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The sacred laws of the Aryas : as taught in the schools of Apastamba, Gautama, Vasishtha and Baudhayana online

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means of purification, conquer our enemy, siri.'

PRASNA IV, ADIIYAYA 3.

1. We will explain the (secret) penances which
are not prescribed (by others, but by the offender
himself, and) particularly what shall be done in
(case) faults (have been committed) by men who,
with concentrated minds, (are) intent (on the per-
formance of their duties).

2. (Such a man) may sip water, (in order to atone)
for all mortal sins, reciting the syllable Om and all
the Vyahmis.

3. When he sips \vater the first time, he gladdens
the y?/g-veda, the second time the Ya^ur-veda, the
third time the Sama-veda.

4. When he wipes (his lips) the first time, he
gladdens the Atharva-veda, the second time the
Itihasas and Purawas.

5. When he sprinkles water on the right hand,
the feet, the head, the heart, the nostrils, the eyes,
the ears, and the navel, he gladdens the trees and
herbs and all deities. Therefore he is freed from all
sin by sipping water.

3. i. Vasish//;a XXV, 1-2. The whole Adhyaya is left out in
the Dekhan MSS., including K. The omission may have been
caused by the circumstance that the initial verses of Adhyayas 3
and 4 are identical.

2. Gautama XXV, 9 ; Vasish/Aa XXV, 4.

3-5. See the rules for sipping water, given above, I, 5, 8, 19-26.



rV,4. SECRET PENANCES. 321

6. Or let him offer in the fire eight pieces of
sacred fuel, reciting (the following) eight (texts):
' Thou art the expiation of sin committed by the
gods, Svaha;' 'Thou art the expiation of sin com-
mitted by men, Svah;' 'Thou art the expiation of
sin committed by the manes, Svaha ;' ' Thou art the
expiation of sin committed by myself, Svaha;'
' Thou art the expiation of the sin which we have
committed either by day or by night, Svaha;' 'Thou
art the expiation of the sin which we have com-
mitted either sleeping or waking, Svaha;' 'Thou
art the expiation of the sin which we have com-
mitted either intentionally or unintentionally, Svaha;'
' Thou art the expiation of every sin, Svaha. 1

7. When he has offered (these eight oblations) he
will be freed from all guilt

8. Now they quote also (the following verse):
1 The- Aghamarshawa, the Devakma, the Suddha-
vatls, the Taratsamas, the Kushmaw^is, the Pava-
manls, the Vira^is, the Mmyulangala, the Durga
(Savitrl), the Vyahmis, and the Rudras (are texts)
which are very efficacious for effacing sin.'

PRASNA IV, ADHYAYA 4.

i. We will explain the (secret) penances which
are not prescribed (by others, but by the offender
himself, and) particularly what shall be done in
(case) faults (have been committed) by men who,
with concentrated minds, (are) intent (on the per-
formance of their duties).

6. Gautama XXV, 10. The Mantras occur Taitt. Arayaka

X, 59.

8. Vishnu LVI. 3, and note ; Vasish/Aa XXVIII, 10-15.

C'4l Y



322 BAUDHAVANA. IV, 4.

2. He who, standing in water, thrice recites that
(hymn of) Aghamarsha^a (which begins), 'Both right
and truth,' will be freed from all guilt.

3. He who, standing in water, thrice recites the
verse, ' This spotted bull,' &c. will be freed from
all guilt ;

4. He who, standing in water, thrice recites the
verse, ' Freed from the post as it were/ will be
freed from all guilt.

5. He who, standing in water, thrice recites the
verse, 'A swan dwelling in purity,' will be freed
from all guilt ;

6. Or, he who, standing in water, thrice recites
the Savitri, foot by foot, half verse by half verse,
and afterwards entire, will be freed from all guilt ;

7. Or, he who, standing in water, thrice recites
the Vyahmis, both separately and altogether, will
be freed from all guilt-

8. Or, he who, standing in water, thrice recites the
syllable Om alone, will be freed from all guilt.

9. Let him not teach these Institutes of the
Sacred Law to one who is neither his son nor his
pupil, nor has resided (in his house) less than a year.

10. The fee (for teaching it) is one thousand
(pawas, or) ten cows and a bull, or the worship of
the teacher.

PRASNA IV, ADHYAYA 5.

I. Now, therefore, I will proclaim by what rites,
connected with the Saman, ^'k, Ya^us, and Atharva-



4. 2. Taitt. Arawyaka X, i, 13. 3. Taitt. Arawyakal, 5, 3, i.

4. Taitt Brahmaa II, 4, 4, 9.

5. Taitt. Sawhita I, 8, 15, 2. 9. Vasish/fo XXIV, 6-7.

5. i. All the Dekhan MSS., including K., have been copied from



RITES SECURING SUCCESS.



vedas, (man) quickly attains the wishes of his
heart.

2. Having purified his body by muttered prayers,
burnt oblations, Ish/is, restraints, and the like, he
will accomplish all his objects. He will not attain
success in any other way.

3. A Brahmawa, who is going to mutter prayers,
to offer burnt oblations or Ish/is, or to practise
restraints, shall, first, during the bright half of the
month, on a lucky day and under a lucky constella-
tion, cause his hair and beard to be cut.

4. Let him bathe in the morning, at noon, and in
the evening ; let him beware of anger and untruth ;
let him not address women and Sudras ; let him be
continent, and subsist solely on food fit for offerings.

5. Avoiding to sleep in the day-time, let him wor-
ship cows, Brahmaas, manes, and gods. As long as
he is engaged in muttering prayers, offering Homas
and Ish/is, and practising restraints, let him stand
during the day and sit during the night

6* The Y^rikkhva. (penance) revealed by Prafa-
pati lasts twelve days, (which are divided into four
separate) periods of three days; (during the first
period of three days he eats) in the day-time (only,
during the second) at night (only, during the third
he subsists on) food given without asking, (and
during the fourth) finally (he lives on) air.

a MS. the leaves of which were out of order. After the first words
of ver. i , they have kshira/n dadhisarpLi kurodakam, which belongs
to ver. 26, and they go on with the text down to IV, 7, 7, after which
the end of IV, 5, i and 2-25 are given. 'Yantra," restraints," i.e.
KnAWras and the like, (which are called so) on account of the
restraint of the senses (required for them).' Govinda.

3-5. VasishMa XXIV, 5.

6. Vasish/4a XXI, 20. Repeated, see above, II, i, a, 38.

Y 2



324 BAUDHAYANA. IT, 5.

7. (If one eats on) one (day in) the morning
(only), and (on the following day) at night (only, on
the next day food) given without asking, (and on
the fourth day) subsists on air, and repeats this
three times, that is called the KrMMra. (penance)
of children.

8. (If) one eats one mouthful only at each (meal),
following, during (three) periods of three days, the
rules given above, and subsists during another
period of three days on air, that is called the
Atikrz//&#ra penance.

9. (If) during those (first) three periods of three
days one partakes of water only, and subsists after-
wards (during three days) on air, that third (variety)
must be known to be the most efficacious K.rt&-
khv&C&irikkfaz. penance.

10. If one drinks hot milk, (hot) clarified butter,
(and a hot) decoction of Kara grass, each during
three days, and fasts during another three days, that
is called the Taptakrz&^ra.

11. (If one lives during one day) on cow's urine,
(during one day) on cowdung, (during one day) on
milk, (during one day) on sour milk, (during one day)
on clarified butter, (during one day) on a decoction
of Kara grass, and during one (day and) night on
air, that is called the Sawtapana Kn^ra.

12. Let him take the cow's urine, reciting the
Gayatrl; the cowdung, (reciting the text), ' Gandha-

7. Vasish/^a XXIII, 43 ; see above, II, i, 2, 39.

8. Vasish#a XXIV, 2-3 ; see above, II, i, 2, 40.

9. See above, II, i, 2, 41. 10. See above, II, i, 2, 37.

11. Vasish/fca XXVII, 13; Vishnu XLVI, 19.

12. The texts quoted are found, Taitt. Arawyaka X, i, 10; III,
17 ; Taitt. Sawhitd I, 5, 1 1, 4, 7 ; I, i, 10, 3 ; VII, i, 1 1, i.



IV, 5. RITES SECURING SUCCESS. 325

dvaram;' the milk, (reciting the verse), 'Apyayasva;'
the sour milk, reciting (the verse), ' Dadhikravwa;''
the clarified butter, (saying), '.Sukram asi;' the decoc-
tion of Ku-ya grass (with the text), 'Devasya tva ;'

1 3. (And mix together) one part of cow's urine,
half as much cowdung, three parts of milk, two of
sour milk, one part of clarified butter, and one part
of water boiled with Kiua grass; a Sawtdpana
KrM&Ara. (performed) in this manner will purify
even a .SVapaka.

14. He who subsists during five (days and) nights
on cow's urine, cowdung, milk, sour milk, and clari-
fied butter will be purified by (that) Pa/agavya
(the five products of the cow).

15. If, self-restrained and attentive, he fasts during
twelve days, that is called a Paraka Yirikkfa*, which
destroys all sin.

1 6. If he subsists on cow's urine and the other
(substances named above), one day on each, and con-
tinues (this mode of life) during thrice seven days, the
theologians call that a Mahasawtapana Krz&Mra.

17. If he daily adds to his food one mouthful
during the bright (half of the month) and diminishes
it daily by one mouthful during the dark (half of the
month), and keeps two fasts in the two halves of the
month, that is called a A'dndrayawa.

1 8. If, with concentrated mind, a Brahmawa eats
four mouthfuls in the morning and four mouthfuls
when the sun has set, he will perform the A'andra-
yaa of children.

13. VasisbMa XXVII, 13. 14. Vasish/Aa XXVII, 14.

15. Vishmi XLVI, 1 8. 16. Vishmi XL VI, 20.

17. Vasish/tfa XXVII, 21 ; see above, III, 8.

1 8. Vistom XLVII, 8.



326 BAUDHAYANA. IV, 5.

19. If, self-restrained, he daily eats, during a
month, at midday eight mouthfuls of food, fit for
a sacrifice, he will perform the A^andrayawa of
ascetics.

20. But a Brahmaa who eats anyhow, during a
month, thrice eighty mouthfuls of food, fit for a sacri-
fice, goes to the world of the moon.

21. As the rising moon frees the world from the
fear of darkness, even so a Brahmaa who performs
a ^clndriya^a removes the fear of sin.

22. He who lives one day on (rice)-grains, three
days on oil-cakes, five days on buttermilk mixed
with water, seven days on water, and (one day) on
air, (performs) the guilt-destroying Tulapurusha.

23. Living on barley-gruel (yeLvaka) removes the
guilt of corporeal beings after seven days, and so
does a fast of seven days ; that has been recognised
by wise men.

24. By dressing in wet clothes, by living in the
open air, and by exposing himself to the sun during
the light halves of the months Pausha (December-
January), Bhadrapada (August-September), and
Gyesh^a (May-June), a Brahmawa is freed from
(all) sin excepting crimes causing loss of caste
(pataniya).

25. (If one swallows) cows' urine, cowdung, milk,

19. Vishnu XL VII, 7.

20. Vishu XLVII, 9. Govinda places this verse before Sutra 19.
22. Vishmi XLVII, 22.

24. The meaning is that the performer is to stand in wet clothes
during the first half of the month Pausha, in the cold season ; to
live in the open air during the first half of Bhadrapada, in the rainy
season ; and to allow himself to be broiled by the sun in <7yesh///a,
the hottest time of the hot season.

25. 1 doubt if the reading of Govinda, yava"^mena (explained



^5- RITES SECURING SUCCESS. 327

sour milk, clarified butter, and a decoction of Ku*a
grass, mixed with barley gruel, that is the most
sanctifying Brahmakuna.

26. He who fasts on the new moon day and eats
sesamum grains on the full moon day, will be freed
in the course of a year from the sins which he com-
mitted in the bright and the dark halves of the
month.

27. He who lives on alms obtained from Agni-
hotrins is purified in one month ; (he who obtains
his food from a Yayavara, in ten days; he who re-
ceives it from a hermit in the forest, in five days;

28. (He who lives) on food given by a person
who has a store sufficient for one day only, will be
purified m one day ; he who drinks water given by
a person subsisting by the Kapota-vmti (pigeon-
life), is purified in three (days).

29. If one recites the whole ^/g-veda, Ya^ur-
veda, and Sma-veda, or thrice reads one of these
Vedas and fasts, (that is) a most efficient means of
purification.

30. Now if one is in haste to finish, one may live
on air during a day, and pass the night standing
ia water, that is equal (in efficacy) to a Pra^apatya



31. He who at sunrise mutters the Gayatrt one
thousand and eight times, is free from all sin, pro-
vided he has not slain a learned Brahmawa.



by yavagu^) sawyuktam, ' mixed with barley-gruel,' is correct. AH
the MSS. of the text have yavanSm ekasawyukto, which I do not
understand. Govinda has Brahrnakr;Mra>4 instead of Brahma-
kunta/i. But see the Petersb. Diet. s. v. brahmakftr/fe.

28. Regarding the Kapota-vrriti, see above, III, 2, 15.

30. Vasish//%a XXVII, 17. Govinda adds after kartum, 'to
finish,' 'the rites connected with the Vedas' (Sfltra i).



328 BAUDHAYANA. IV, g.

32. He who distributes food, speaks the truth, and
has compassion on all living beings, is more (holy)
than all those who have been purified by the
restraints mentioned above.



PRASNA IV, ADHYAYA 6.

1. The (eleven Anuvakas called) Rudras together
with (the ten hymns) seen by Madhu///fcandas, the
Gayatri with the syllable Om, and likewise the
seven Vyahmis (are the texts) which should be
muttered (and) which remove guilt.

2. The Mrzgaresh/i, the Pavitresh/i, the Trihavis,
the Pavamant are the Ish/'is which efface sin, if they
are (each) combined with the VaLrvanara (Dvadaja-
kapala).

3-4. Learn, also, the following most excellent
secret ; he will be freed from all sins of all kinds
who sprinkles himself with water, reciting the
Pavitras, who mutters the eleven (Anuvakas called)
Rudras, who offers burnt oblations of butter, reciting
the Pavitras, and gives gold, a cow, and sesamum (to
Brahmarcas).

5. He who partakes of boiled barley-gruel, mixed
with cow's urine, liquid cowdung, sour milk, milk,
and butter, is quickly freed from sin.

6. Both he who has begotten a child on a .Sudra
woman and he who has had connexion with a female,



6. i. The hymns are Rig-veda I, i-io.

2. Regarding the Mngaresh/i, see Taitt. SawzhitS IV, 7, 15. In
explanation of the term Trihavis, Govinda adcls the word Savanesh/i.

5. Ydvaka, translated, as usually, by barley-gruel, can also
denote, as Govinda points out, other dishes made of barley.

6. See above, II, i, 2, 7, 10, 13-14.



IV, 7- RITES SECURING SUCCESS. 329

intercourse with whom is forbidden (agamya), are
purified (if they live) according to this rule during
seven days.

7. (That is likewise) the remedy when one has
swallowed semen, ordure, and urine, or eaten the
food of persons whose food must not be eaten, (and
also) when a younger brother has kindled the sacred
fire, has offered a .Srauta sacrifice, or taken a wife
before the elder.

8. He who has committed even a great number
of (wicked) actions, excepting mortal sins, will be
freed (by that rule) from all guilt That is the
statement of the virtuous.

9. But (this) ordinance, which is based on the
authority of the sacred texts, is stated (to be that)
through which Bharadva/a and others became equal
to Brahman.

10. Through the performance of these rites a
Brahmawa, whose heart is full of peace, obtains what-
ever desires he may have in his heart.



PRASNA IV, ADHYAYA 7.

T. The wishes of a Brahmawa who has left off evil
deeds and is (ever) engaged in holy works are ful-
filled even without (the practice of) restraints.

2. Upright Brahmawas quickly accomplish what-

7. See above, II, i, i, 21, 39-40. I follow the reading of M.
and of the commentary, paryadhane^ayor etat parivitte *a bhe-
sha^am. The reading of the Dekhan MSS. is etat patite Jaiva

bho^anam, ' that food must be eaten and when one has

become an outcast.'

7. i. Yantram, 'restraints,' i.e. KriAMras, the fasts, and <
practices described in the preceding chapters.



33 BAUDHAYANA. iv, 7.

ever they wish in their hearts, if they are purified
by honest actions.

3. Thus a wise man should practise those re-
straints until he has purified his bodily frame.

4. He who has been purified by those restraints
should, after fasting three (days and) nights, begin
the performance of that sacred rite through which
he wishes to gain the fulfilment of his desires,

5. (Reciting) the Kshapavitra, the Sahasrksha,
the Mrzgdra, the two Ga#as (called) Amhomufc, the
Pavamanis, the Kushmadfts, and the Rikzs, ad-
dressed to Vaisv&nara,

6. (And) offering with (each of) these (Mantras)
boiled rice and clarified butter during seven days, in
the morning, at midday, and in the evening, keeping
a rigid silence, living on food fit for a sacrifice,
restraining his senses and his actions,

7. He is freed from all crimes, even mortal sins,
after looking on a cross-road at a pot filled with
water, (and reciting the text), 'Siwhe me manyu/&.'

8. He is freed from the multitude of sins, com-
mitted unintentionally in old age, in youth, and in
infancy, and even from those belonging to former
births ;

9. After feeding at the end (of the seven days)
Brahmaas with milk and rice, well mixed with



5. According to Govinda the Kshapavitra, or as (he Dekhan
MSS. read, Kshmapavitra, occurs in the Sutrapa//^a of the Taitti-
rfyas, consists of six Verses, and begins ' Agne naya.' The text
meant must be similar to Taitt. Sawzhita I, i, 14, 3. The Saha-
sraksha is the Purushasukta. The Mr/gara consists of the Ya^ya'-
rmvakyas of the Mr/garesh/i, Taitt. SawhitS IV, 7, 15. The two
Gawas called Amhomuk are found Taitt. Sawhita II, 3, 13, i, 'yd
vim indravariwau' and 'yo vam indravaruwau.' The verses addressed
to Agni Vaijvanara are the first eight. of Taitt. Sawhita I, 5, n.



IV, 8. RITES SECURING SUCCESS. 331

butter, and distributing to them after their dinner
cows, land, sesamum, and gold,

10. A Brahmawa becomes internally pure, his
guilt being consumed like fuel, and fit for the per-
formance of rites which secure the fulfilment of
wishes and of rites like the kindling of the sacred
fire.

PRASNA IV, ADHYAYA 8.

1. He who, through excessive greed or careless-
ness, performs this rite for others, is tainted by sin,
and perishes like one who has swallowed poison.

2. A Brahmaa who performs this rite for his
teacher, his father, his mother, or for himself is
resplendent like the sun. Therefore this rite may
be performed for those (persons).

3. Ka (Pra^apati) purified by means of this rite
the god with a thousand eyes (Sahasraksha), Fire,
Wind, the Sun, Soma, Yama, and other lords of the
gods.

4. Whatever there is in these three worlds, famed
as possessing a holy name, Brdhmawas and the rest,
(all) that was produced by Ka through this rite of
sanctification.

5. This sin-destroying secret of Pra^ipati was
first produced; thereafter thousands of purificatory
rites came into existence.

6. He who performs those eight Garcahomas on
the (first) day of the year, of a half-year, of a season,
or of a fortnight, sanctifies ten ancestors and ten
descendants of his line ;

7. And, while still on earth, he is known to the

8. 5. I.e. those mentioned V, 7, 5.



33 2 BAUDHAYANA. IV, 8.

gods in heaven as a holy man, and (after death)
that virtuous man rejoices for a very long time in
heaven like a god.

8. If a Brahma^a is unable to offer those eight
Gawahomas, let him offer one ; thereby his guilt is
effaced.

9. He, also, whose sons or pupils offer those eight
Gawahomas, is freed from his sin which is bought
off by his having instructed (them).

10. Through a desire of removing one's guilt one
even may cause (these oblations) to be offered by
men who have been engaged for money, in case
oneself is unable (to do it); a man need not torment
himself.

11. Even among the virtuous a distribution of
wealth is made (for the success) of holy rites; some-
times a man who is free from debt is (thereby) freed
from guilt.

12. Liberated according to this rule from the
ocean of guilt and debt, he considers himself pure
and able to successfully perform the sacred rites.

13. But in the case of that pure mortal who, freed
from all sin and debts, begins the sacred rites, they
will succeed without any effort.

14. Let him daily (study and) teach this holy
(rule) of Pra/apati, which the sage has proclaimed,
let him remember it or hear it. (By doing that) he
is freed from all guilt and will be exalted in Brah-
man's world.

10. The meaning is that in case a wealthy man is unable to bear
' the restraints,' he may hire others to perform the Homas. Though
the hired performer will be guilty of a serious offence (Sutra i),
the person who causes them to be performed will derive benefit
from them.



IV, 8. RITES SECURING SUCCESS. 333

15. Let him mutter during twelve days those
sacred texts through which he wishes to accomplish
(his desires), eating once (a day) at night boiled
rice with clarified butter, with milk, or with sour
milk.

1 6. (Let him offer) ten times a burnt oblation and
sprinkle clarified butter. (That is) the preliminary
worship (which must be performed) when one desires
to accomplish one's objects through those sacred
texts.



PARI5ISH7A.



PRASNA VII, ADHYA"YA 5.

1. We will explain the rule for the adoption of a
son.

2. Man, formed of virile seed and uterine blood,
proceeds from his mother and father (as an effect)
from its cause.

3. (Therefore) the father and the mother have
power to give, to abandon, or to sell their (son).

4. But let him not give nor receive (in adoption)
an only son ;

5. For he (must remain) to continue the line of
the ancestors.

6. Let a woman neither give nor receive a son
except with the permission of her husband.

7. He who is desirous of adopting (a son) pro-
cures two garments, two earrings, and a finger-ring ;
a spiritual guide who has studied the whole Veda ; a
layer of Ku^a grass and fuel of PalcLya wood and so
forth.

5. i. This chapter has been translated by Mr. Sutherland, Dattaka
Mfmatfzsd V, 42, and Dattaka ATandrM II, 16, and by myself,
Journal Bengal Br. Roy. As. Soc., vol. XXXV, p. 162.

2-6. Identical with Vasish/^a XV, 1-5. The best MS. omits
the particle tu, ' but,' in Sutra 6, while others have it.

7-8. Vasish/tta XV, 7. The translation of madhye by ' in their
presence ' rests on the authority of the Sa/wskarakaustubha 47 b, it,
where it is explained madhye [a] iti bandhusamaksham. The other
explanation ' in the middle (of his dwelling)/ to which the interpo-
lated text of the Dattaka MfmawsS and Dattaka ATandrild refers,
is, however, also possible.



VII, 5- ADOPTION. 335

8. Then he convenes his relations, informs the
king (of his intention to adopt) in (their) presence,
feeds the (invited) Brdhmawas in the assembly or
in (his) dwelling, and makes them wish him 'an
auspicious day,' ' hail/ (and) ' prosperity.'

9. Then he performs the ceremonies which begin
with the drawing of the lines on the altar and end
with the placing of the water-vessels, goes to the
giver (of the child) and should address (this) request
(to him), ' Give me (thy) son/

10. The other answers, ' I give (him).'

IT. He receives (the child with these words), 'I
take thee for the fulfilment of (my) religious duties ;
I take thee to continue the line (of my ancestors).'

12. Then he adorns him with the (above-men-
tioned) two garments, the two earrings, and the
finger-ring, performs the rites which begin with the
placing of the (pieces of wood called) paridhis
(fences round the altar) and end with the Agni-
mukha, and offers (a portion) of the cooked (food)
in the fire.

13. Having recited the Puronuvdkyd (verse), ' He
who thinking of thee with a discerning mind,' &c.,
he offers an oblation, reciting the Ya^yd (verse), ' To
which performer of good deeds, thou, O G&ta-
vedas,' &c.

14. Then he offers (oblations, reciting) the Vya-
hrttis ; (the ceremonies) which begin the oblation
to Agni Svish/akrzt and end with the presentation

8. The ceremony alluded to is the so-called piwyahavlfonam.

12. The correct reading is pakv% ^uhoti.

13. The two texts are found Taittirtya SawhitS I, 4, 46, i.

14. Vasish/y&a XV, 7. The parenthetical phrase occurs fre-
quently in the Dharma-sutra ; see e. g. Ill, 4, 3.



336 BAUDHAYANA. VII, 5.

of a cow as a fee (to the officiating priest are)
known ;

15. And presents (to the spiritual guide) as a
sacrificial fee those two dresses, those two earrings,
and that finger-ring (with which he had adorned the
child).

1 6. If after the performance of these (rites) a legi-
timate son of his own body is born (to the adopter,
then the adopted son) receives a fourth (of the legi-
timate son's) share. Thus says Baudhayana.



Online LibraryGeorg BühlerThe sacred laws of the Aryas : as taught in the schools of Apastamba, Gautama, Vasishtha and Baudhayana → online text (page 52 of 55)