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tank) and has been strained.

26. (Ascetics shall) say, ' Renouncing the works
taught in the Veda, cut off from both (worlds), we
attach ourselves to the central sphere (Brahman).'

27. But the venerable teacher (declares) that
there is one order only, because the others do not
beget offspring.

28. With reference to this matter they quote also
(the following passage) : ' There was, forsooth, an
Asura, Kapila by name, the son of Prahlada.

20 and 22. These two Sutras are omitted in K. and M., which
give them in the passage following Sutra 12, as well as in the
Dekhan and Gu^arSt MSS.

24. See below, II, 10, 17, n. Govinda explains pavitra, 'a cloth
for straining water,' by 'a bunch of Kiua grass for removing
insects from the road.'

25. According to Govinda such water is to be used for washing
off the stains of urine &c., not for drinking.

26. This Sutra is again omitted in the MSS. of the text. M. and
K. give it in the passage following Sutra 12.

27. Gautama III, 36.

n,6, ii. THE FOUR ORDERS. 261

Striving with the gods, he made these divisions.
A wise man should not take heed of them.'

29. Because no (other meaning is) perceptible,
(the text) 'Four paths,' &c., refers to sacrificial rites,
(viz.) to Ish/is, animal sacrifices, Soma sacrifices,

30. With respect to this (question the following
verse also) is quoted : 'That eternal greatness of the
Brahmawa is neither increased by works, nor dimi-
nished. The soul knows the nature of that (great-
ness) ; knowing that, he is not stained by evil deeds.'

31. If he says that, (let him reflect on the fol-
lowing verse): * He who knows not the Veda, does
not at death think of that great, all-perceiving soul,
through which the sun, resplendent with brilliancy,
gives warmth, and the father has a father through
the son at his birth from the womb.'

32. (Moreover), 'Those who, being neither true
Brahmawas nor performers of Soma sacrifices, work
not for that which is near, nor for that which is far,
take hold of the word and with sinful (speech)
ignorantly perform the rites/

33. There are innumerable (passages in the
Veda) which refer to the debts (to be paid by a
Brahma/za), such as, ' May I obtain, O Agni, immor-

3031. Taitt. Brahmaa III, 12, 9, 7.

32. Rig-veda X, 71, 9. My rendering of the difficult verse is
merely tentative, and I have left out the word siriA, for which I
am as little able as other Sanskritists to offer a safe explanation.
The general meaning of the verse, I think, has been rightly under-
stood by Sayaa and Govinda. who both say that it contains a
reproach, addressed to those Brahmaas who, contented with the
letter of the Veda, do not master its meaning.

33-34. The commentary omits these two Sutras, which, how-
ever, seem necessary for the completion of the discussion. The

262 BAUDHAYANA. II, 6, tf.

tality through offspring ;' 'A Brahmawa on being
born, (owes) a son to his ancestors,' &c.

34. ' Those dwell with us, who fulfil the following
(duties), the study of the three Vedas, the student-
ship, the procreation of offspring, faith, austerity,
sacrificing, and giving gifts ; he who praises other
(duties) becomes dust and perishes,'


1. Now we will explain the oblations (offered) to
the vital air (praa) by .Salinas (householders) and
Y4yvaras (vagrants), who sacrifice to the soul.

2. At the end of all the necessary (daily rites), let
him sit down, facing the east, in a place that has
been well cleaned and smeared with cowdung ; next
let him worship that prepared (food) which is being
brought, (saying), * Bhu^, Bhuva^, Sva^, Om,' (and
then) remain silent.

3. (Next) he pours water round the food which
has been placed (before him), turning his right hand
towards it, and reciting the Mahavyahrztis ; (after-
wards), continuing to hold (the dish) with his left
hand, he first drinks water, (saying), ' Thou art a
substratum for ambrosia/ and (finally) offers five
oblations of food to the vital airs, (reciting the

second occurs also Apastamba II, 9, 24, 8. Though Baudha-
yana does not express himself as clearly as Apastamba, he dis-
approves, as it would seem, like the latter, of the opinion of those
who gave an undue preference to asceticism at the expense of
married life, the order of the householders.

12. i. The PraVragnihotra is alluded to by Apastamba II, 7, 17, 16.
Regarding the terms .Salma and YdyaArara, see below, III, i, 3-4.

3. The Mahavyihrz'tis are the Mantras given Taittiriya Aranyaka
X, 2. The second Mantra is found Taittirtya Arawyaka X, 32, and


texts), 'Full of reverence, I offer ambrosia to Prawa;
mayest thou propitiously enter me, not in order to
burn me. To Praa, Svaha !' &c.

4. After offering the five oblations of food to the
vital airs, let him finish his meal silently. Medi-
tating in his heart on the lord of created beings, let
him not emit speech while (eating).

5. If he emits speech, he shall mutter ' Bhu>fc,
Bhuva^, Sva^, Om/ and afterwards continue to eat,

6. Now they quote also (the following rule); ' If he
sees (bits of) skin, hair, nail-(parings), insects, or the
dung of rats (in his food), he shall take out a lump,
sprinkle that spot with water, scatter ashes on it, again
sprinkle it with water, and use (the remainder of the
food), after it has been declared fit (for use).'

7. Now they quote also (the following verse) : 'He
shall eat, seated with his face towards the east, silent,
not despising his food, not scattering (fragments on
the ground), and solely attend (to his dinner) ; and,
after he has eaten, he shall touch fire.'

8. He shall not cut off with his teeth (pieces
from) eatables (that must be swallowed) entire, (such
as) cakes, bulbs, roots, fruit, and flesh.

9. (Let him) not (eat) to repletion.

10. After (dinner) he shall drink water, (reciting
the text), ' Thou art a covering for ambrosia,' and
stroke (the region of) the heart, (saying), ' Thou art
the bond that connects the vital airs ; (thou art)

the third ibid. X, 34. The translation of the Mantras follows
Govinda, who somewhat differs from Sayaa.

6. VasishMa XIV, 23. 7- Vishnu LXVIII, 40-43.

9. Vishnu LXVIII, 47.

10. The first text is found Taittirtya Arawyaka X, 35, and the
second ibid. X, 37. I translate the first according to Govinda.

264 BAUDHAYANA. II, 7, 12.

Rudra and Death ; enter me ; mayest thou grow
through this food.'

n. After sipping water a second time, he allows
(the drops from) the hand to flow on the big toe
of his right foot (and recites the following text) :
' May the male be pleased, he who is of the size
of a thumb, who occupies (a space of the size of) a
thumb, who is the lord of the whole world, masterful,
and the enjoyer of the universe.'

12. Let him perform the subsequent consecration
(anumantrawa) of the (food which has been) offered,
with raised arms, (and let him recite) the five (texts
beginning), ' With faith, worshipping Prawa, (I have)
offered ambrosia ; mayest thou increase Pra7*a
through this food/

13. (And let him address the soul with the last
text of the Anuvaka), ' (May) my soul (gain) immor-
tality in the universal soul.'

14. And let him (meditate on his) soul (as) united
with the imperishable (syllable Om).

15. He who sacrifices to the soul, surpasses him
who offers all sacrifices.


i. Now they quote also (the following verse) :
'As cotton and reeds, thrown into a fire, blaze up,
even so all the guilt of him who sacrifices to the
soul is consumed ;'

ii. Taittiriya Arayaka X, 38. The individual soul which re-
sides in the heart is here identified with the universal soul; see
also Kanaka Upanishad IV, 1 2.

12-13. Taittiriya Araayaka X, 36.

14. The syllable Om is Brahman, the universal soul.

IT, 7. 13- EATING. 265

2. (Moreover), * He who eats merely (in order to
satisfy his own hunger) reaps only guilt. In vain
(the fool) takes food.'

3. Let him daily, both in the morning and in the
evening, sacrifice in this manner ;

4. Or (he may offer) water in the evening.

5. Now they quote also (the following verses) :
' Let him first feed his guests, next the pregnant
women, then the infants and the aged, thereafter the
distressed and particularly the diseased. But he
who eats first, without having given (food) to those
(persons) according to the rule, does not know that
he is being eaten. He does not eat, (but) he is

6. ' Let him eat silently what remains, (after he
has given their portions) to the manes, the gods, the
servants, his parents, and his Gurus; that is declared
to be the rule of the sacred law.'

7. Now they quote also (the following verses) :
' Eight mouthfuls are the meal of an ascetic, sixteen
that of a hermit in the woods, thirty-two that of a
householder, and an unlimited (quantity) that of a

8. ' An Agnihotrin, a draught-ox, and a student,
those three can do their work only if +hey ea
(much) ; without eating (much) they cannot do it/

9. 'A householder, or a student who practises

13. 3. Rig-veda X, 117, 6, and Taittiriya Brahmaa II, 8, 8, 3.
The words have been transposed.

5. Vasish//b XI, 6-8; Manu III, 114-" 5- l write > with lhe
Dekhan and Gujarat MSS., na sa bhunkte, sa bhu^vate, instead of
the senseless reading of M. and the commentary, na sa bhunkte na

6. VasishMa XI, n. 7-8- Apastamba II, 4, 9. '3-
9-10. Apastamba II, 4> 9 I2 > and note on II, i, i, 2-

266 BAUDIIAYANA. II, 7, 13.

austerity by fasting, becomes an Avakirwin through
the omission of the sacrifice to the vital airs ; '

10. Except when he performs a penance. In the
case of a penance that (fasting) is the rule.

11. Now they quote also (the following verses) :
* He who never eats between the morning and the
evening meals, (obtains the same reward as he who)
constantly fasts/

12. 'As in case one obtains no materials (for the
sacrifice), one must mutter the sacred texts to be
recited at the Agnihotra, offered in the three fires,
even so one should mutter the texts to be recited
at the Prawagnihotra, when one is prevented from
dining. 5

13. 'He who acts thus, will become one with
Brahman.' Thus spake Pra^apati (the lord of
created beings).


1. The offering to the manes secures long life
and heaven, is worthy of praise and a rite ensuring

2. Persons who sanctify the company are, a Tri-
madhu, a Tri#a/iketa, a Trisuparaa, one who keeps
five fires, and one who knows the six Angas, one
who performs the vow called S"iras, one who knows
the G^esh/^asaman, (and) a Snataka ;

3. On failure of these, one who knows the (texts
called) Rahasya.

14. i. Apastamba II, 7, 16, 1-2.

2. Apastamba II, 7, 17, 22; Vasish///a III, 19. Govinda states
that the Atharvavedins know the vow called .Slras; see also
Vasish/^a XXVI, 1 2, and note.

3. Govinda says that persons acquainted with the Rahasyas or

8, 14. 5-RADDHAS.


4. The ^'k-verses, the Ya^us-formulas, and the
Samans (give) lustre to a funeral offering. There-
fore he may feed (on that occasion) even a Sapiwafa
relation who (knows) those (texts).

5. Let him who feeds (Brahmaas at a funeral
sacrifice) cause them to hear successively the Raksho-
ghna Samans, the Ya^us-formulas (called) Svadha-
vat, the 7?*k-verses (called) Madhu, and the (texts
called) Pavitras.

6. Having invited on the day before (the Sraddha),
or just in the morning, virtuous, pure (men), such as
Trimadhus, who know the Vedangas and the sacred
texts, who are not related by marriage, nor members
of the same family, nor connected through the Veda,
at least three, (but always) an odd number, the (sa-
crificer) makes them sit down on prepared seats,
covered with Darbha grass, facing the east or 'the

7. Then he offers to them water mixed with sesa-
mum seed, adorns them with scents and garlands
(and says), * I wish to offer oblations in the fire.'

Ara^yakas are preferable to those mentioned in the preceding
Sutra, and thus the order must be reversed.

4. Apastamba II, 7, 17, 5.

5. The texts on which the Rakshoghna Sdmans are based
occur Sama-veda I, i, i, 3, 4-6 ; the Svadhavat Ya^iis, Taitt. Brfih-
maa I, 3, 10, 2 ; the Madhu J?i&as, Rig-veda I, 90, 6 ; and the
three Pavitras, Taitt. BrShmana I, 4, 8, 2.

6. Apastamba II, 7, 14, 5. All the MSS., including those of
the commentary, read yonigotramantrasambandhan instead of yoni-
gotramantrasambandhan. But the explanation of gotrasambandhaA
by asagotraA shows still a faint trace of the former existence of
the reading which I have restored conjecturally and translated
Its correctness is proved by the parallel passage of Apastamba.

7. Vishnu LXXIII, 12-13; ManuIII, 208-211. The Agnimukha

268 BAUDHAYANA. II, 8, 14.

When he has received permission (to do so), he
heaps fuel on the sacred fire, scatters Ku.?a grass
around it, performs (all the ceremonies) up to
the end of the Agnimukha, and offers three burnt
oblations of food only, (reciting the following texts) :
'To Soma, accompanied by the manes, Svaha!' * To
Yama, accompanied by the Angiras and by the
manes, Svaha !' * To Agni, who carries the offerings
to the manes, who causes sacrifices to be well per-
formed, Svaha !'

8. He shall make these three oblations with food
only which has been sprinkled with the remainder
of the (clarified butter).

9. Let him give a cake of food to the birds.

10. For it is declared in the Veda, 'The manes
roam about in the shape of birds.'

11. Next he touches the (other food) with his
hand and with the thumb,

12. (And recites the following texts): 'Fire sees
thee, who art co-extensive with the earth, the Rik-
verses are thy greatness, lest the gift be in vain ; the
earth is the vessel for thee, the sky the cover ; I
offer thee in the mouth of Brahman, I offer thee in
the Praa and the Apana of learned Brahma7zas; thou
art imperishable, mayest thou never fail to (the manes
of our) fathers yonder, in the other world.' 'Air hears
thee, who art co-extensive with the middle sphere,

is a term denoting all the preliminaries which precede the Pra-
dhanahoma of a ceremony. The Dekhan and Gujarat MSS.
read a^yasya instead of annasyaiva.

8. Clarified butter is necessary for the rites included in the

12. The Mantras are addressed to the food which is to be

II, 8, 15- SRADDHAS. 269

the Yafus-formulas are thy greatness, lest the gift
be in vain ; the earth is the vessel for thee, the sky
the cover; .... mayest thou never fail to the
(manes of our) grandfathers yonder, in the other
world.' 'The sun reveals thee, who art co-extensive
with the sky, the Samans are thy greatness, lest the
gift be in vain ; . . . . mayest thou never fail to
the (manes of our) great-grandfathers yonder, in the
other world.'


1. Now indeed (that) happens (also which the fol-
lowing verses teach) :

2. ' Let him sprinkle that food with the remainder
of the burnt oblations. But what is given without
(touching it with) the thumb does not gladden the

3. ' The malevolent Asuras seek an opportunity
(to snatch away) that food intended for the manes,
which is not supported with both hands.'

4. 'The Yatudhanas and Pi^a^as, who receive no
share, steal the food if sesamum grains are not
scattered (on the seats of the guests), and the Asuras
(take it) if (the host) is under the sway of anger.'

5. ' If a person dressed in reddish clothes mutters
prayers, offers burnt oblations, or receives gifts, the
sacrificial viands, offered at sacrifices to the gods or
to the manes, do not reach the deities.' ^^

15. 2. Manu III, 215. See also above, II, 8, 14, 10.

3. VasishMa XI, 25.

4. Vishma LXXIII, it ; Manu III, 229.

5 Govinda states that the rule is intended to teach that I
sacrificer and the guests at a Sraddha must be dressed m wh.te,

27O BAUDHAYANA. II, 8, 15.

6. ' If gifts are given or received without (touch-
ing them with) the thumb and, if one sips water
standing, (the performer of the act) is not benefited

7. .At the beginning and at the end (of a -Srdddha)
water must be given (to the guests).

8. In every case the muttering (of sacred texts)
and the other (necessary acts must be performed)
according to the rule.

9. The remaining (rules) have been prescribed
(in the section) on the burnt oblations on Ash/aka

10. 'He shall feed two (Brahmaas) at the offering
to the gods and three at the offering to the manes,
or a single man on either occasion. Even a very
wealthy man shall not be anxious (to entertain) a
large company.'

11. 'A large company destroys these five (advan-
tages), the respectful treatment (of the invited guests,
the propriety of) time and place, purity and (the
selection of) virtuous Brahma#a (guests) ; therefore
he shall not invite (a large number)/

12. 'In front (feed) the fathers of the (sacrificer),
to the left the grandfathers; to the right the great-
grandfathers, and at the back those who pare off
(portions) from the cakes.'

and that ascetics are not to be invited. But see VasishMa XI,

i?> 34-

7. Vishmi LXXIII, 12, 27, and above, II, 8, 14, 6.

9. Baudhayana Gr/hya-sutra II, 17, 1 8.

10-11. Vasish/Aa XI, 27-28.

12. In the beginning of the verse I read with M. and the I. O.
copy of the commentary urastaA pitaras tasya, and in the end with
the Dekhan and Gu^rSt MSS. pWatakshaka>&. M. reads pintta-
tarkya, and the copies of the commentary pin^odakaA. Both these



1. (Now follows some) advice for him who is
desirous of offspring.

2. The two A^vins have declared, that fame is
gained by the procreation (of sons);

3. 'Performing acts which tend to prolong life
and austerities, intent on the performance of the
private recitation and of sacrifices, and keeping his
organs in subjection/let him carefully beget offspring
in his own caste.*

4. ' From his birth a Brahmawa is loaded with
three debts ; these let him pay. A prudent man is
free from doubts regarding the sacred law.'

5. ' If he worships the sages through the study of
the Veda, Indra with Soma sacrifices, and the manes
of his ancestors through (the procreation of) children,
he will rejoice in heaven, free from debt'

6. ' Through a son he conquers the worlds, through
a grandson he obtains immortality, but through his
son's grandson he ascends to the (highest) heaven.'
(All that) has been declared in the Veda.

7. The Veda shows the existence of the three
debts in the following (passage): 'A Brahmaa is
born loaded with three debts; (he owes) the
studentship to the sages, sacrifices to the gods,
and a son to the manes;'

readings are clearly corrupt, and so is the var. lect. of the Grihya-
sawgraha, quoted in the Petersburg Dictionary, puo/atarkuka^.
Pi<fatakshaka^, ' the cutters or parers of the cakes/ is appropriate,
because the remoter ancestors, who, as Govinda too declares, are
meant by the term, obtain the fragments of the funeral cakes.

6. VasishMa XVII, 5.

7. Vasish//fra XI, 48. After this Sutra the MSS. of the text

2/2 BAUDHAYANA. II, 9, 16.

8. Through the procreation of a virtuous son he
saves himself.

9. He who obtains a virtuous son saves from the
fear of sin seven in the descending line and seven
in the ascending line, (viz.) six others (in each),
himself being the seventh.

10. Therefore he obtains a reward if he begets

11. Therefore he should sedulously beget off-

insert the following corrupt passage : bandham riwamoksham pra-
g&yzs ayattam pitr?na.m Hnukarshajabdaj k-a. pra^ayfiw danrayati i
anutsanna^ pra^avan bhavati I yd vad enaw pra^anugr/hnite tavad
akshayaflz lokaw ^ayati. The commentary does not notice it, and
it seems to me that it needlessly interrupts the context.

1 1. M. and K. add to this Sutra, atmana^ phalalabhaya, ' in
order to gain a reward for himself.' The same two MSS., further,
insert the following Sfitras : tasmit putraw otpadyatmanam evot-
padayatiti i vi^wayate atma vai putranSmisiti I evawz dvitfya atma
^Ivata. drash/avyo yah putram utp&dayati I sa tatha bhavati I tas-
mSn n&tma' kva^id akshetrautsrash/avya^i atrndnam avamanyate hi i
yathStm^nam utpa'dayali sa tatha bhavati I tasmad adita eva kshetram
sarvavare sawskr/tam upade^ena i tasmin darasawyoge
utpadayed II ' Therefore (they say) that he -who begets a
son produces even his own self; and it is declared in the Veda,
" Thou art self, called a son." Thus he who begets a son will
see, during his lifetime, a second self. He becomes like' him.
Therefore one's own self must not be begotten on an unworthy
female. For (he who does that) despises himself. He becomes
even so, as he produces himself. Therefore (every man), each in
his own caste, should first look out for a female who has been
sanctified according to the injunction (of the sacred texts). Taking
her to be his wedded wife, he shall beget a son.' It is possible
that this passage really belongs to Baudhayana, for it is written
in the usual style of our Sfltra, and the last word of this passage as
well as of Sutra n, as given in the Dekhan MSS., is utpadayet.
But it is not absolutely required by the context, and the com-
mentary too omits it.


12. Through the application of medicines and
sacred texts.

13. The advice to him (who is intent on the
procreation of children) is given in agreement with
the revealed texts.

14. For it produces results in the case of all
the castes.


1. Now we will explain the rule for entering the
order of ascetics (sawnydsa).

2. Some (teachers say), ' He who has finished his
studentship may become an ascetic immediately on
(the completion of) that.'

3. But (according to others, asceticism is befitting)
for .Salinas and Yay&varas who are childless ;

4. Or a widower (may become an ascetic).

5. (In general) they prescribe the profession of
asceticism after the completion of the seventieth
year and after the children have been firmly settled
in (the performance of) their sacred duties.

6. Or a hermit in the woods (may become an

13. I read with M., whose reading is confirmed by the explana-
tion given in the commentary, tasyopadexa^ .rrutisa'm&nyenopadi-
jyate. The other MS. reads tasyopadejena, and in the text of the
commentary the first word is left out.

17. 2. Gautama III, i.

3. Regarding the two terms .Salina and YiySvara, see below,


4. Vidhura, translated, according to Govinda's explanation, by
' widower,' perhaps includes all persons who have been separated
from their families.

6. Regarding the ceremonies to be performed by hermits in the
wood, see above, II, 6, n, 15, and below, III, 3.
[14] T

274 BAUDHAYANA. 11,10,17.

ascetic) on finishing the (special) ceremonies (pre-
scribed for him).

7. ' That eternal greatness of the Bra"hma#a is
neither increased nor diminished by works. The
soul knows the nature of that (greatness). He who
knows that, is not stained by evil deeds.'

8. ' It leads to the cessation of births.'

9. ' The eternal one leads (him) to glory.' The
greatness (of asceticism is declared by these pas-

10. After having caused the hair of his head, his
beard, the hair on his body, and his nails to be cut,
he prepares

n. Sticks, a rope, a cloth for straining water, a
water vessel, and an alms-bowl.

12. Taking these (implements, let him go) to the
extremity of the village, or to the extremity of the
boundary (of the village), or to the house where the
sacred fires are kept, partake of a threefold (mixture
of) clarified butter, milk, (and) sour milk, and (after-
wards) fast ;

13. Or (he may partake of) water.

14. (Saying), ' Om, Bhu/z, I enter the Savitri, tat
savitur vare^yam; Om, Bhuva^, I enter the Savitri,
bhargo devasya dhimahi ; Om, I enter the Savitri,
dhiyo yo na^ pra^odaydt ; ' (he shall recite the
Savitri) foot by foot, half-verse by half-verse, (and
finish by repeating) the whole or the parts (of the

7. See above, II, 6, u, 30. n. Ya^-wavalkya III, 58-60.

1 4. This part of the ceremony is called, ' entering
the Savitri/ According to the Dharmasindhu, fol. 84 a, 1. 8, the
last Mantra is ' Om, Bhu/;, Bhuva^, Sva/, I enter the SSvitri ; we
meditate on that adorable light of divine Savitnj \vho may impel
our thoughts.'


15. It is declared in the Veda, ' Entering order

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