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The sacred laws of the Aryas : as taught in the schools of Apastamba, Gautama, Vasishtha and Baudhayana online

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10. Taitt. Sa/hit II, 3, 5, 3.

i r . This is an imitation of the Pra#a*gnihotra described above,
11,7, 12.

A 12. Taitt. Sawhita III, 1,8, i. The seven Anuvakas are Taitt.
Arawyaka X, 51-57. One oblation is to be offered with each
Anuvaka.



Ill, 8. jrANDRAYAJVA. 305

art water used for moistening Soma,' &c., he then
offers the (following) additional oblations of clarified
butter, with the seven Anuvakas (beginning), ' May
my Pra^a, Apana, Vyana, Udana, and Samana be
purified;' 'May my voice, mind, eye, ear/ &c.; 'May
my head, hands, feet ;' ' May my skin ;' ' May the
sense of hearing, touch ;' ' May earth, water ;' 'May
that which consists of food.'

13. (The ceremonies) beginning with the mut-
tering (of sacred texts) and ending with the gift of a
cow as a fee are known.

14. He worships the sun with (three versejf) ad-
dressed to Surya and the moon with (three vlrses)
addressed to ATandramas.

15. When he goes to rest, he mutters (the verse),
' O fire, keep thou good watch,'

1 6. When he awakes (in the morning, the verse),
'O fire, thou art the protector of vows.'

17. Let him not talk with women and Sudras
addressing them first ; let him not look at urine and

ordure.

1 8. If he has seen any impure substance, he
mutters (the text), 'Unrestrained (was) the internal
organ, wretched my eye; the sun is the most

13. Govinda here mentions that the whole of the ceremonies
alluded to are the uttaraaz daTvihomikaw tantrum.

14. As Govinda states, the former verses are 'ud vayaw tamasas
pan ' Taitt. Sawhita- IV, i, 7, 4 ; ' ud u tyam jdtavedasa*,' ibid. I,
,, 8, 4; 'Jitram devanam,' ibid. I, 4, 43, 'I while * ver
addressed to the moon are ' navo navo,' ibid. II, 4> 4i l J ' * * ltra '
Jitram,' Rig-veda VI, 6, 7J and atraha gor," TaitL Brahmaa

I} t 5 8 Taitt. Samhita I, 2, 3> ' l6 ' Taitt ' S ^ hit& loc " dt '

18. Taitt. Sawhita III, i, i, 2.



BAUDHAYANA. Til, 8.



excellent among the lights of heaven; O initiation,
mayest thou not forsake me.'

19. On the first day of the latter half (of the
month he eats) fourteen mouthfuls.

20. Thus (he takes every day) one (mouthful)
less up to the day of the new moon.

21. On the day of the new moon there is not
(even) one mouthful (left to take).

22. On the first day of the first half (of the
month) one (mouthful may be eaten), on the second
two.

23. Thus he daily increases (his meal) by one
(mouthful) up to the day of the full moon.

24. On the day of the full moon he offers a
Sthciltpeika to Agni, to the lunar day whichever it
may be, and to the lunar mansions as well as to
their (guardian) deities.

25. Having offered a burnt oblation to (the lunar
mansion) Abh^it (which stands) before Sron, and
to its (guardian) deity, he must give a cow to the
Brahmaas.

26. That is the ant-shaped lunar penance; (that
which is performed in the) inverted (order is called)
the barleycorn-shaped (lunar penance).

2 7. A sinner who has performed either of these
two (penances) becomes free from all mortal sins
(pdtaka).

28. They declare that the (A'andriyawa) shall be
performed for the sake of the fulfilment of wishes of
all kinds.

29. 'Thereby man obtains every wish which he
may conceive.'

26. Vishmi XLVII, 3-5.



ra > 9- ANASNATPARAYAtfA. 307

30. ' Thereby the sages formerly purified them-
selves and accomplished their objects. That (rite)
procures wealth, spiritual merit, sons, cattle, long
life, heavenly bliss, and fame ; it secures the fulfil-
ment of all desires.'

31. 'He who studies this, becomes the companion
of the lunar constellations, of sun and moon, and
dwells in their world.'

PRASNA III, ADHYAYA 9.

1. Now, therefore, we will explain the rule of
the AnasnatpaTayawa (recitation of the whole Veda
during a fast).

2. Let him wear a clean garment or a dress made
of bark (or grass).

3. Let him desire food, fit for a sacrifice, or water
and fruit.

4. Going forth from the village in an easterly
or northerly direction, smearing a quadrangular
stha^ila, ' a bull's hide ' in size, with cowdung,
sprinkling it, drawing the marks on it, sprinkling it
with water, heaping fuel on the fire and scattering
(Kusa grass) around it, he offers burnt oblations to
the following deities, to Agni Svahd, to Pra^ipati

9. 2. M. and the MSS. of the commentary read >Kravasa^ instead
of /Jiravisa^, ' clad with a garment of bark or grass/ and Govinda
explains the var. lect. by ' dressed in old clothes.'

3. This rule refers to the case only where the performer of the
vow is unable to bear the prolonged fasting.

4. A sthaWila is the raised mound, four fingers high, which is
used as the altar for the Gr*hya ceremonies. Regarding the term,
' a bull's hide,' see Vishmi XCII, a. The marks (lakshana) are
the lines which must be drawn on the altar ; see e. g. Amlayana
Grihya-sutra I, 3, i.

X 2



308 BAUDHAYANA. Ill, 9.

Svaha, to Soma Svaha, to all the gods Svaha, to
Svaya/wbhu, to the /fr/'as, to the Ya^us, to the Sa-
mans, to the Atharvans, to faith, to right knowledge,
to wisdom, to fortune, to modesty, to Savitrz, to the
Savitri (verse), to Sadasaspati, and to Anumati.

5. Having offered (these oblations), he must
begin with the beginning of the Veda and continu-
ously recite (it).

6. Let him not interrupt (the recitation) by
talking, nor by stopping.

7. Now if he converses in between or stops, let
him thrice suppress his breath, and begin just
there where he left off.

8. If he has forgotten (a passage), he shall recite
for as long a time as he does not recollect it, what
(he may know, TvYk-verses) for AVk-verses, (Ya^us-
formulas) for Ya t ^us-formulas, (Samans) for Samans.

9. He may (also) recite the Brahmawa of that
(forgotten passage) or (the passage from the Anu-
krama;/! regarding) its metre and its deities.

10. Let him recite the Sawhita of (his) Veda
twelve (times). He thereby removes (faults com-
mitted by) studying on forbidden (days, by) anger-
ing his teacher, (and through) improper acts. His
(knowledge of the) Veda is sanctified, is purified.

11. (If he reads) more than that, a cumulation (of
rewards will be the result).

12. If he recites the Samhita of the Veda another
twelve (times), he gains thereby the world of
U.yanas.

13. If he recites the Sa;;zhita of the Veda another



6. 'By talking, i.e. by uttering words not connected with the
Veda.' Govinda.



IIT >9- ANASNATPARAVAA'A.



309



twelve (times), he gains thereby the world of IW-
haspati.

14. If he recites the Sawhiti of the Veda another
twelve (times), he gains thereby the world of Pra-



15. If, fasting, he recites the Sawhitd one thou-
sand (times), he becomes one with Brahman, re-
splendent like Brahman (and) Brahman (itself).

16. If he subsists during a year on food obtained
by begging, he gains (the power of) supernatural
vision.

17. If during six months he subsists on barley-
gruel, during four months on water and barley-flour,
during two months on fruit, (and) during one month
on water, or performs KriMfaa. penances of twelve
days, he (obtains the power of) suddenly disap-
pearing, and sanctifies seven descendants, seven
ancestors, and himself as the fifteenth, and (any)
company (of Brahmawas) which he may enter.

1 8. They call that the ladder of the gods.

19. By means of that the gods reached their
divine station and the sages the position of ^/shis.

20. The periods for beginning this sacrifice, for-
sooth, are three, the time of the morning libation,
the time of the midday libation, and the last part of
the night, (the Muhurta) sacred to Brahman.

21. Pra^cipati, forsooth, proclaimed this (rite) to
the seven /tYshis, the seven Az'shis to Maha^a^wu,
and Maha c i\v7u to the Brdhmawas.

18. Govinda explains niArrewim, 'the ladder,' by niforeyasa-
hetum, ' a cause of supreme bliss.'

21. The name of the .tf/'shi who proclaimed it to the BrShmans
is not certain. The Dekhan MSS. read Maha^agru and Maha-
-agnu, M. Maha^-ag-nu, the I. O. copy of the commentary Mahd-
ya^iu and Maha^a^nu, and the Telugu copy



3IO BAUDHAYANA. Ill, 10.



PRASNA III, ADHYAYA 10.

1. The law of castes and of orders has been
declared.

2. Now, indeed, man (in) this (world is polluted)
by a vile action or acts wrongly, (e. g.) sacrifices for
men unworthy to offer a sacrifice, accepts presents
from those whose gifts ought not to be accepted,
eats the food of those whose food ought not to be
eaten, (and) practises what is forbidden.

3. They are in doubt if he shall perform a.penance
for such (a deed) or if he shall not do it.

4. (They declare that he shall not do it) because
the deed does not perish.

5. (The correct opinion is) that he shall perform
(a penance).

6. It is declared in the Veda, ' Let him offer a
Punastoma ; (those who offer it, may) again come to
(partake of) the libations of Soma/

7. ' He who offers a horse-sacrifice conquers all sin,
he effaces the guilt of the murder of a Brahmawa.'

10. i. As stated formerly, Sacred Books of the East, vol. ii, p. li,
this chapter is borrowed from Gautama XIX. I have therefore
adopted the same division of the Sfttras as in the translation of
the latter work.

a. I read, with the MSS. of the commentary, atha khalvayara
purusho yapyena karmawa* mithyd va^araty aya^ya/tt va yagayaty
apratigrihyasya va pratigr/rmity an&jyannasya vannam ajnaty aa-
raryena vatarati. M. reads ya^-ayitva, and the Dekhan MSS.
ya^ayitva and pratignhya.

5. The Dekhan MSS. read kuryad ity eva, M. kuryad eva, and
Govinda kuryat tv eva.

6. All the MSS. of the text omit the word vi^Ttayate, 'it is
declared in the Veda,' which is given by Govinda.

7. All the MSS. of the text give at the beginning of this Sfitra



in, 10. PENANCES. 3 1 1

8. Moreover, ' He who is being accused (of a
heinous crime) shall perform an Agnish/ut sacrifice.'

9. Reciting the Veda, austerity, a sacrifice, fast-
ing, giving gifts are the means for expiating such
(a blamable act).

10. The purificatory (texts are), the Upanishads,
the initial (verses) of the Vedas, the ends of the
Vedas (vedantas), the Sawhitas of all the Vedas,
(the Anuvakas called) Madhu, (the hymn of) Agha-
marshawa, the Atharva^iras, (the Anuvakas called
the) Rudras, the Purusha hymn, the two Simans
(called) Rafina and Rauhi#eya, the Brzhat (Saman)
and the Rathantara, the Purushagati (Saman), the
Mahanamnis, the Mahavairi^a (S4man), the Maha-
divdklrtya (Saman), any of the Gyesh//6a Samans, the
Bahishpavamana Saman, the Kushma;wfts, the Pava-
manfs, and the Savitri.

11. To live on milk alone, as if one were fasting,
to eat vegetables only, to eat fruit only, (to live on)
gruel prepared of a handful of barley-grains, to eat
gold, to eat clarified butter (are the modes of subsist-
ence) which purify.

12. All mountains, all rivers, holy lakes, bathing-
places, the dwellings of fitshis, cowpens, (holy) plains
and temples of the gods (are) places (which destroy
sin).

athSpy udaharanti, ' now they quote also,' which Govinda omits,
and which is inappropriate, because the following passages are
taken from the Veda.

10. The word vedadayaA, which occurs also in some MSS. of
VasishMa (XXII, 9), must be explained, according to the analogy
of karmSdi, 'the beginning of the sacrifices' (SSyaa on Taitt AT.
Hi 7> 5). b 7 ' the initial verses of the Vedas -' Tne Pavamints are
added on the authority of Govinda alone.

12. 'Kshetra, (holy) plain?, e.g. the Kurukshetra.' Govinda.



312 BAUDHAYANA. JII, IO.

13. Abstention from injuring living beings, truth-
fulness, abstention from theft (or unrighteously ap-
propriating anything), bathing in the morning, at
noon, and in the evening, obedience towards Gurus,
continence, sleeping on the ground, dressing in one
garment only, and abstaining from food (are the
various kinds of) austerity.

14. Gold, a cow, a dress, a horse, land, sesamum,
clarified butter, and food (are) the gifts.

15. A year, six months, four (months), three
(months), two (months), one (month), twenty-four
days, twelve days, six days, three days, a day and a
night, (and) one day are the periods (for penances).

1 6. These (acts) may be optionally performed if
no (particular penance) has been prescribed,

1 7. (Viz.) for great crimes difficult (penances) and
for trivial faults easy ones.

1 8. The Y*rikkkt9. and the Atikr*<ra, as well as
the -/Tandraya/za, are penances for all (offences).

PRASNA IV, ADHYAYA 1.

1. We will separately explain the various pena^^s
for the several offences, both heavier and lighter ones.

2. Let him prescribe whatever may be befitting
for each (case), heavier (penances) for great (crimes)
and easier ones for trivial (faults).

3. Let him perform the penances according to
the rule given in the Institutes (of the Sacred Law in
cases) where an offence has been committed with
the organ or with the feet (and) the arms, through

3. The construction is certainly elliptical. I understand tatra
with the first half-verse. Govinda separates the two half-verses,
yad upasthakntam papawr, &c., from the first, and reads at the end



IV, I. PENANCES.



thoughts or speech, through the ear, the skin, the
nose or the eye.

4. Or, in (the case of) transgressions committed
through the organ of vision, of hearing, of sensation,
of smelling, and through thoughts, he also becomes
pure by three suppressions of the breath.

5. In case (he commits the offences) of eating the
food of a Lucira or of cohabiting with a 6*udra female,
severally, he must perform, during seven days, seven
suppressions of the breath on each day.

6. For partaking of food unfit for eating or
drinking, and for selling forbidden merchandise, ex-
cepting honey, meat, clarified butter, oil, pungent
condiments and bad food, and for similar (offences),
he must perform, during twelve days, twelve sup-
pressions of the breath on each day.

7. For other transgressions excepting mortal sins
(pataka), crimes causing loss of caste (patanlya), and
the minor faults (called upapataka), he must perform,
during half a month, twelve suppressions of the
breath on each day.

8. For other transgressions^excepting mortal sins

of the half-verse prawiyaman samiU-aret, ' one should perform sup-
pressions of the breath (in even or equal numbers).'

5. Govinda tries to reconcile this rule with the one given above,
I, i, 2, 7, by assuming that the word .S'udra denotes here a Brah-
mawa who lives like a .Sudra and neglects his sacred duties.

6. I read, conjecturally, dvadajaham, ' twelve days.' The MSS.
of the text have dvadara dvadajaham, or corruptions pointing to
this reading, and C. I. reads ardhamasam. Regarding avaranna,
' bad food,' see note on Apastamba II, 6, ijj, 16.

7. I read, conjecturally, ardhamflsaw, 'half a month;' D. has
ardhamasan ; K. dvadajahaw ; M. dvada-nlrdhamSsam ; C. I. dvado-
jardhamasan, which is explained by shawmusan.

8. I read with M. dvftdara dvadajahan. D. K. have dvadsuaham.
The commentary omits the SOtra altogether.



314 BAUDHAYANA. IV, U

and crimes causing loss of caste, he must perform,
during twelve periods of twelve days, twelve sup-
pressions of the breath on each day.

9. For other transgressions excepting mortal sins
he must perform, during twelve half-months, twelve
suppressions of the breath on each day.

10. But for mortal sins he must perform, during a
year, twelve suppressions of the breath on each day.

11. Let him give his daughter, while she still
goes naked, to a man who has not broken the vow
of chastity and who possesses good qualities, or even
to one destitute of good qualities ; let him not keep
(the maiden) in (his house) after she has reached the
age of puberty.

12. He who does not give away a marriageable
daughter during three years doubtlessly contracts
a guilt equal to (that of) destroying an embryo.

13. Such will be the case if anybody asks her in
marriage, and also if nobody demands her. Manu
has declared that at each appearance of the menses
(the father incurs the guilt of) a mortal sin.

14. Three years let a marriageable damsei *"iit
for the order of her father. But after (that) time let
her choose for herself in the fourth year a husband
(of) equal (rank). If no man (of) equal (rank) be found,
she may take even one destitute of good qualities.

15. If a damsel has been abducted by force, and
has not been wedded with sacred texts, she may
lawfully be given to another man ; she is even like
a maiden.

9. I read with D., K., and M., dvada^irdhamasan. The com-
mentary omits also this Sfitra.

ii. Vasish/^a XVII, 67-71, and above.
15. VasishMa XVII, 73.



, I. PENANCES.



1 6. If, after (a damsel) has been given away, or
even after (the nuptial sacrifices) have been offered,
the husband dies, she who (thus) has left (her father's
house) and has returned, may be again wedded
according to the rule applicable to second weddings,
provided the marriage had not been consummated.

17. He who does not approach, during three
years, a wife who is marriageable, incurs, without
doubt, a guilt equal to that of destroying an
embryo.

1 8. But the ancestors of that man who does not
approach his wife who bathed after her temporary
uncleanness, though he dwells near her, lie during
that month in the menstrual excretions (of the
wife).

19. They declare that the guilt of the husband
who does not approach his wife in due season, of
him who approaches her during her temporary un-
cleanness, and of him who commits an unnatural
crime (with her), is equally (great).

20. Let him proclaim in the village a wife who,
being obdurate against her husband, makes herself
sterile, as one who destroys embryos, and drive her
from his house.

21. But for the transgression of that husband
who does npt approach a wife who bathed after
temporary uncleanness, (the performance of) one
hundred suppressions of the breath is prescribed
(as a penance).

16. Vasish/^a XVII, 74.

21. The MSS. of the text read, r/lusndtaw tu yo bhSrySw niya-
t&m brahmaari;;im i niyamatikrame tasya prSayanmataz smr/Um.
The commentary omits the first half of the verse altogether. The
latter, as read in the MSS., gives no sense. It seems to me that



o



1 6 BAUDHAYANA. IV, i.



22. Seated with KU&I grass in his hands, let him
repeatedly suppress his breath, and again and again
recite purificatory texts, the Vyahrz'tis, the syllable
Om, and the daily portion of the Veda.

23. Always intent on the practice of Yoga, let
him again and again suppress his breath. (Thus)
he performs the highest austerity up to the ends of
his hair and up to the ends of his nails.

24. Through the obstruction (of the respiration)
air is generated, through air fire is produced, then
through heat water is formed ; hence he is internally
purified by (those) three.

25. Through the practice of Yoga (true) know-
ledge is obtained, Yoga is the sum of the sacred
law, all good qualities are gained through Yoga ;
therefore let him always be absorbed in the practice
of Yoga.

26. The Vedas likewise begin with the syllable
Om, and they end with the syllable Om. The
syllable Om and the Vyahmis are the eternal,
everlasting Brahman.

27. For him who is constantly engaged in (re-
citing) the syllable Om, the seven Vyahr/tis, and
the three-footed Gayatrt, no danger exists anywhere.

28. If, restraining his breath, he thrice recites the
Gayatr! together with the syllable Om and with the
(text called) .$*iras, that is called one suppression of
breath.

29. But sixteen suppressions of breath, accom-

either its end must have been sawnidhau nopaga&Wati (as in
Stitra 1 7), or that a whole half-verse has been lost.

22-24. Vasish/a XXV, 4-6. 25. Vasish/^a XXV, 8.

26. Vasish^a XXV, 10. 27. VasishMa XXV, 9.

28. Vasish//;a XXV, 13. 29. VasishMa XXVI, 4.



IV, 2. PENANCES.



317



panied by (the recitation of) the Vyahntis and of
the syllable Om, repeated daily, purify after a mouth
even the slayer of a learned Brahmawa.

30. That is the highest austerity, that is the best
description of the sacred law. That, indeed., is the
best means of removing all sin.



PRASNA IV, ADHYAYA 2.

1. We will separately explain the various penances
for the several offences, both heavier and lighter ones.

2. Let him prescribe whatever may be befitting for
each (case), heavier penances for great (crimes),
and lighter ones for trivial (faults).

3. Let him perform the penances according to the
rule given in the Institutes of the Sacred Law.

4. He who is about to accept gifts, or he who has
accepted gifts, must repeatedly recite the four Ri\a-
verses (called) Taratsamandis.

5. But in case one has eaten any kind of for-
bidden food, or that given by a person whose food
must not be eaten, the means of removing the guilt
is to sprinkle water (over one's head) while one
recites the Taratsamandi AYkas.

6. But we will, hereafter, declare another rule for
(the expiation of) the murder of a learned Brahmawa,
whereby (men) are freed also from mortal sins of all
(kinds).

7. Let him (perform), during twelve nights, sup-

4. Gautama XXIV, 2. The gift is, of course, one which ought
rot to be accepted.

5. Rig-veda IX, 58. Mar^anam, literally 'rubbing,' means
sprinkling the head with a handful of water. Govinda.



318 BAUDHAYANA. IV, 2.

pressions of the breath (and) mutter purificatory
texts, the Vyahmis, the syllable Om, (and) the
Aghamarsha^a hymn, (living) on milk;

8. Or (he becomes) pure if he bathes, and during
three (days and) nights subsists on air and (remains
dressed) in wet clothes.

9. But if he has repeatedly committed for-
bidden acts of all kinds, and has (afterwards)
worshipped reciting the Vanml (texts), he is freed
from all sin.

10. Now a student who has broken his vow
(avaklrwin) shall heap fuel on the fire on the night
of the new moon, perform the preparatory cere-
monies required for a Darvthoma, and offer two
oblations of clarified butter (reciting the following
texts) : ' O Lust, I have broken my vow, my vow
I have broken, O Lust, to Lust Svaha;' *O Lust,
I have done evil, I have done evil, O Lust, to Lust
Svaha.'

11. After he has made the offering he shall

c>

address the fire, closely joining his hands and
turning sideways, (with the following texts): 'May
the Maruts grant me, may Indra, may B^'haspati,
may this fire grant me long life and strength, make
me long-lived.' The Maruts, forsooth, give back
to him the vital airs, Indra gives back to him
strength, Brzhaspati the lustre of Brahman, Fire all
the remainder. (Thus) his body is made whole, and
he attains the full length of life. Let him next ad-
dress (the gods) with three (repetitions of the texts).

9. ' Upasthana, " worshipping," i. e. sprinkling one's head with
a handful of water.' Govinda.

10. A repetition of the rule given above, II, i, i, 34 ; see also
HI, 4-



PENANCES.



For the gods are trebly true. (All that) has been
declared in the Veda.

12. He who considers himself defiled by minor
offences (upapitaka), will be freed from all guilt if
he offers burnt oblations according to this same
rule;

13. Or if he has partaken of food unfit to be
eaten or to be drunk or of forbidden food, and if he
has committed sinful acts or performed sinful rites
either unintentionally or intentionally, and if he has
had connexion with a female of the ^udra caste or
committed an unnatural crime, he becomes pure by
bathing (and reciting) the Ablinga (verses) and
(those called) Varuwis.

14. Now they quote also (the following verse) :
1 If he has partaken of food unfit to be eaten or to
be drunk, or of forbidden food, and if he has com-
mitted forbidden acts or performed forbidden rites,
he will, nevertheless, be freed from (crimes) com-
mitted intentionally which are similar to mortal sins,
nay, even from mortal sins (pataka).'

15. Or let him fast during three (days and) nights,
bathe thrice a day, and, suppressing his breath, thrice
recite the Aghamarsha#a. Manu has declared that
that is equal (in efficacy) to the final bath at a
horse-sacrifice.



1 2. Gautama XXV, 6.

13. Govinda gives, like Haradatta on Gautama XXV, 7, as an
instance of a doshavat karma, ' a sinful rite,' the abhiHra or ' magic
rite in order to harm enemies.' The expression has, however, in
our Sutra, a wider sense.

14. I.e. if he performs the penance prescribed in the preceding
Sutra.

15. Vasish^a XXVI, 8 ; Gautama XXIV, 10.



32O BAUDHAYANA. IV, 2.

1 6. And it is declared in the Veda, '(That is) the
ancient purificatory rite, which is widely known (in
the Institutes of the Sacred Law) ; purified thereby
man conquers sin. May we, sanctified by this holy



Online LibraryGeorg BühlerThe sacred laws of the Aryas : as taught in the schools of Apastamba, Gautama, Vasishtha and Baudhayana → online text (page 51 of 55)