance and exit are to be made to the south of the


4. Let him wash that which has been touched with
(his) foot.

5. Let him touch water, in case he touches his
body or the hem (of his garment).

6. Likewise (let him touch water) after cutting,
splitting, digging or removing (anything, or offering
oblations) to the manes, to the Rakshasas, to
Nirmi, to Rudra, (and after performing sacrifices)
intended as spells (against enemies).

7. Let him not turn round himself a sacrificial
implement (the use of) which is accompanied by the
recitation of mantras.

8. (For) the sacrificial implements (are) more
nearly (connected with the sacrifice),

9. The priests, more remotely.

10. The sacrificer and his wife are even nearer
than the priests.

11. After the sacrificial implements (follows) the
clarified butter, after the clarified butter the sacri-
ficial viands, after the sacrificial viands the animal
to be slain, after the animal the Soma, after the
Soma the sacred fires.

5. Govinda explains sik, 'the hem of the garment,' by the
garment wrapped round the loins (parihitawz vasaA).

7. The meaning is that the priest must hold the sacrificial imple-
ments, such as the sruvfc and sruva ladles, between himself and the
fires, and not place himself between them and the fires (atmano
bahir na kurySt agner antaraA svayaw* na bhaved iti yivat).

8. 'He gives the reason for that (rule), "For the sacrificial
implements (are) nearer" than the priests, that must be under-
stood.' Govinda.

10. 'For they obtain the reward of the sacrifice. The instances
(referring) to those two are the Vaisar^anas and the Dakshuias.'

11. Katyayana .Srauta Sutra I, 8, 31. 'If the space on the

C'4] O

194 BAUDHAYANA. I, 7, 15.

12. If there is work for them, the priests shall
not turn away from the sacred fires.

13. If he faces the east, let him turn towards his
right shoulder,

14. If he faces the west, towards the left.

15. The entrance to the sacrificial (enclosure lies)
between the ATitv&la and the Utkara,

1 6. (When one comes) from the A"atvala, (it lies
between) the Ahavaniya fire and the Utkara.

17. The officiating (priests), the sacrificer, and his
wife shall enter by that (road),

1 8. As long as the sacrificial rite is not completed.

19. When it has been finished (they shall) pass to
and fro on the side where there is no Utkara (i.e.
on the western side of the enclosure).

Uttaravedi and the rest is confined, the Soma is made ready imme-
diately after the fire, after that the meat and so forth, after that the
grain for the sacrificial cakes, then the clarified butter, and after
that the spoons called sruva, sru/fc, and so forth.' Govinda.

12. ' It is indicated hereby that, if there is work (to be done)
there, they shall not turn away from the sacred fires except in
cases of absolute necessity.' Govinda.

13. 'This rule (refers to the case) when he walks with the
sacred fires. It must be understood that he shall not turn his
back on the fires.' Govinda.

14. 'This rule (is to be interpreted) in the same manner (as
the preceding one). Or it is prescribed by these two Sutras that
the men engaged (in the sacrifice) shall go out, turning their right
hand towards (the fires).' Govinda.

15. Kltydyana Srauta Sutra V, i, IT.

16. I read with the MSS. of the text '^UvalSd ahavanfyotkarau/
The two copies of the commentary give ^StvalaA ihavaniyotkarau.
Govinda says that the words antarea tirtham must be understood.
For the position of the A'atvala and the Utkara, see Professor
Haug's map, where the road of the priests is also marked, though
somewhat differently;


20. Let him not put on the fire logs or Samidhs
which have not been sprinkled (with water),

21. The Brahman (priest) and the sacrificer shall
enter in front of the Ahavanlya fire.

22. Some (declare that they shall enter) behind
the Ahavaniya fire.

23. The seat of the^ Brahman (priest is situated)
to the south of the Ahavanlya fire, (that) of the
sacrificer to the west of him.

24. (The seat) of the Hotri (priest is situated) to
the north of the northern Srom (of the Vedi),

25. (That) of the Agnldhra priest near the

26. (That) of the (sacrificer's) wife behind the
Girhapatya fire.

27. He scatters Darbha grass on these (seats)
as often as (they are used).

28. A vessel filled with water, for the purpose of
sipping, shall be appropriated to (the use of) each

29. He who has been initiated (to the performance
of a sacrifice shall) keep the (following) vows :

30. Let him not proclaim the guilt of other men;
let him not become angry ; let him not weep ; let
him not look at urine and ordure.

31. If he has looked at any unclean (substance),
he mutters (the verse), ' Unrestrained is the internal

23. For the seats of the priests and the other persons named
in this and the following rules, see Professor Haug's plan, and
Dr. Hillebrandt's Altindische Neu und Vollmondopfer, p. 190.

24. ' The northern .Srom of the Vedi, i. e. the north-western
corner of the Vedi.' Govinda.

31. Taittirtya Sawhitd III, 1,1,2, where the rule also is given.
M. alone adds another Sutra, the text of which is corrupt. But it
ended with the mantra undattr balaaz dhatta, &c. Taitt. S. ibid. 3.

O 2

196 BAUDHAYANA. I, 8, 16.

organ, wretched (my) eye-sight; the sun is the chief
of the (heavenly) lights ; O Dlksha, do not forsake


1. There are four castes (varwa, viz.) Brahmawas,
Kshatriyas, VaLsyas, and .Sudras.

2. (Males) belonging to them (may take) wives
according to the order of the castes, (viz.) a Brah-
ma wa four,

3. A Kshatriya three,

4. A VaLrya two,

5. A 6udra one.

6. Sons begotten on (wives) of equal or of the
next lower castes (are called) Savarwas (of equal

7. (Those born) of (wives) of the second or third
lower castes (become) AmbashMas, Ugras, and

8. Of females wedded in the inverse order of the
castes (are born) Ayogavas, Magadhas, Vamas,
Kshattrzs, Pulkasas, Kukku/akas, Vaidehakas, and

9. An Ambash//a (begets) on a female of the
first (caste) a 6Vapaka,

10. An Ugra on a female of the second (caste)
a Vai^a,

11. A Nishdda on a female of the third (caste)
a Pulkasa.

16. i. Vasish/^a II, i. 2-5. Vasish/yfa I, 24-25.

6. Gautama IV, 16. 7. Vasish/tfa XVIII, 8.

8-12. Vasish/tfa XVIII, 1-6 ; Gautama IV, 17-21. In the I. O.
copy of the commentary there is a break, which extends from
Sutra 8 to the beginning of Adhyaya 10.

T >9> 17- CASTES.

12. In the contrary case a Kukku/aka (is pro-

13 ..... ..... .....

14 ............. '..'.!

15 ................

16. Now they quote also (the following verse):
' But those sons whom an uninitiated man begets,
the wise call Vratyas, who are excluded from the
Savitr! ; (that is a rule which refers) in an equal
manner to the three (highest) castes.'



1. The Rathakara (carpenter), the AmbashMa,
the Suta (charioteer), the Ugra, the Magadha, the
Ayogava, the Varna.,, the Kshattf*', the Pulkasa, the
Kukku/a, the Vaidehaka, the ./Tattdala, and so forth,

2. Among these, sons of equal caste (spring) from
women of equal caste.

3. A Brahma#a (begets) on a female of the Ksha-
triya caste a Brahmaa, on a female of the Vaijya
caste an AmbashAfca, on a female of the .Sftdra caste
a Nishada,

4. (According to) some a Pararava.

13-15. The text of the three Sfctras is exceedingly corrupt, and
the Telugu copy of the commentary affords no help. It is, how-
ever, clear that the passage left out contained something which
corresponded to Gautama IV, 22-23, and treated of the possibility
of raising persons of a lower caste to a higher one by intermarriages
continued for five or seven generations. The reading of K., which
perhaps is the best, will show this : ' nishadena nisbldy&d & pa-
foma^gatiT. bhavanti tarn upanayet shashMaw yi^ayet saptamo 'vi-
kr/'ta^isama/Hgito sap tarn aui^isama ity ekeshaax saogna kramewa

1 6. Manu X, 20.

17. 1-2. Manu X, 26-27. 3-6- See above, I, 8, 16,6-7.

198 BAUDHAYANA. 1,9,17.

5. A Kshatriya (begets) on a female of the Vawya
caste a Kshatriya, on a female of the .Sudra caste an

6. A Vai^ya (begets) on a female of the .Sudra
caste a Rathakara.

7. A .Sttdra begets on a female of theValrya caste
a Magadha, on a female of the Kshatriya caste a
Kshatt^', but on a female of the Brahma#a caste
a .ATad&la.

8. A Vai.rya begets on a female of the Kshatriya
caste an Ayogava, on a female of the Brahmawa
caste a Suta.

9. If among these an AmbashMa (male) and an
Ugra (female) unite, (their son) will be born in the
direct order of the castes (Anuloma).

10. If a Kshattn (male) and a Vaidehaka (female)
unite, (their son will be) born against the order of
the castes (Pratiloma).

1 1. An Ugra (begets) on a female of the Kshattrz:
caste a 6Vapaka,

12. A Vaidehaka on a female of the Ambash/^a
caste a Vaia,

13. A Nishada on a female of the ^udra caste
a Pulkasa,

14. A .Sudra on a female of the Nishada caste
a Kukku/aka.

1 5. The wise declare those sprung from an inter-
mixture of the castes to be Vratyas.

7-8. See above, I, 8, 16, 8.

9-10. I.e. the offspring of individuals of different Anuloma
castes again become Anulomas, and the offspring of individuals of
different Pratiloma castes, Pratilomas.

11-12. Manu X, 19.

13-14. See above, I, 8, 16, 11-12. 15. Gautama IV, 25.

I. 10, 18. THE KING.



1. Let the king protect (his) subjects, receiving as
his pay a sixth part (of their incomes or spiritual

2. Brahman, forsooth, placed its majesty in the
Brahmawas, together with (the duties and privileges
of) studying, teaching, sacrificing for themselves,
sacrificing for others, liberality, and accepting (gifts),
for the protection of the Vedas ;

3. In the Kshatriyas (it placed) strength, together
with (the duties and privileges of) studying, sacri-
ficing, liberality, (using) weapons, and protecting the
treasure (and the life of) created beings, for the
growth of (good) government ;

4. In the VaLfyas (it placed the power of work),
together with (the duties of) studying, sacrificing,
liberality, cultivating (the soil), trading, and tending
cattle, for the growth of (productive) labour.

5. On the 6tldras (it imposed the duty of) serving
the three higher (castes).

6. For (the Veda states), ' they were created from
the feet (of Brahman)/

18. i. Vasish/^a I, 42-44. Learned Brahmaas do not pay
taxes, but the king obtains a sixth part of the spiritual merit which
they acquire. Hence BaudhSyana uses the general term, ' a sixth

2. Vasish/^a II, 13-14- 3- Vasish/Aa II, 15-17.

4. VasishA&a II, 18-19. The words 'the power of work' are
inserted by Govinda.

5. VasishMa II, 20.

6. Rig-veda X, 90, 12 ; Taittiriya Arawyaka III, 12, 6.

2OO BAUDHAYANA. I, 10, 18.

7. Let (the king) choose a domestic priest (who
shall be) foremost in all (transactions).

8. Let him act according to his instructions.

9. Let him not turn back in battle.

10. Let him not strike with barbed or poisoned

11. Let him not fight with those who are in fear,
intoxicated, insane or out of their minds, (nor with
those) who have lost their armour, (nor with) women,
infants, aged men, and Brahmaas,

1 2. Excepting assassins (atatiyin)^

13. Now they quote also (the following verse) :
*He who slays an assassin, able to teach (the Veda)
and born in a (noble) family, does not (incur) by
that (act the guilt of) the murderer of a learned
Brahmaa ; (in) that (case) fury recoils upon fury.'

14. The duty on goods imported by sea is, after
deducting a choice article, ten Pa^as in the hundred.

15. Let him also lay just (duties) on other
(marketable goods) according to their intrinsic value
without oppressing (the traders).

7. Vasish/Aa XIX, 36. Govmda explains sarvatodhuram, 'fore-
most in all/ by sarva^wam, ' omniscient.'

8. VasishMa I, 40-41. The rule, of course, refers primarily to
advice in spiritual matters.

9. Gautama X, 1 6. 10. ManuVII, 90.
n. Gautama X, 1 8. The meaning is that such persons shall

not be slain in, battle.

12-13. Vasish/Aa III, 18.

14. I take this to mean that the king may take one article which
particularly pleases him out of each consignment, and impose on
the rest an ad valorem, duty of ten per cent. Regarding the tribute
in kind to be paid to Indian kings by foreign merchants, see Peri-
plus maris Erythraei, par. 49.

1.5. Vishmi III, 29-30. Govinda interprets anupahatya/ without


1 6. Let the king guard the property of men
belonging to a non-Brahmanical caste, the owner
of which has disappeared, during a year, and after-
wards take it (for himself).

17. A Brahma^a, forsooth, shall not suffer cor-
poral punishment for any offence.

18. In case (a Brahmawa) has slain a Brahmawa,
has violated his Guru's bed, has stolen the gold
(of a Brahmawa), or has drunk (the spirituous liquor
called) Sura, (the king) shall cause to be impressed
with a heated iron the mark of a headless trunk,
a female part, a jackal, (or) the sign of a tavern
on the forehead (of the offender) and banish him
from his realm.

19. If a Kshatriya or (a man of any) other (lower
caste) has murdered a Brahmawa, death and the
confiscation of all his property (shall be his punish-

20. If those same (persons) slay men of equal or
lower castes, (the king) shall fix suitable punishments
in accordance with their ability.

i. For slaying a Kshatriya (the offender) shall

oppressing the traders,' by 'without deducting (anuddhr/'tya) a
choice article.'

1 6. VasishMa XVI, 19-20. As stated above, I, 5, n, 15. the
king must not take the property of a Brahmana.

17. Vishnu V, a. 'Corporal punishment, 1 i.e. capital punish-
ment, mutilation, &c., except branding. ^

18. Vishnu V, 3-7. 19, Apastaraba II, 10, 27, 16.
20. VasishMa XIX, 9. ' Those same persons,' i. e. Kshatriyas,

Vairyas, or -Sfldras.

19. i. Apastamba I, 9, 24, i. Govinda explains vairaniryata-

2O2 BAUDHAYANA. I, 10, 19.

give to the king one thousand cows and besides
a. bull in expiation of his sin,

2. For (slaying) a Vai^ya one hundred cows, for
(slaying) a 6ftdra ten ; and a bull (must be) added
(in each case).

3. (The punishment for) the murder of a woman
excepting a (Brahmaw!) who had bathed after
temporary uncleanness and for the destruction of
a cow have been explained by the (rule regarding
the) murder of a .Sudra.

4. If he has slain a milch-cow or a draught-ox,
he shall perform a A^andrayawa (lunar penance) after
(paying the prescribed fine).

5. The (punishment for the) murder of a (Brah-
ma^l) who had bathed after temporary uncleanness
has been explained by (the rule regarding) the
murder of a Kshatriya.

6. For killing a flamingo, a Bhasa, a peacock,
a Brahma^t duck, a Pra/alaka, a crow, an owl, a
frog, a musk-rat, a dog, (the large ichneumon called)
Babhru, a common ichneumon, and so forth, (the
offender shall pay) the same (fine) as (for the murder
of) a .5udra.

7. In order to gain the good opinion of men,
a witness shall give evidence in accordance with
what he has seen or heard.

nartham in two ways: i. in expiation of his sin; 2. in order to
remove the enmity of the relatives of the murdered man. He adds
all these punishments are really penances (pr&yajittas) to be
imposed by the king. Apastamba has these Sutras in the section
on penances.

2. Apastamba I, 9, 24, 2-4.

3. Apastamba I, 9, 24, 5 ; I, 9, 26, i.

5. VasishMa XX, 34, 37. 6. Apastamba I, 9. 35, 13.

7. VishwuVIII, 13-14.

I, 10, 19. WITNESSES. 2O3

8. Of injustice (in decisions) one quarter falls on
the party in the cause, one quarter on his witnesses,
one quarter on all the judges, and one quarter on
the king.

But where he who deserves condemnation is con-
demned, the king is guiltless and the judges free
from blame ; the guilt falls on the offender (alone).

9. (Therefore) a wise man should ask an appointed
witness in the following manner :

10. ' The merit which thou hast acquired in the
interval between the night in which thou wast born
and that in which thou wilt die, all that will go to
the king, if thou speakest an untruth.'

11. 'A witness who speaks falsely, slays three
fathers and three grandfathers and seven (descend-
ants), both the born and the unborn.'

12. 'By false testimony concerning gold he kills
three ancestors ; by false testimony regarding (small)

Online LibraryGeorg BühlerThe sacred laws of the Aryas : as taught in the schools of Apastamba, Gautama, Vasishtha and Baudhayana → online text (page 43 of 55)