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14. Manu II, 69 ; Ya#. I, 15.

15. Manu II, 144.

16. Manu II, 146-148.

17. 'Because it procures heavenly bliss and final liberation/*
Haradatta.

1 8. Manu II, 147.

19. \vtgft. I, 14 ; Mariu II, 36 ; ArvaHyana Gri* Su. 1, 19,. 1,^4 ;
Weber, Ind. Stud. X, 20 seq.

B 2



4 APASTAMBA. I, I, I.

to be chosen) for the fulfilment of some (particular)
wish.

21. (Let him initiate) a person desirous of excel-
lence in sacred learning in his seventh year,

22. A person desirous of long life in his eighth
year,

23. A person desirous of manly vigour in his
ninth year,

24. A person desirous of food in his tenth year,

25. A person desirous of strength in his eleventh
year,

26. A person desirous of cattle in his twelfth year.

27. There is no dereliction (of duty, if the initia-
tion takes place), in the case of a Brahma^a before
the completion of the sixteenth year, in the case of
a Kshatriya before the completion of the twenty-
second year, in the case of a Vaisya before the
completion of the twenty-fourth year. (Let him be
initiated at such an age) that he may be able to
perform the duties, which we shall declare below.

28. If the proper time for the initiation has
passed, he shall observe for the space of two months

21. Manu II, 37.

22-26. AJV. Gri. Su. I, 19, 5, 7; Weber, Ind. Stud. X, 21.

27. The meaning of the Sutra is, that the initiation shall be
performed as soon as the child is able to begin the study of the
Veda. If it is so far developed at eight years, the ceremony must
then be performed; and if it be then neglected, or, if it be
neglected at any time when the capacity for learning exists, the
expiation prescribed in the following Sutras must be performed.
The age of sixteen in the case of Brahmaas is the latest term
up to which the ceremony may be deferred, in case of incapacity
for study only. After the lapse of the sixteenth year, the expiation
becomes also necessary. Manu II, 38 ; \agri. I, 37.

28. The meaning is, he shall keep all the restrictions imposed
upon a student, as chastity, &c., but that he shall not perform



I, i, a. INITIATION.



the duties of a student, as observed by those who
are studying the three Vedas.

29. After that he may be initiated.

30. After that he shall bathe (daily) for one year.

31. After that he may be instructed.

32. He, whose father and grandfather have not
been initiated, (and his two ancestors) are called
'slayers of the Brahman.'

33. Intercourse, eating, and intermarriage with
them should be avoided.

34. If they wish it (they may perform the follow-
ing) expiation ;

35. In the same manner as for the first neglect
(of the initiation, a penance of) two months (was)
prescribed, so (they shall do penance for) one year.

36. Afterwards they may be initiated, and then
they must bathe (daily),

PRASNA I, PAPALA 1, KHANDA 2.

1. For as many years as there are uninitiated
persons, reckoning (one year) for each ancestor (and
the person to be initiated himself),

2. (They should bathe daily reciting) the seven

fire-worship or service to a teacher, nor study. Manu II, 39; XI, 192 ;
Ya^. I, 38; Weber, Ind. Stud. X, 101.

30. ' If he is strong, he shall bathe three times a day morning,
midday, and evening.' Haradatta.

32. Brahman, apparently, here means ' Veda,' and those who neg-
lect its study may be called metaphorically ' slayers of the Veda.'

33. ManuII, 40; AJV. Gr/.Su. 1, 19, 8,9; Weber, Ind. Stud. X, 21.
35. Compare above, I, i, i, 28.

2. 2. The seven Pavamanis are seven verses which occur 7?/g-veda
IX, 67, 21-27. Ya^ushpavitra=Taitt. Sawh. I, 2, i, i. The Sama-
pavitra is found Sama-veda I, 2, 2, 3, 5. Angirasapavitra=^/g-veda
IV, 4, 5-



6 APASTAMBA. I, x, 2.

Pavamants, beginning with ' If near or far,' the
Ya^-ushpavitra, (' May the waters, the mothers
purify us,' &c.) the Samapavitra, (' With what help
assists,' &c.), and the Ahgirasapavitra ('A swan,
dwelling in purity '),

3. Or also reciting the Vyahr/tis (om, bhu//,
bhuva/z, suva).

4. After that (such a person) may be taught (the
Veda).

5. But those whose great-grandfather's (grand-
father's and father's) initiation is not remembered,
are called ' burial-grounds.'

6. Intercourse, dining, and intermarriage with
them should be avoided For them, if they like, the
(following) penance (is prescribed). (Such a man)
shall keep for twelve years the rules prescribed for
a student who is studying the three Vedas. After-
wards he may be initiated. Then he shall bathe,
reciting the Pavamdnis and the other (texts men-
tioned above, I, i, 2, 2).

7. Then he may be instructed in the duties of
a householder.

8* He shall not be taught (the whole Veda), but
only the sacred formulas required for the domestic
ceremonies.

9. When he has finished this (study of theGr/hya-
mantras), he may be initiated (after having performed
the penance prescribed) for the first neglect (I, I,
i, 28).

ID. Afterwards (everything is performed) as in
the case of a regular initiation.

10. The commentator observes that for those whose great-great-
grandfather or remoter ancestors were not initiated, no penance is
prescribed, and that it must be fixed by those who know the law.



I, r, 2. STUDENTSHIP.



11. He who has been initiated shall dwell as a
religious student in the house of his teacher,

12. For forty-eight years (if he learns all the four
Vedas),

1 3. (Or) a quarter less (i. e. for thirty-six years),

14. (Or) less by half (i. e. for twenty-four years),

15. (Or) three quarters less (i.e. for twelve years),

1 6. Twelve years (should be) the shortest time
(for his residence with his teacher).

f 7. A student who studies the sacred science shall
not dwell with anybody else (than his teacher).

1 8. Now (follow) the rules for the studentship.

19. He shall obey his teacher, except (when
ordered to commit) crimes which cause loss of
caste.

20. He shall do what is serviceable to his teacher,
he shall not contradict him.

21. He shall always occupy a couch or seat lower
(than that of his teacher).



11. Alarm II, 164.

12. Manu III, i, and Y$gn. I, 36; Weber, Ind. Stud. X, 125.

1 6. The commentator declares that in Manu III, i , the expression
' until he has learnt it,' must be understood in this sense, that the
pupil may leave his teacher, if be has learnt the Veda, after twelve
years' study, never before. But compare also AJV. Gri. Su. I, 22, 3*

17. The commentator states that this rule refers only to a
temporary, not to a professed student (naishMika). He also gives
an entirely different explanation to the Sutra, which, according to
some, means, 'A student who learns the sacred science shall
not fast in order to obtain heaven.' This rendering also is ad-
missible, as the word para may mean either a 'stranger' or
1 heaven,' and upavasa, ' dwelling ' or ' fasting.'

19. Regarding the crimes which cause loss of caste (pataniya),
see below, I, 7, 21, 7.

20. Manu II, 108, and Ya##. I, 27.

21. Manu II, 108, 198; Weber, Ind. Stud. X, 123 and 124.



8 APASTAMBA. I, I, 2.

22. He shall not eat food offered (at a sacrifice to
the gods or the Manes),

23. Nor pungent condiments, salt, honey, or
meat.

24. He shall not sleep in the day-time.

25. He shall not use perfumes.

26. He shall preserve chastity.

27. He shall not embellish himself (by using oint-
ments and the like).

28. He shall not wash his body (with hot water
for pleasure).

29. But, if it is soiled by unclean things, he shall
clean it (with earth or water), in a place where he is
not seen by a Guru.

30. Let him not sport in the water whilst bathing;
let him swim (motionless) like a stick.

31. He shall wear all his hair tied in one braid.

32. Or let him make a braid of the lock on the
crown of the head, and shave the rest of the hair.



23. Regarding the meaning of kshara, 'pungent condiments,' see
Haradatta on II, 6, 15, 1 5. Other commentators explain the term
differently. Manu II, 177 ; Y%. I, 33; and Weber, Ind. Stud.
X, 123. AJV. Gri. Su. I, 22, 2.

25. Manu II, 177; Ya#. I, 33.

26. Manu II, 1 80.

27. Manu II, 178; Ya#. I, 33.

29. 'Here, in the section on the teacher, the word guru desig-
nates the father and the rest also.' Haradatta.

30. Another version of the first portion of this Sutra, proposed
by Haradatta, is, ' Let him not, whilst bathing, clean himself (with
bathing powder or the like).' Another commentator takes Sutra 28
as a prohibition of the daily bath or washing generally ordained
for Brahmawas, and refers Sutra 29 to the naimittika snSna or
' bathing on certain occasions,' and takes Sutra 30 as a restriction
of the latter.

31. Manu II, 219.



I, i, 2. STUDENTSHIP.



33. The girdle of a Brahmawa shall be made of
Muw^a grass, and consist of three strings; if possible,
(the strings) should be twisted to the right.

34. A bowstring (should be the girdle) of a
Kshatriya,

35. Or a string of Muw^a grass in which pieces
of iron have been tied.

36. A wool thread (shall be the girdle) of a
Vai^rya,

37. Or a rope used for yoking the oxen to the
plough, or a string made of Tamala-bark.

38. The staff worn by a Brahmawa should be
made of Pala^a wood, that of a Kshatriya of a
branch of the Banian tree, which grows downwards,
that of a Vaisya of Badara or Udumbara wood.
Some declare, without any reference to caste, that
the staff of a student should be made of the wood of
a tree (that is fit to be used at the sacrifice).

39. (He shall wear)a cloth (to cover his nakedness).

40. (It shall be made) of hemp for a Brahmawa,
of flax (for a Kshatriya), of the skin of a (clean)
animal (for a Vaisya).

41. Some declare that the (upper) garment (of a
Brahmawa) should be dyed with red Lodh,

33. Manu II, 42-44; Ya7?. I, 29; AJV. Gri. SO. I, 19, 12;
Weber, Ind. Stud. X, 23.

38. Manu II, 45; Ya##. I, 29; AJV. Gri. SO. I, 19, 13; 20, i ;
Weber, Ind. Stud. X, 23.

Haradatta gives no commentary on this Sutra, but refers back
to the Grzhya-sutra, n, 16-17, where the same words occur.

39. The word forms a Sutra by itself, in order to show that
every one must wear this cloth.

40. Manu II, 41. 'Clean' means here and everywhere else, if
applied to animals or things, ' fit to be used at the sacrifice.'

41. As\: Gri. SO. I, 19, n ; Weber, Ind. Stud. X, 22.



1O APASTAMBA. I, I, 3.

PRASNA I, PATALA 1, KHAATDA 3.

1 . And that of a Kshatriya dyed with madder,

2. And that of a Vai^ya dyed with turmeric.

3. (The skin) worn by a Brahmawa shall be that
of a common deer or of a black doe.

4. If he wears a black skin, let him not spread it
(on the ground) to sit or lie upon it

5. (The skin worn) by a Kshatriya shall be that
of a spotted deer.

6. (The skin worn) by a Valfya shall be .that of a
he-goat

7. The skin of a sheep is fit to be worn by all
castes,

8. And a blanket made of wool.

9. He who wishes the increase of Brahma#a
power shall wear skins only ; he who wishes the in-
crease of Kshatriya power shall wear cloth only ; he
who wishes the increase of both shall wear both
(skin and cloth). Thus says a Brahma^a.

10. But (I, Apastamba, say), let him wear a skin
only as his upper garment.

11. Let him not look at dancing.

1 2. Let him not go to assemblies (for gambling,
&c.), nor to crowds (assembled at festivals).

3. 3. Manu II, 41 ; Ya^. I, 29; AJV. Gri. Su. I, 19, 10.

9. See also Gopatha-brahmaa I, 2, 4.

10. According to I, i, 2, 39 I, i, 3, 10, the rule of dress for
Students is the following: According to Apastamba, a student
shall wear a piece of cloth to cover his nakedness (lango/i), and
a skin as upper garment. Other teachers allow, besides, an upper
dress of cloth, coloured differently for the different castes, with or
without the addition of a deer-skin.

n. Manu II, 178.

12-13. Manu II, 179; \agfi. I, 33.



I> i, 3. STUDENTSHIP. 1 1

1 3. Let him not be addicted to gossiping.

14. Let him be discreet.

15. Let him not do anything for his own pleasure
in places which his teacher frequents.

1 6. Let him talk with women so much (only) as
his purpose requires.

1 7. (Let him be) forgiving.

1 8. Let him restrain his organs from seeking
illicit objects.

19. Let him be untired in fulfilling his duties ;

20. Modest ;

21. Possessed of self-command ;

22. Energetic;

23. Free from anger ;

24. (And) free from envy.

25. Bringing all he obtains to his teacher, he shall
go begging with a vessel in the morning and in the
evening, (and he may) beg (from everybody) except
low-caste people unfit for association (with Aryas)
and Abhisastas.



15. 'Anything for his own pleasure/ i.e. keeping conversations
with friends, making his toilet, &c.

19. The explanations of the last two terms, ranta (Sfttra 18)
and danta (Sutra 19), are different from those given usually. .Sama
is usually explained as ' the exclusive direction of the mind towards
God,' and dama as ' the restraining of the senses.'

23. Manu II, 178.

25. Regarding the explanation of the term AbhiVasta, see below,

I, 7, 21, 17. Haradatta: ' Apapatras are called those born from a
high-caste mother and a low-caste father, such as washermen. For
their cooking vessels &c. are unfit for the use of the four castes. . . .
Since Apastamba says, " In the evening and in the morning, food
obtained in the evening must not be used for the morning meal,
nor food obtained in the morning for the evening meal." ' Manu

II, 182, 183, 185; AJV. GM'. Sft. I, 22, 4. See also Gopalba-
brahmawa I, 2, 6.



12 APASTAMBA. 1,1,3.

26. A Brahmawa declares : Since a devout stu-
dent takes away from women, who refuse (to give
him alms, the merit gained) by (-Srauta^sacrifices,
by gifts, (and) by burnt-offerings (offered in the
domestic fire), as well as their offspring, their cattle,
the sacred learning (of their families), therefore, in-
deed, (a woman) should not refuse (alms) to the
crowd of students ; for amongst those (who come to
beg), there might be one of that (devout) kind, one
who thus (conscientiously) keeps his vow.

2 7. Alms (shall) not (be considered) leavings (and
be rejected) by inference (from their appearance), but
on the strength of ocular or oral testimony (only).

28. A Brahma^a shall beg, prefacing (his request)
by the word ' Lady ' ;

29. A Kshatriya (inserting the word) 'Lady' in
the middle (between the words ' give alms ') ;

30. A Vai^ya r adding the word * Lady ' (at the end
of the formula).

31. (The pupil) having taken those (alms) shall
place them before his teacher and offer them to him.

32. He may eat (the food) after having been
ordered to do so by his teacher.



27. To eat the residue of the meal of any person except that
left by the teacher and other Gurus, is not permitted to a student;
see also below, I, i, 4, i seq.; Manu II, 56; Ya^;7. I, 33.

28. The formula to be used by a Brahmaa is, ' Lady, give alms ; '
that to be used by a Kshatriya, 'Give, lady, alms;' and that used
by a Vawya, ' Give alms, lady.' Manu II, 49 ; Ya^/7. 1, 30 ; AJV.
Gn. Su. I, 22, 8.

31. The words with which he announces the alms are, Idam
ittham ahr/tam, ' this much have I received.' Manu II, 51; Ya^*.
I, 27; Aav. Gn*. Su. I, 22, 10.

32. 'I he answer of the teacher is, Saumya tvameva bhunkshva,
'friend, eat thou.'



I, r, 3. STUDENTSHIP. 13

33. If the teacher is absent, the pupil (shall offer
the food) to (a member of) the teacher's family.

34. If the (family of the teacher) is (also) absent,
the pupil (may offer the food) to other learned
Brahmawas (vSrotriyas) also (and receive from them
the permission to eat).

35. He shall not beg for his own sake (alone).

36. After he has eaten, he himself shall clean his
dish.

37. And he shall leave no residue (in his dish).

38. If he cannot (eat all that he has taken in
his dish), he shall bury (the remainder) in the
ground ;

39. Or he may throw it into the water ;

40. Or he may place (all that remains in a pot),
and put it down near an (uninitiated) Arya ;

41. Or (he may put it down) near a .Sudra slave
(belonging to his teacher).

42. If (the pupil) is on a journey, he shall throw



34. Regarding the term .Srotriya, see below, II, 3, 6, 4.

35. ' The meaning of this Sutra is, that the rule given, Sutra 42
(below), for a pupil who is on a journey, shall hold good also for
a pupil who is at home, if (in the absence of his teacher) no
.Srotriyas are to be found (from whom he can receive the per-
mission to eat).' Haradatta.

36. 'He commits no sin, if he has the alms-pot cleaned by
somebody else. Some say that the Sutra refers to both vessels
(the alms-pot and his own dish).'

40. An Arya is a person belonging to one of the first three
castes (see below). The Arya must be a boy who is not initiated,
because children are kamabhakshaA, i.e. allowed to eat what they
like, even leavings.

42. This rule holds good if no ASrotriyas are near. If -Srotriyas
are to be found, Sutra 34 applies. Agni, the god of fire, is con-
sidered to be of the Brahminical caste, and hence he takes the
place of the teacher or of the .Srotriyas. See also Manu II, 247,



14 APASTAMBA. i, i, 4.

a part of the alms into the fire and eat (the re-
mainder).

43. Alms are declared to be sacrificial food. In
regard to them the teacher (holds the position
which) a deity (holds in regard to food offered at a
sacrifice).

44. And (the teacher holds also the place which)
the Ahavaniya fire occupies (at a sacrifice, because
a portion of the alms is offered in the fire of his
stomach).

45. To him (the teacher) the (student) shall offer
(a portion of the alms),

PRASNA I, PAFALA 1, KHAM>A 4.

1. And (having done so) eat what is left.

2. For this (remnant of food) is certainly a rem-
nant of sacrificial food.

3. If he obtains other things (besides food, such
as cattle or fuel, and gives them to his teacher) as
he obtains them, then those (things hold the place
of) rewards (given to priests for the performance of
a sacrifice).

4. This is the sacrifice to be performed daily by
a religious student

5. And (the teacher) shall not give him anything
that is forbidden by the revealed texts, (not even as)
leavings,

6. Such as pungent condiments, salt, hortey, or
meat (and the like).

248, and the passages collected from the Brahmaas, by Prof.
Weber. Ind. Stud. IX, 39.

44. Mami II, 231.

4. 6. See above, I, i, 2,. 23.



1,1,4- STUDENTSHIP. 15

7. By this (last Sutra it is) explained (that) the
other restrictions (imposed upon a student, such as
abstinence from perfumes, ointments, &c., are like-
wise not to be broken).

S. For (explicit) revealed texts have greater force
than custom from which (the existence of a permis-
sive passage of the revelation) may be inferred.

9. Besides (in this particular case) a (worldly)
motive for the practice is apparent.

7. See above, I, i, 2, 24 seq. : According to Haradatta, teachers
were in the habit of giving ointments and the like forbidden sub-
stances to their pupils, and Apastamba gives this rule in order
to show his dissent from the practice.

8. ' Anumanika means " proper to be inferred from." For the
existence of a. text of the revelation or tradition (Smnti) is
inferred from custom. A visible text of the revelation is (how-
ever) of greater weight than a custom from which the existence
of a text may be inferred. It is impossible to infer (the existence
of a text) which is opposed to such (a visible text), on account of
the maxim " an inference (can be made only, if it is) not opposed
(by ocular proof)." (Apastamba), by speaking thus, (" For revealed
texts," &c.,) shows that the rule forbidding a student to eat pun-
gent condiments, salt' &c. is based on the existing text of a
Brdhmawa.' Haradatta.

9. ' Though the text forbidding the use of pungent condiments,
salt, and the like refers to such substances if they are not leavings,
still it is improper to assert, on the ground of the custom from
which a permissive text may be inferred, -that it (the existing text),
which is general, must be restricted (to those cases only) where the
forbidden substances are not leavings given by the teacher. (If
an opponent should answer that) certainly there are also texts
which contradict each other, such as "he takes" and "he does
not take," and that therefore there is no reason why a text restricted
(to the case in which forbidden substances are leavings of the
teacher) should not be inferred. In order to answer (that plea),
he (Apastamba) says (Sutra 9), " True, that would be right if no
motive whatever could be discovered for that custom (to eat for-
bidden food which Is given by the teacher). But a reason for this
course of action exists." ' Haradatta.



1 6 APASTAMBA. I. r, 4.

10. For pleasure is obtained (by eating or using
the forbidden substances).

11. A residue of food left by a father and an elder
brother, may be eaten.

12. If they act contrary to the law, he must not
eat (their leavings).

13. In the evening and in the morning he shall
fetch water in a vessel (for the use of his teacher).

14. Daily he shall fetch fuel from the forest, and
place it on the floor (in his teacher's house).

15. He shall not go to fetch firewood after
sunset.

1 6. After having kindled the fire, and having
swept the ground around (the altar), he shall place

10. 'What is that (reason)? [Sfitra 10] For to eat pungent
condiments, salt, &c. gives pleasure to the eater, and therefore
according to the maxim, I, 4, 12, n, "That in case a custom has
pleasure for its motive, there is no text of the holy law to authorise
it," no text restricting (the prohibition of forbidden substances to
the case in which a Brahma^arin does not receive them as leavings
from his teacher) can be inferred (from the practice of eating such
leavings).' Haradatta.

12. Another explanation of this Sutra is given by Haradatta:
' If by eating their leavings he should commit a sin (because the
food contains salt &c.), he shall not do it.'

13. Manu II, 182.

14. The reason for placing the fuel on the ground is, according
to Haradatta, the fear lest, if placed on some shelf or the like, it
should tumble down a'nd injure the teacher's children. Others,
however, are of opinion that the wood which the pupil fetches
daily, is not to be used by the teacher for cooking, but for the
performance of the pupil's daily fire-offering. The reason for this
interpretation is, that in the Gr/hya-sutra, n, 24, the daily offering
of fuel is enjoined with the same words. See Weber, Ind. Stud. X,
123; Manu II, 186.

1 6. Some explain, instead of 'after having swept the ground
around the altar/ &c., 'after having raked the scattered brands
into a heap.' Haradatta.



I, I, 4. STUDENTSHIP. 17



the sacred fuel on the fire every morning and
evening, according to the prescription (of the
Grzhya-stitra).

1 7. Some say that the fire is only to be wor-
shipped in the evening.

1 8. He shall sweep the place around the fire after
it has been made to burn (by the addition of fuel),
with his hand, and not with the broom (of Kara
grass).

19. But, before (adding the fuel, he is free to use
the broom) at his pleasure.

20. He shall not perform non-religious acts
with the residue of the water employed for the
fire-worship, nor sip it.

21. He shall not sip water which has been stirred
with the hand, nor such as has been received into
one hand only.

22. And he shall avoid sleep (whilst his teacher
is awake).

23. Then (after having risen) he shall assist his
teacher daily by acts tending to the acquisition of
spiritual merit and of wealth.

24. Having served (his teacher during the day
in this manner, he shall say when going to bed) : I
have protected the protector of the law (my teacher).

1 8. Ap. Gri. Su. ii, 22.

20. During the fire-worship water is wanted for sprinkling the
altar in various ways.

23. Acts tending to the acquisition of merit are here collecting
sacred fuel, Kara grass, and flowors for sacrifices. Acts tending
to the acquisition of wealth are gathering fuel for cooking, &c.
Manu II, 182; Weber, Ind. Stud. X, 123 and 124.

24. Another explanation of the words spoken by the student is,
' O law, I have protected him ; protect thou me.' See also Gopatha-
brahmawa I, 2, 4.

[2] C



1 8 APASTAMBA. I, 2, 5.

25. If the teacher transgresses the law through
carelessness or knowingly, he shall point it out to
him privately.

26. If (the teacher) does not cease (to transgress),
he himself shall perform the religious acts (which
ought to be performed by the former) ;

27. Or he may return home.

28. Now of him who rises before (his teacher)
and goes to rest after (him), they say that he does



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