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The sacred laws of the Aryas : as taught in the schools of Apastamba, Gautama, Vasishtha and Baudhayana online

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varttayatiti dhruveti parikfrtitS; D. vrrite vrritair avarttitha, &c. ;
M. vrrite vrriter avrritiyim avr/ttayaz tathaiva tasySA ddhrivam
varttamdn^d iti, &c. ; C. I. vrriter writer SvartSySm Svartayam
tathaiva tasy&w dhruvaw vartanad iti, &c. The Telugu copy omits
the text. From the commentary it is clear that Govinda read at
the beginning of the Sutra ' vrriter vrriter/ and the Telugu copy
proves that ' tayaiva ' is the correct reading. I restore the Sutra
conjecturally, as follows, vrriter vrriter avarttSyaw tayaiva tasya
dhruva/ vartanad iti dhruveti parikfrtita 1 .

xi. I read, samprakshilaniti I utpannanam oshadhinam prakshe-


any hoarding, he turns the dishes, after washing
them, upside down, (that is the livelihood called)
Samprakshalani (living by washing).

12. As to the (mode of subsistence called) Sa-
muha, (if) he sweeps up (grain) with a broom in
permitted places where (grain-bearing) plants are
found, either on a road or in fields the access to
which is not obstructed (by hedges), and lives on
(what he has thus obtained), that (livelihood is called)
Samuha" (living by sweeping).

13. As to the (mode of life called) Pilani, it is
also named Ahiwsaka (not hurting), and the follow-
ing (definition) is given. (If) he tries to obtain
from virtuous men husked rice or seeds, and main-
tains (himself) thereby, that (is the mode of subsist-
ence called) Palanl.

14.. As to the (mode of life called) S\\onkh&, (if)
he gleans single ears in permitted places where
(grain-bearing) plants grow, on a road or in fields
the access to which is not obstructed, and supports
himself by (these) gleanings, (collected) from time

paa* nastlti niayo va bha^anini sawprakshalya nyutg'ayatiti
samprakshalani n M. has nasti niayo va, and C. I. reads also
ni&iyo and omits ' vaV The Dekhan MSS. have nistiti ayo va\
The description is not very clear; but it seems that a person who
lives by the Samprakshalani vri'tti must obtain grain and vegetables
by begging in such quantities as will suffice for one meal, and
prove by the way in which he treats his dishes that he has neither
wasted his food nor any store remaining.

13. The translation of this Sutra is merely tentative, as the two
MSS. of the commentary omit the text, and contain only a frag-
ment of Govinda's explanation. The latter seems to have differed
from my interpretation. The text, as given by the other MSS., runs
as follows: palantty [pali, MSS.] ahiflzsakety evedam uktam bhavati
[tfti, M.] tushavihina/ws ta</ulan ikkhzti. sa^anebhyo bi^ani va
{^a, D.] palayatiti palant [phala , phalani, M. ; palin6, K. D.]


to time, that (is the mode of subsistence called)
S\\onkk$i (gleaning).

15. As to the (livelihood called) Kapota, (if) he
picks up with two fingers single grains in permitted
places, where (grain-bearing) plants grow, either
on the road or in fields the access to which is not
obstructed, that (is called), because he acts like a
pigeon, Kapota (pigeon-life).

1 6. As to (the mode of life called) Siddhow^a, (if)
tired with the (other) ways of subsistence, he asks,
because he has become old or diseased, virtuous
men for cooked food, that (is the livelihood called)
Siddho/M (gleaning cooked food).

17. If (he adopts) the latter, he must reposit (the
sacred fires) in his soul and behave like an ascetic,
except (in using) the cloth for straining water and
(wearing) a reddish-brown dress.

1 8. If he subsists on the produce of the forest,
(the fruits) of trees, creepers, and lianas, and of
grasses, such as wild millet (jyamaka) and wild
sesamum, that (is called) forest-life.

19. Now they quote also (the following verse) :
'Moving about with the beasts, dwelling together
with them, and maintaining oneself in a manner
similar to theirs, that is clearly the road to heaven.'


i. Now the hermits in the wood belong to two

15. Govinda mentions a varia lectio not found in our MSS., kapo-
tavatsawdaflwinf, ' because he pecks Kke a pigeon.'

1 6. Here as well as above, III, i, 7, the Dekhan MSS. read
siddhe/WM, ' begging cooked food,' instead of^siddhonMl

3. i. Compare for the whole Adhyaya, Apastamba II, 9, 21,
30-23, 2.

U 2


2. Those who cook (their food), and those who
do not cook it.

3. Among them, those who cook (their food are
divided) into five subdivisions, (viz.) those who eat
everything which the forest contains, those who live
on unhusked (wild-growing grain), those who eat
bulbs and roots, those who eat fruit, and those who
eat pot-herbs.

4. Those who eat everything which the forest
produces are, again, of two kinds : they either sub-
sist on forest-produce generated by Indra, or on that
which has been generated from semen.

5. Among these, that which has been generated
by Indra (is the produce) of lianas, shrubs, creepers,
and trees. Fetching (that) and cooking it, they offer
the Agnihotra in the evening and in the morning,
give (food) to ascetics, guests, and students, and eat
the remainder.

6. That which is generated from semen is the
flesh (of animals) slain by tigers, wolves, falcons,
and other (carnivorous beasts), or by one of them.
Fetching (that) and cooking it, they offer the Agni-
hotra in the evening and in the morning, give
(shares) to ascetics, guests, and students, and eat
the remainder.

7. Those who eat unhusked grain only, fetch rice,
avoiding (husked) corn, boil it, offer the Agnihotra
both in the evening and in the morning, give
(food) to ascetics, guests, and students, and eat the

8. Those who eat bulbs and roots, or fruit, or
pot-herbs, (act) exactly in the same manner.

9. Those (hermits) who do not cook (their food
are divided into) five (classes), Unma^rakas, Pra-


vr/tt&mis, Mukhenadayins, Toyaharas, and Vayu-

10. Among these, the Unma^akas (collect and
prepare their food), avoiding (the use of) iron and
stone implements,

ij. The Prawmasins take it with the hand,

12. The Mukhenadayins take it with the mouth
(only, like beasts),

1 3. The Toyaharas subsist on water only,

14. And the Vayubhakshas (air-eaters) eat no-

15. In this manner ten (different) initiations are
prescribed for hermits who follow the rule of Vi-
khanas (vaikhanasa).

1 6. He who has agreed (to obey) the Institutes
of his (order, shall wear) a staff, (shall keep) rigid
silence, and (shall) abstain from rash acts.

1 7. Hermits following the rule of Vikhanas (vai-
khanasa) are purified (from sin), and (especially)
those who abstain from food.

1 8. The sum of the rules applicable to all Brahma-
Vaikhanasas (is as follows) :

19. ' Let him not injure (even) gadflies or gnats ;
let him bear cold and perform austerities ; let him
constantly reside in the forest, be contented, and

1 1. PravrfttSrin, i. e. he who eats food only which comes to him


15-17. These three Sutras are omitted in the commentary, bi

found in all the MSS. of the text.

18. Govinda proposes two explanations for the term brahma-
vaikhanasa; he thinks that it may mean either brahmana
vaikhanasa V hermits seen by Brahman,' . e. ***#*+*"
been revealed by Brahman, or hemnts who are *"!*
caste.' The true sense, however, is probably 'a hermit
strives) to (become one with) Brahman' (brahmartha* vaLkhanasa).


delight in (dresses made of) bark and skins,_(and in
carrying) water (in his pot).'

20. 'A devotee shall first honour the guests
who have come to his hermitage at (dinner) time ;
he shall be sedulous in (worshipping) gods and
Brahma^as, in (offering) the Agnihotra, and in
practising austerities.'

21. 'A Brahmawa who has taken to forest-life, and
who has adopted this difficult (but) pure mode of
existence, which keeps him apart from wicked men,
which must never be given up, which is similar to
(that of the) beasts and birds, which allows the
collection of the necessaries of life for one day only,
and which necessitates the consumption of astringent
and bitter (food), never sinks low.'

22. 'Moving about with the beasts, dwelling
together with them, and maintaining oneself in a
manner similar to theirs, that is clearly the road to


1. Now if a student commits any act against his
vow, eats meat, or approaches a woman, whenever
any evil befals him,

2. He heaps fuel on the fire in the interior of the
house, scatters (Kara grass) around it, and performs
the ceremonies up to the end of the Agnimukha ;
then he offers oblations of clarified butter, (reciting
the following texts) : 'It was done by lust, lust does

22. See above, III, 2, 19.

4. i. The clause striyaw vopeyat, ' or approaches a woman,' is
omitted by Govinda. The whole chapter is a supplement to the
rules given above, II, i, i, 30-35, where some of the Vedic pas-
sages mentioned here have already been given.


it, to lust (belongs) all this, to him who draws me on,
SvahaY 'It was done by the internal organ, the
internal organ does it, to the internal organ (belongs)
all this, to him who draws me on, Svaha;' ' It was
done by passion, passion does it, to passion (belongs)
all this, to him who draws me on, Svaha;' ' It was
done by ignorance, ignorance does it, to ignorance
(belongs) all this, to him who draws me on, Svaha;'
' It was done by sin, sin does it, to sin (belongs)
all this, to him who draws me on, Svaha ;' * It was
done by wrath, wrath does it, to wrath (belongs) all
this, to him who draws me on, Svaha.'

3. That which begins with the muttering (of the
Vedic texts) and ends with the gift of a fee (con-
sisting of) a cow is known,

4. (Afterwards) he stays (during the night) behind
(i. e. to the west of) the fire, wrapping himself in the
skin of a black antelope, the neck of which is turned
towards the east and the hair of which is turned

5. When the day dawns, he drags himself away
from the hinder part (of the skin), goes to a bathing-
place, bathes (there) in the manner which is known,
(but) performs, while in the water, sixteen sup-
pressions of breath with the Aghamarshawa hymn ;
next he performs the known (ceremonies) up to the
worship of the sun, and afterwards goes to the house
of his teacher.

6. Let him know for certain that that is equally
(effective) as bathing (with the priests) at -the end of
a horse-sacrifice.

5. Govinda says that this manner of crawling out of the skin is
symbolical of a new birth.

296 BAUDHAYANA. Ill, 5.


1. Now we will explain the rule of the most holy

2. He goes to a bathing- place and bathes (there).
Dressed in a pure dress let him raise, close to the
water, an altar, and moistening his clothes by one
(application of water), and filling his hand once (with
water), let him recite the Aghamarshawa hymn (in
the manner of his daily) private recitation.

3. (Let him repeat it) one hundred times in the
morning, one hundred times at midday, and one
hundred times or an unlimited number of times in
the afternoon.

4. When the stars have risen, let him partake of
gruel prepared of one handful of barley.

5. After seven (days and) nights he is freed from
all minor sins (upapataka), whether they have been
committed intentionally or unintentionally, after
twelve (days and) nights (from all other sins) ex-
cepting the murder of a learned Brahma^a, the
violation of a Guru's bed, stealing gold, and drink-
ing Surd.

6. After twenty-one (days and) nights he over-
comes even those (crimes) and conquers them.

5. i. Vasishtfa XXVI, 8.

2. Stha/ila, ' an altar,' is a slightly raised mound of earth,
which, according to Govinda, in this case must have the shape of
the sun's disc. According -to the same authority the hand of the
performer must remain filled with water as long as the recitation
lasts, and the performer stands behind the altar facing the east.

5. Regarding the. prasrz'tiyjivaka, ' (subsisting on) gruel prepared
from a handful of barley/ see below, III, 6.


7- He overcomes everything, he conquers all, he
obtains the reward of all sacrifices, he has bathed at
all sacred bathing-places, he has performed the vows
required for (the study of) all the Vedas, he becomes
known to all the gods, he sanctifies a company (of
Brahmarcas) by merely looking (at them), and his
undertakings are successful. Thus speaks Baudha-


1. Now if a man feels his conscience charged
with (evil) actions committed by himself, let him boil
for himself (alone), when the stars have risen, a
handful of barley, (and prepare) gruel (with that).

2. Let him not perform the Vai.rvadeva oblation
with (a portion of) that,

3. Nor (shall) a Bali offering (be performed) on
that (occasion).

4. Let him consecrate the barley before it is
boiled, while it is being boiled, and after it has been
boiled, with the (following) Mantras :

5. 'Thou art barley, thou art the king of grains,
thou art sacred to Varuwa and mixed with honey,
the sages have proclaimed thee an expeller of all
guilt and a means of purification.'

7. Govinda is of opinion that the words, 'thus speaks Baudhft-
yana/ indicate that this part of the work has been composed by
a pupil or some other person.

6. i. For the whole Adhyaya compare Vishwu XLVIII.

5. According to Govinda, Vamadeva is the ^\/'shi of these Man-
tras. The phrase, 'Thou art sacred to Varua/is to be explained,
according to Govinda, by the fact that offerings presented to Variwa
frequently consist of barley. ' Honey ' means, according to some,
' sweet butter/ with which the dish is seasoned.


'Ye barley-grains are clarified butter and honey,
ye barley-grains are water and ambrosia. May you
remove my guilt and all my sins : '

' Those committed by words, by acts, and by evil
thoughts ; ill-fortune and the night of all-destroying
time, all that avert from me, ye barley-grains.'

' (From the sin of eating) food which had been
worried by dogs or pigs, or which had been defiled
by crows and impure men, from the sin of disobedi-
ence towards mother and father, from all that purify
me, ye barley-grains.'

' From the dreadful (guilt of) mortal sins and of
the crime (of serving) a king, from the wrong done
to infants or aged men, from (the guilt) of stealing
gold, of breaking my vows, of sacrificing for an un-
worthy man, of speaking evil of Brahmawas, from
all that purify me, ye barley-grains.'

' From (the sin of eating) the food of many men,
of harlots and of .Sudras, of (partaking of) funeral
dinners and of (the food given by) persons who are
unclean on account of a death or a birth, of that
given by thieves, or at a funeral sacrifice offered to
one who lately died, from all that purify me, ye

6. (While the barley) is being boiled, he must
protect it (and recite the text), 'Adoration to Rudra,
the lord of created beings; pacified is the sky;'
the Anuvaka (beginning), ' Give strength ; ' the five
sentences (beginning), ' The gods who are seated in
front, led by Aghi ;' the two (texts), ' Do not hurt

6. The Anuvaka meant is Taitt. Sawhitd I, 2, 14. The five
sentences are found, ibid. I, 8, 7, i. Regarding the text m na-
stoke, ' do not hurt our offspring,' see above, III, 2, 9. The last


our offspring/ (and) 'The Brahman -priest among
the gods.'

7., Having purified himself (by sipping water, &c.),
he shall eat a little of the boiled (mess), after pouring
it into (another) vessel.

8. Let him offer it as a sacrifice to the soul,
(reciting the text), ' May the gods, who are born
from the internal organ and joined to the internal
organ, who are very strong, whose father is Daksha,
protect us (and) guard us; adoration to them, to
them Svahl'

9. Let him who desires intelligence (subsist on
such food) during three (days and) nights.

10. A sinner who drinks it during six (days and)
nights becomes pure.

11. He who drinks it during Severn (days and)
nights is purified from (the guilt of) the murder of
a learned Brahma#a, of violating a Guru's bed, of
stealing gold, and of drinking Sura.

12. He who drinks it during eleven (days and)
nights, removes even the sins committed by his

1 3. ' But he who during twenty-one days (drinks
gruel made) of barley-grains which have passed
through a cow, sees the Gawas and the lord of the
Gawas, sees the goddess of learning and the lord of
learning.' Thus speaks the venerable Baudhayana.

Mantra occurs Taitt. Sawhitd III, 4, ir, i. Govinda says that
material protection, too, in the shape of an iron platter or cover is
to be given to the boiling barley.

8. The text occurs Taitt. Sawhita I, 2, 3, i. It consists of five
sentences, and is addressed to the five vital airs, to each of which
the eater offers one oblation.



1. 'Let him who considers himself impure offer
(burnt oblations), reciting the Kushmadas.

2. ' He who has had forbidden intercourse, or
has committed a crime against nature, becomes
even like a thief, even like the slayer of a learned

3. ' He is freed from any sin which is less than
the crime of slaying a learned Brahmawa.'

4. If, after wasting his strength except in his
sleep, he desires to become free from the stain
and holy,

5. He causes the hair of his head, his beard, the
hair on his body, and his nails to be cut on the day
of the new moon or of the full moon, and takes upon
himself a vow according to the rule prescribed for

6. (To be kept) during a year, or a month, or
twenty-four days, or twelve nights, or six or three

7. Let him not eat meat, nor approach a woman,
not sit on (a couch or seat, and) beware of (speaking
an) untruth.

8. To subsist on milk (alone is) the most excel-
lent mode of living ; or, using barley-gruel (as his
food), he may perform a Kri&fchra. (penance) of
twelve days, or he may (maintain himself by)

7. 1-3. Taittirfya Ara#yaka II, 8, 1-3.

6. Taitt. Arayaka II, 8, 5-6. 7. Taitt. Arawyaka II, 8, 7.

8. Taitt. Arawyaka II, 8, 8. As the next Sfirra shows, these rules
refer to Brahma/us. Regarding the Kr/'/i^ra, see below, IV, 57.

111,7- KtiSHMAJVDAS. 3OI

9. On such (occasions) a Kshatriya (shall subsist
on) barley-gruel, a Vawy.i on curds of two-milk

10. Having kindled the sacred fire in the morning
according to the rule for Pakaya^iwas, having scat-
tered (Kiua grass) around it, and having performed
(the preliminary ceremonies) up to the end of the
Agnimukha, he next offers in addition burnt obla-
tions, reciting the three Anuvakas (beginning),
1 What cause of anger to the gods, ye gods,' ' The
debts which I contracted,' (and) ' May worshipful
Agni give thee by every means long life.'

1 1. Let him offer with each ^"k-verse a portion
of clarified butter.

1 2. After having offered four oblations with (the
spoon called) Sruva, reciting (the texts), ' That
strength which lies in the lion, in the tiger, and in
the panther,' &c., and the four Abhyavartinls (i.e.
the texts), ' Thou, O fire, who turnest back,' &c.,
' O Arigiras,' &c., ' Again with strength,' &c., (and)
1 With wealth/ &c., after having taken his position,
with sacred fuel in his hands, in the place allotted to
the sacrificer, he worships (the fire) with die hymn
which contains twelve verses (and begins), ' To
Vaisvanara we announce.'

13. Having placed the piece of sacred fuel (on
the fire with the text), * Whatever sin 1 ever com-

10. For the rule, see Taitt. Arawyaka II, 7, 4- The three
Anuvakas mentioned are Taitt. Aranyaka II, 3-5.

12. Taitt Arawyaka II, 7, 4- The first four texts occur Taitt.
Brahmaa II, 7, 7, 1-2, the next four Taitt. Sawhita IV, a, i, 2-3,
and the hymn Taitt. Anuiyaka II, 6. The place of the sacrificer
to the south of the fire.

13. Taitt. Aranyaka II, 6, a (13).

302 BAUDHAYANA. Ill, 7.

mitted by thoughts or words, from all that free me
(O fire, being duly) praised, for thou knowest the
truth, Svaha,' he gives a fee.

14. (The ceremonies) which begin with the mut-
tering (of the texts) and end with the gift of a cow
as a fee are known.

15. One (person) only (shall) perform the service
of the fire.

1 6. Now (let him offer) at the Agnyadheya full
oblations (purwahuti, with the texts), ' Whatever
cause of anger to the gods, ye gods;' 'The debts
which I contracted;' ' May worshipful Agni give thee
by every means long life/

17. Having offered (it), he who is about to per-
form the Agnihotra, (worships) with the Dasahotfz
(texts) ; having offered (it), he who is about to per-
form the new and full moon sacrifices (worships) with
the Tifaturhotrz (texts); having offered (it), he who is
about to offer the A'aturmasya sacrifices (worships)
with the Pa&ahotr2 (texts); having offered it, (he
worships) at an animal sacrifice with the Sha^a^otr?
(texts), at a Soma-sacrifice with the Saptahotrz

18. And it is declared in the Veda, ' Let him
sacrifice (with the Kushmawda texts) at the begin-
ning of the rites ; purified (thereby) he gains the
world of the gods.' Thus (speaks) the Brahma^a.

1 6. From this and the next Sutras it must be understood that
the KushmaWahoma is not only to be used as a penance, but may
be offered at the beginning of the great .Srauta sacrifices, in order
to sanctify the performer and to secure special benefits.

17. The Saptahotr/ and the other texts mentioned occur Taitt.
Arawyaka III, 1-5. I understand the verb ' worship ' on account
of La/yayana X, 12, 10.

1 8. Taitt. Arawyaka II, 7, 5.



1. Now, therefore, we will explain the rule of the
A'andrayaaa (lunar penance).

2. Let him fast on the fourteenth day of the
bright half of the month.

3. Having had the hair on his head, his beard,
the hair on his body, and his nails, or his beard
alone, cut, let him enter, dressed in new clothes and
speaking the truth, the place where the sacrificial
fire is preserved.

4. There a (common) fire, (which may be) fetched
once (only, shall serve) him ; or (the fire) must be
produced by friction with the Ararcis.

5. Let a student, who is a friend (of the per-
former), be ready at hand to (carry out his) direc-
tions ;

6. And sacrificial viands (shall be his) food during
the performance of the vow.

7. Having heaped fuel on the fire, scattered
(Kara grass) around it, and performed (the cere-
monies) up to the end of the Agnimukha, he offers
burnt oblations, (cutting off portions) from the
cooked food,

8. (The first) to Agni, (the second) to the lunar
day whichever it may be, (the third and the fourth)

8. i. For this chapter compare Gautama XXVII.

4. The meaning of the Sutra is that the fire which has been
carried into the avasatha must be kept burning during the whole
month which the ./fandrayana lasts. For a burnt oblation has to
be performed at the end of the penance. Should it be extinguished,
it must be rekindled by friction.

8. The text quoted occurs Taitt, Brahmana I, 5, 8, i.

304 BAUDHAYANA. Ill, 8.

to the lunar mansion together with its guardian
deity, the fifth to the moon (with the verse), ' Atraha
gor amanvata/ the sixth to the sky and the earth, the
seventh to day and night, the eighth to Rudra, the
ninth to the sun, the tenth to Varuwa, the eleventh
to Indra, and the twelfth to all the gods.

9. Now they mention (the following) other (obla-
tions which are to be offered) to the points of the
horizon and to their (guardian) deities, to the wide
middle sphere and to its (guardian) deity.

10. Having offered (the oblation) to Agni Svi-
sh/akrzt (with the verse), ' Ever new/ &c., he then
places the remainder of the sacrificial viands into a
goblet (kawsa) or a cup (/c-amasa), pours seasoning,
that is fit for sacrifices, over them, and eats fifteen
morsels of ordinary size,

11. The first (saying, 'I offer) thee to Prawa/ the
second (saying, ' I offer) thee to Apdna,' the third
(saying, ' I offer) thee to Vyana,' the fourth (saying,
I offer) thee to Ud&na,' the fifth (saying, ' I offer)
thee to Samana.' If there are only four (mouthfuls,
he eats) the first reciting two (texts) ; if there are
three, (he eats) the first two reciting two (texts) with
each ; if there are two, (he eats) the first reciting
two (texts and) the second reciting three texts ; (if
there is only) one, (he recites) all (the five texts)

12. Having drunk water (with the text), 'Thou

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