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after order, (man) becomes (one with) Brahman.'

1 6. Now they quote also (the following verse):
' He who has passed from order to order, has offered
burnt oblations and kept his organs in subjection,
becomes afterwards, tired with (giving) alms and
(making) offerings, an ascetic.'

17. Such an ascetic (becomes one with) the in-
finite (Brahman).

1 8. Before the sun sets, he heaps fuel on the
Garhapatya fire, brings the Anvaharyapa^ana fire (to
the spot), takes the flaming Ahavantya fire out (of
the Garhapatya), melts butter on the Garhapatya fire,
cleanses it (with Kusa. grass), takes four times (por-
tions of it) in the sacrificial spoon (called Sru/6), and
offers in the Ahavantya fire on which sacred fuel
has been heaped, (four times) a full oblation, (say-
ing), 'Om, Svaha!'

19. It is declared in the Veda that this (offering
is) the Brahmanvidhana (putting fuel on the sacred
fires for the sake of the universal soul).

20. Now in the evening, after the Agnihotra has
been offered, he scatters grass to the north of the
Garhapatya fire, places the sacrificial vessels in pairs,
the upper part turned downwards, on it, strews
Darbha grass to the south of the Ahavaniya fire
on the seat destined for the Brahman priest, covers

1 6. Manu VI, 34.

1 8. Anvaharyapa^ana is another name of the so-called Dakshi-
wagni, in which the sacrificial viands are cooked. The cleansing
of the butter (utpavana) is performed by taking hold of the ends of
blades of Kma grass and dipping the bent middle part into the
melted butter and then drawing it upwards. A full burnt oblation
(purahuti) consists of a whole spoonful. As four spoonfuls are to
be taken out, it follows that four oblations are to be offered.

T 2

276 BAUDHAYANA. 11,10,17.

it with the skin of a black antelope, and remains
awake during that night.

21. A Brahmawa who, knowing this, dies after
fasting during the night of Brahman and repositing
within himself the sacred fires, conquers all guilt,
even (that of) killing a Brahmawa.

22. Then he rises in the muhurta sacred to
Brahman, and offers the early Agnihotra just -at the
(appointed) time.

23. Next, after covering the (part of the altar
called) Pfzsh/y&ya and bringing water, he prepares
(an offering) to (Agni) Vaisvanara (which is cooked)
in twelve potsherds. That (well-)known Ish/i is
the last (which he performs).

24. Afterwards he throws the sacrificial vessels,
which are neither made of earth nor of stone, into
the Ahavaniya fire,

25. (And) throwing the two Ara^is into the
Garhapatya fire (with the words), ' May ye be of
one mind with us,' he reposits the sacred fires in

26. (Reciting the sacred text), ' O Fire, that body
of thine, which is fit for the sacrifice,' he inhales
the smell of (the smoke of) each fire thrice three

2 7. Then, standing within the sacrificial enclosure,
(he says) thrice in a low voice and thrice aloud, ' Om,
BhM, Bhuva^, Sva^, I have entered the order of
ascetics, I have entered the order of ascetics, I have
entered the order of ascetics.'

21. The night during which the ascetic keeps watch near the
fires is called ' the night of Brahman.'

25. The Arams are the two pieces of wood used for producing
fire by friction, Taittiriya Sawhita I, 3, 7, 1-2.


_ ^.^J

28. It is declared in the Veda, ' The gods are
trebly true.'

29. (Finally) he pours out as much water as will
fill his joined hands, (saying), ' I promise not to
injure any living being.'

30. Now they quote also (the following verse) :
1 An ascetic who roams about after having given a
promise of safety to all living beings, is not threat-
ened with danger by any creature.'

31. (Henceforth) he must restrain his speech.

32. He grasps his staff, (saying), ' (Thou art my)
friend, protect me.'

33. He takes the rope, (reciting the verse), ' The
brilliant light,' &c.

34. He takes the cloth for straining water, (re-
citing the text), ' With which means of purification
the gods,' &c.

35. He takes the waterpot, (reciting the verse),
'Through that light, by which the gods rose on
high/ &c.

36. He takes the alms-bowl, (reciting the Vya-

37. Taking with him the staves, the rope, the

28. Taittiriya Arayaka II, 18, 6.

29. All gifts must be confirmed by a libation of water, which in
other cases is poured into the hand of the recipient. The cere-
mony proves more clearly even than the numerous other passages
of the Smr/tis, in which ascetics are exhorted to abstain from
injuring living beings, that the so-called ahiwsa doctrine is not of
Buddhistic, but of Brahmanical origin.

30. Vasish/Aa X, 1-2. 3 1 - Gautama III, 17-
33. Taittiriya Brahmaa III, 7, 8, r.

35. Taittiriya Saywhita V, 7, 2, 2.

37. The Surabhimati occurs Taittiriya Brahmawa III, 9, 7. 5-
For the other texts named, see above, II, 4, 7, 2. The Tarpaa
has been fully described above, II, 5, 9-10-

278 BAUDHAYANA. 11,10,17.

cloth for straining water, the waterpot, (and) the
alms-bowl, he goes where water (is to be obtained),
bathes, sips water, (and) washes himself, (reciting the
verses called) Surabhimati, Ablingas, Varuwis, Hira-
wyavar/zas, and Pavamanis. Entering the water, he
performs sixteen suppressions of the breath, (mentally
repeating) the Aghamarshawa hymn, ascends the
bank, wrings out his dress, puts on another pure
dress, sips water, takes the cloth for straining,
(saying), ' Om, Bhu/z, Bhuva/*, Sva//,' and performs
the Tarpawa (with the following texts), ' Om, Bho4,
I satiate/ ' Om, Bhuva/z , Om, Sva/* , Om,
Maha/^ , Om, , Om, Tapa/J , Om,
Satyam .'

38. He takes up as much water as his joined
hands will hold for the manes, (and satiates them
with it) exactly in the same manner as the gods,
(saying), ' Om, BhM Svadha, Om. Bhuva^ Sva-
dha,' &c.

39. Then he worships the sun, (reciting) the two
verses (which begin), ' Ud u tyam /fcitram/ &c.

40. (Saying), ' Om, this (syllable Om), forsooth, is
Brahman ; this (syllable) which sheds warmth is
light; this which gives warmth is the Veda ; this
must be known as that which sheds warmth;' he
thus satiates the soul (and afterwards) worships
the soul (with these texts), ^ The soul (is) Brahman,

(is) light:

38. ' In the same manner as the gods,' i. e. \vichout passing the
sacred string over the right shoulder. Govinda.

40. The Gujarat and Dekhan MSS., including K., place after the
first Om two additional Mantras, 'Brahman (is) Om; this universe
(is) Om.' The object of the Mantras given in the Madras MSS. is to
identify the Prarcava with the Brahman, the sun, and the Veda.



41- Let him repeat the Sivitrt one thousand
times, or one hundred times, or an unlimited number
of times.

42. (Saying), ' BhM, Bhuva^, Suva/fc/ he takes up
the cloth for straining, (and) fetches water.

43. Let him not, (at any period) after that
(moment), sip water which has not been drawn up
(from a well and the like), which has not been
strained, and which has not been completely

44. Let him not wear any longer a white dress.

45. (He may carry) one staff or three staves.


1. Now the following vows are (to be kept by
an ascetic) :

2. Abstention from injuring living beings, truth-
fulness, abstention from appropriating the property
of others, continence, (and) liberality.

3. There are five minor vows, (viz.) abstention
from anger, obedience towards the Guru, avoidance
of rashness, cleanliness and purity in eating;

4. Now (follows the rule for) begging. Let him

43. ManuVI, 46. Apariputabhi^, 'which has not been com-
pletely cleansed,' probably refers to the so-called dr/'sh/ya 1 pari-
pavana, ' carefully looking at it in order to see if any living being
remain* in it.'

18. 2. The five vows (vratas) named here are the principal ones.
As to the vow of ' liberality ' Govinda remarks that though the
ascetic possesses no * store ' and no property in the ordinary sense
of the word, still he can have books and give those away.

3. ' Avoidance of rashness/ i. e. committing any act which might
destroy life.

4. ' When the Vawvadeva offering has been finished,' i.e. when
people have had their dinner; see also Vasish/Aa X, 7.

280 BAUDHAYANA. II, 10, 18.

ask Brihmawas, both those who have houses (.rallna)
and those who lead a wandering life (yayavara),
for alms, when the Vaisvadeva offering has been

5. Let him ask (for it), prefacing (his request with
the word) Bhavat

6. Let him stand begging no longer than the
time required for milking a cow.

7. When he returns from begging, he lays (the
alms) down in a pure place, washes his hands and
feet, and announces (what he obtained) to the sun,
(reciting the text), ' Ud u tyam ^itram,' &c. He
(also) announces it to Brahman (with the text), ' The
first-born Brahman/ &c.

8. It is declared in the Veda, ' After the Brah-
madhana the sacrificer himself (contains) the sacri-
ficial fires. His respiration (prawa, represents) the
Garhapatya fire, the air that goes downwards
(apana, represents) the Anvaharyapa-ana (or Dak-
shiwa) fire, the circulation in the body (vyana, repre-
sents) the Ahavaniya fire, the cerebral circulation
(udana) and the abdominal circulation (samana,
represent) the Sabhya and Avasathya fires. These
five fires are abiding in the soul. He (therefore)
offers (the oblations) in the soul alone.'

9. ' This sacrifice, offered in the soul, which is
located in and based on the soul, leads the soul to

10. Giving, compassionately, portions (of his
food) to the living beings, and sprinkling the re-

7. The second text occurs repeatedly in the Taittiriya-veda,
e.g. Taittiriya Arayaka X, i, 10.

8. Regarding the Brahmadha'na, see above, II, 10, 17, 19.


mainder with water, he shall eat it as if it were
a medicine.

11. After he has eaten and sipped water, he
mutters (the texts), ' Out of darkness we,' &c., (and),
' My speech resides in the mouth,' &c., and worships
the sun with the (verse called) Gyotishmatl.

12. Let him eat food, given without asking,
regarding which nothing has been settled before-
hand and which has reached him accidentally, so
much only as is sufficient to sustain life.

13. Now they quote also (the following verses) :
1 Eight mouthfuls (make) the meal of an ascetic,
sixteen (that) of a hermit in the woods, thirty-two
(that) of a householder, an unlimited (quantity that)
of a student.'

14. 'Alms (may) either (be obtained) from (men
of) the three castes, or the food (given) by a single
Brahmawa (may be eaten) ; or (he may obtain food)
from (men of) all castes, and not (eat) that given by
a single Brahmawa.'

1 5. Now they quote (the following special rules)
for the case that the teachers explain (the doctrine)
of the Upanishads : ' Diligently standing (in the
day-time), keeping silence, sitting (at night) with
crossed legs, bathing three times a day, and eating

11. The first text occurs frequently in the Taittirijra-veda, e.g.
Taittinya Sawhita IV, i, 7, 4; the second, Taittiriya Arayaka X,
72. The Gyotishmaii is, according to Govinda, the first of the
two Mantras quoted.

12. According to Govinda this verse gives the opinion of ' some'
teachers, not the author's. AsawkAptam,' regarding which nothing
has been settled beforehand/ indicates, according to Govinda, that
the ascetic must not even mentally determine what he is going
to eat.

13. See above, II, 7, 13, 7.

282 BAUDHAYANA. II, 10, 18.

at the fourth, sixth, or eighth (meal-time only), he
shall subsist entirely on (rice) grains, oil-cake, food
prepared from barley, sour milk, (and) milk.'

16. It is declared in the Veda, 'On that (occasion)
he shall rigidly keep silence ; pressing the teeth
together he may converse, without opening his
mouth, as much as is necessary with teachers deeply
versed in the three Vedas (and) with ascetics pos-
sessing a great knowledge of the scriptures, not with
women, nor when he would break (his vow).'

1 7. (Let him keep) only one of (the rules which
enjoin) standing (in the day-time), rigid silence, and
sitting (at night) with crossed legs ; let him not keep
all three together.

1 8. It is declared in the Veda, ' And he who has
gone there may eat, in times of distress, a small
quantity of the food prescribed by his vow after
(having partaken of other dishes), provided he does
not break (his vow)/

19. ' Eight (things) do not cause him who is intent
on standing (in the day-time), keeping rigid silence,
sitting (at night) with crossed legs, bathing three
times a day, and (eating) at the fourth, sixth, or
eighth meal-time only, to break his vow, (viz.)
water, roots, clarified butter, milk, sacrificial food,
the wish of a Brclhmawa, an order of his teacher,
and medicine.'

20. Let him mutter the (Mantras which must be

1 8. 'The meaning is, that in times of distress, having partaken
at his pleasure (of other food), he may afterwards eat of one (of
the substances mentioned above, viz.) rice-grains and the rest.'

19. All the MSS. except M. have snana, ' bathing,' instead of
sthana, ' standing (in the day-time)/ though the reading is clearly


recited at the) Agnihotra, in the evening and in the

21. After performing his evening devotions by
(reciting the verses called) Vanmis, and his morning
devotions by (reciting the verses called) Maitrls.

22. 'An ascetic shall keep no fire, have no house,
no home, and no protector. He may enter a village
in order to collect alms, and emit speech at the
private recitation of the Veda/

23. 1 1 is declared in the Veda, ' Limited in number
are the Tfrk-verses, limited in number are the Samans,
limited is the answer (of the Adhvaryu priest).'

24. ' Thus (an ascetic) shall not give up the Veda,
(but live), until he is liberated from the body, at the
root of the tree.'

25. 'The tree (is) the Veda; the syllable Om is
its root ; the syllable Om is the essence of the

26. ' Meditating on the syllable Om, he becomes

21. The Maitris occur Taitt. Sa/whita III, 4, 11, 5, and the
Varums follow them immediately.


22. Apastamba II, 9, 21, 10.

23. This and the next Sutras are intended to teach that ascetics
may limit their private recitation to the repetition of the pranava,
' the syllable Om.' According to Govinda the passage of the Veda
quoted refers originally to the A!aturhotaraA, which the Taittiriya
Brahmawa II, 2, i, 4, and III, 12, 5, i identifies with the Brahman,
and where the pratigara, the answer of the Adhvaryu priest, is ' Om
hota/;' (Aitareya Brahmaa V, 25),

24. I have taken vr/kshamulikovedasawnyasi 10 stand for vri-
kshamuliko avedasa<nyasf. For the vedasawnyasa, 'giving up
the Veda,' is not permitted to an ascetic ; see e. g. Va?ish///a X, t .
But even without the negative particle vedasawnydst may convey
a sense not opposed to the general teaching of the Smmis. For
it may be taken to mean ' abandoning (the recitation of other
portions of) the Veda.'

284 BAUDHAYANA. Ill, i.

fit (to be united with) Brahman.' Thus spake the
lord of created beings.

27. Let him cleanse the vessel of Brahman with
the seven Vyahr/tis.


1. Now, therefore, (we will speak) of those who
desire (to fulfil) the duties of .Salinas (dwellers in
houses), Yayavaras (wanderers), and A'akra/fe.ras
(circle-goers), who subsist by nine (different) means
of livelihood.

2. The term 'livelihood' (wztti) is used because
they subsist thereby (tadvartanat).

3. The word .Sallna (is used) because they dwell
in houses (sala).

4. To be a Yayavara (means that one) goes on
by means of a most excellent livelihood (vrzttya
varaya yati).

5. The term A'akra^ara is derived from going by
turns (to the houses of rich men).

6. We will explain those (above-mentioned means
of livelihood) in their proper order.

7. They are nine, (viz.) Shawmvartanl, Kauddali,
Dhruva, Samprakshalani, Samuha, Palanl, SilonMa.,
Kapota, and Siddho;1Ma.

27. Govinda is uncertain if the term brahmabha^ana, ' the vessel
of Brahman,' refers to the alms-bowl or to the body of the ascetic.
Probably both are meant, and the Sutra is intended to prescribe
the frequent recitation of the Vyahr/tis in addition to the syl-
lable Om.

1. 5. Govinda says that ^Takra^ara is another name for Yayavara,
and that anukramaaraa, ' going by turns,' means going successively
to the houses of Brahmaas, Kshatriyas, and Vaijyas.

7. The terms left untranslated are fully explained in the next


8. (In addition) to these there is a tenth way of
living, viz. forest-life.

9. (If he desires to adopt) any of the nine ways
of living,

10. He causes the hair of his head, his beard, the
hair on his body, and his nails to be cut, and besides
gets ready (the following objects),

11. (Viz.) the skin of a black antelope, a water-
pot, a staff, a yoke for carrying burdens, (and)
a sickle.

12. He desires to go forth, after having offered
a Traidhataviya (offering) or a Vaisvanarl (ish/i).

13. Now on the (following) morning, after the
sun has risen, he makes the sacred fires burn
brightly, melts butter on the Garhapatya fire,
cleanses it (with Kusa. grass), heats the (spoons
called) Sru and Sruva, cleans (them), takes out
four (spoonfuls of butter) in the Sru^, and offers
the Vastoshpatlya (oblation) in the Ahavaniya fire
according to (the rules of his) Sutra.

chapter. All the MSS. read kauntali for kauddali, which occurs
in the commentary alone.

11. The vivadha, 'a yoke for carrying burdens,' consists usually
of a bamboo pole, to the ends of which two ropes are attached for
fastening the loads. Kuth'ahari, ' a sickle/ seems to be the name
of a particular kind of sickle, since Govinda explains it by vasa-
vaj&sanadatram. He adds that the term includes ' a spade ' (kud-
dala) and other implements.

12. The meaning is that on the evening before his departure
from the old home he is to offer the Traidhataviya-homa. Accord-
ing to the -Srauta-sutras (see the Petersb. Diet s. v. traidhatavi) the
latter offering always occurs at the end of a great sacrifice. Hence
it is appropriate for a person who wishes to begin a new mode
of life.

13. This is the leave-taking from the old dwelling.

286 BAUDHAYANA. Ill, i.

14. Having recited the Puronuvikya (verse), 'O
lord of the dwelling, permit us,' &c., he offers (the
oblation) with the Ya^ya verse, ' O lord of the
dwelling, with thy kind company,' &c.

1 5. Some (declare that) every 'person who has
kindled the sacred fires (shall offer these Homas).

1 6. Others (say that) a Yayavara alone (shall
do it).

1 7. After departing (from his house), Ke stops at
the extremity of the village, or at the extremity of
the boundary of the village, builds there a hut or
a cottage, and enters that.

1 8. Let him use the skin of the black antelope
and the other (objects) which he has prepared for
the several purposes which they are intended to

19. Known (is) the (duty of) serving the fires ;
known (is) the (duty of) offering the new and full
moon sacrifices ; known (is) the successive perform-
ance of the five Mahaya^was ; it is seen that the
vegetables, which have been produced, are offered.

20. He hallows those (vegetables), either (reciting
the text)/ I offer what is agreeable to all the gods,'
or silently, and cooks (them).

14. The two verses occur Tailtiriya Saffzhita" III, 4, ro, i. It is
specially mentioned by Sa"ya#a that the two verses have to be
recited by an Agnihotrin on departing from his home.

1 7. Ma/fca, ' a cottage,' is, according to Govinda, a house resting
on many posts or pillars, while ku/t is the simple shed with four
posts and a roof of leaves.

19. The last clause, probably, is meant to prescribe a simpler
form of the Vauvadeva.

20. Govinda adds that the meaning is that the sacrificer shall
eat the boiled rice in silence.


21. For such (a man the duty of) teaching, sacri-
ficing for others, accepting gifts, and (performing)
other sacrifices (than those mentioned) ceases.

22. (The use of) sacrificial food fit to be eaten
during the performance of a vow is seen ;

23. That is as follows : (his food may be) mixed
with clarified butter or sour milk, (it must) not
(contain) pungent condiments or salt, nor meat,
nor (be) stale.

24. (He shall remain) chaste, or approach (his
wife) in season.

25. (It is necessary) to have the hair of his head,
his beard, the hair on his body, and his nails cut on
each Parva day, and the rules of purification (are
obligatory on him).

26. Now they quote also (the following verses) :
' Two kinds of purification, which the .Sish/as reve-
rentially practise, are mentioned in the Veda,
external (purification), which consists in the removal
of impure stains and foul smells, and internal (purifi-
cation), which consists in the abstention from injuring
live creatures.'

27. 'The body is purified by water, the under-
standing by knowledge, the soul of beings by ab-
stention from injuring, (and) the internal organ by


i. As regards (the mode of subsistence called)
Sha?zivartan!, (that) is (as follows) :

21. Govinda adds that the obligation of performing other merito-
rious deeds, such as digging wells and tanks (purta), also ceases.
27. VasishMa III, 60.-

288 BAUDHAYANA. Ill, 2.

2. He cultivates six Nivartanas (of) fallow (land) ;
he gives a share to the owner (of the soil), or. solicits
his permission (to keep the whole produce).

3. Let him plough before breakfast with two
bulls whose noses have not been pierced, not
striking (them) with the goad, (but) frequently
coaxing (them).

4. If he cultivates six Nivartanas in this manner
(and subsists thereby), that is (the mode of living
called) Shawwivartanl (subsistence on six Nivar-

5. (As regards the mode of subsistence called)
Kauddali, he digs up (the soil) near a water(-course
or tank) with a spade, a ploughshare, or a pointed
piece of wood, sows seed, (and) grows bulbs, roots,
fruit, pot-herbs, and vegetables.

6. (If he thus) cultivates (land) with a spade (and
lives on its produce), that is the (mode of life called)
Kauddall (subsistence by the spade).

7. He who lives by the (mode of subsistence
called) Dhruva, wraps up his head in a white dress
(saying), ' For the sake of welfare I wrap thee up,
O head,' (and) takes the skin of a black antelope
(with the words), ' (Thou art) spiritual pre-eminence,
(I take thee) for the sake of spiritual pre-eminence ;'
the Pavitra (reciting) the Ablinga texts ; the water-
pot (saying), ' Thou art strength, (I take) thee for

2. 2. A Nivartana is a measure of 4000 square hastas, the ancient
equivalent of the modern Bigha.

3. Identical with II, 2, 4, 21.

6. Govinda says that according to some the following cere-
monies need only be performed when one goes out begging for
the first time, while others insist on their being performed daily.

7. The Manastokiya, i.e. the text beginning 'ma nas toke,'


the sake of strength ;' the yoke for carrying burdens
(saying), ' Thou art grain, (I take) thee for the sake
of prosperity;' the staff (saying), ' (Thou art) a friend,
protect me.'

8. On leaving (his hut), he mutters the Vydhmis,
and (afterwards the verse used for) hallowing the
quarters of the horizon, ' May the earth, the middle
sphere, the sky, the constellations, and all the
quarters of the horizon, fire, air, and sun, (may all
these) deities protect me on my road.'

9. Because, after muttering the Manastoktya (text)
and entering the village, he shows himself with the
yoke (on his shoulder) at the door of each house,
they call it ' showing oneself.'

10. Because, if every (other) livelihood fails, he
persistently (dhruvam) supports himself by this
(mode of living), it is called Dhruva (the un-

11. (As regards the mode of life called) Sampra-
kshalani, (if, in order to show that) there is no
waste of the vegetable (substances) obtained nor

occurs repeatedly in the Taittirtya-veda, e. g. Taitt. Sawhita III, 4,
ii, 2. Govinda adds that the beggar must remain silent, and not
stop longer at each door than the time required for milking a cow.

10. Both the text and the scanty commentary on this Sutra are
corrupt. K. reads, vrriter vrritair av&rtayaw tayaiva tasya dhruvaw

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