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not sleep.

29. The student who thus entirely fixes his mind
there (in the teacher's family), has thereby performed
all acts which yield rewards (such as the <7yotish-
/oma), and also those which must be performed by
a householder.


1 . The word ' austerity ' (must be understood to
apply) to (the observance of) the rules (of student-

2. If they are transgressed, study drives out the
knowledge of the Veda acquired already, from the
(offender) and from his children.

26. Compare above, I, i, i, 13.

29. The Sutra refers to a naish/Aika brahma^sirin or professed
student, who never leaves his teacher's family, and never enters
any other order ; and it declares his merit to be equal to that of
one who becomes a householder. Manu II, 243, 244 ; Ya^.
I, 49, 50.

5. r. Manu II, 164.

2. The meaning of the phrase, ' Study drives out the Veda,
which has already been learnt from him who studies transgressing
the rules prescribed for the student/ is, The Veda recited at the
Brahmaya^T/a (daily study), and other religious rites, produces no
effect, i.e. gains no merit for the reciter.' Manu II, 97. Hara-

I, 2, 5. STUDENTSHIP. 19

3. Besides he will go to hell, and his life will be

4. On account of that (transgression of the rules
of studentship) no -/vYshis are born amongst the men
of later ages.

5. But some in their new birth, on account of a
residue of the merit acquired by their actions (in
former lives), become (similar to) ^?/shis by their
knowledge (of the Veda),

6. Like .SVetaketu.

7. And whatever else, besides the Veda, (a stu-
dent) who obeys the rules learns from his teacher,
that brings the same reward as the Veda.

8. Also, if desirous to accomplish something (be

datta gives also the following three explanations of this Sutra,
adopted by other commentators :

a. If these (rules) are transgressed, he loses his capacity for
learning, because the Brahman forsakes him, &c.

b. If these rules are transgressed, the capacity for learning and
the Brahman leave him, &c.

c. From him who studies whilst transgressing these rules, the
Brahman goes out, &c.

"4. ' Amongst the avaras means " amongst the men of modern
times, those who live in the Kaliyuga." No /?/shis are born
means " there are none who see (receive the revelation of) Man-
tras, Vedic texts." ' Hara datta.

5. ' How is it then that men in our days, though they trans-
gress the rules prescribed for students, learn the four Vedas with
little trouble? (The answer is), By virtue of a residue of the
reward (due) for the proper observance of those rules (of student-
ship) in a former Yuga. Therefore Apastamba says, Sutra 6,
"But some," &c. New existence means "new birth (life).'"

6. An example of this (follows, Sutra 6): 'Like .Svetaketu.
For -Svetaketu learned the four Vedas in a short time; as we read
in the .Oandogya Upanishad (Prapa/Aaka VI, i).' Haradatta.

7. 'Whatever else besides the Veda, such as poison-charms
and the like.' Haradatta.

C 2

2O Al'ASTAMBA. I, 2, 15.

it good or evil), he thinks it in his mind, or pro-
nounces it in words, or looks upon it with his
eye, even so it will be ; thus teach (those who
know the law).

9. (The duties of a student consist in) acts to
please the spiritual teacher, the observance (of
rules) conducive to his own welfare, and industry
in studying.

10. Acts other than these need not be performed
by a student.

11. A religious student who retains what he has
learned, who finds pleasure in the fulfilment of the
law, who keeps the rules of studentship, who is
upright and forgiving, attains perfection.

12. Every day he shall rise in the last watch of
the night, and standing near his teacher, salute him
with (this) salutation : I, N. N., ho ! (salute thee.)

13. And (he shall salute) before the morning
meal also other very aged (learned Brahmawas) who
may live in the same village.

14. If he has been on a journey, (he shall salute

9. ''Acts to please the teacher are washing his feet and the
like; observance (of rules) conducive to welfare are obedience
to the prohibition to cross a river swimming, to eat pungent con-
diments, and obedience to the injunction to beg.' Haradatta.

10. ' Acts other than these, such as pilgrimages and the like.'

11. 'What this "perfection" is has been declared in Sfttras
7, 8.' Haradatta.

12. Manu II, 122 and 124.

1 4. This salutation is to be performed only when the occasion
requires it. The formerly-mentioned salutation (Sfttras 12, 13) is
to be performed daily. In the next Sutra follows that by which
the fulfilment of a wish may be obtained. Haradatta. Manu II,
12 1 ; Ya77. I, 26.

1.2,5. STUDENTSHIP. 21

the persons mentioned) when he meets them on his

15. (He may also salute the persons mentioned
at other times), if he is desirous of heaven and long

1 6. A Brahmawa shall salute stretching forward
his right arm on a level with his ear, a Kshatriya
holding it on a level with the breast, a Vaisya
holding it on a level with the waist, a Sudra holding
it low, (and) stretching forward the joined hands.

17. And when returning the salute of (a man be-
longing) to the first (three) castes, the (last syllable
of the) name (of the person addressed) is produced
to die length of three moras.

1 8. But when he meets his teacher after sunrise
(coming for his lesson), he shall embrace (his feet).

19. On all other occasions he shall salute (him in
the manner described above).

20. But some declare that he ought to embrace
the (feet of his) teacher (at every occasion instead of
saluting him).

21. Having stroked the teacher's right foot with
his right hand below and above, he takes hold of it
and of the ankle.

22. Some say, that he must press both feet, each
with both hands, and embrace them.

23. He shall be very attentive the whole day

1 6. 'A Vaijya shall salute stretching forth his arm on a level
with his middle, i.e. the stomach ; others say, on a level with his
thigh ; the Sudra stretching it forth low, i.e. on a level with his
feet." Haradatta.

17. See also Manu II, 125.

18. Manu II, 71.

22. Manu II, 72.

23. Manu II, 191.

2 2 APASTAMBA. I, 2, 6-

long, never allowing his mind to wander from the
lesson during the (time devoted to) studying.

24. And (at other times he shall be attentive) to
the business of his teacher.

25. And during the time for rest (he shall give)
his mind (to doubtful passages of the lesson learnt).

26. And he shall study after having been called
by the teacher (and not request the teacher to begin
the lesson).


1. Every day he shall put his teacher to bed
after having washed his (teacher's) feet and after
having rubbed him.

2. He shall retire to rest after having received
(the teacher's permission).

3. And he shall not stretch out his feet towards

4. Some say, that it is not (sinful) to stretch out
the feet (towards the teacher), if he be lying on a

5. And he shall not address (the teacher), whilst
he himself is in a reclining position.

6. But he may answer (the teacher) sitting (if the
teacher himself is sitting or lying down).

7. And if (the teacher) stands, (he shall answer
him,) after having risen also.

26. Ya#3. I, 27; Manu II, 191.
6. i. Manu H, 209.
2. Manu II, 194.

4. ' But, in Apastamba's opinion, it is sinful even in this case.'-

5. Manu II. 195.

6. Manu 11, 1 96.

1,2,6. STUDENTSHIP. 23

8. He shall walk after him, if he walks.

9. He shall run after him, if he runs.

10. He shall not approach (his teacher) with shoes
on his feet, or his head covered, or holding (imple-
ments) in his hand.

11. But on a journey or occupied in work, he may
approach him (with shoes on, with his head covered,
or with implements in his hand),

12. Provided he does not sit down quite near (to
his teacher).

13. He shall approach his teacher with the same
reverence as a deity, without telling idle stories,
attentive and listening eagerly to his words.

14. (He shall not sit near him) with his legs

15. If (on sitting down) the wind blows from the
pupil towards the master, he shall change his place.

1 6. (He shall sit) without supporting himself with
his hands (on the ground),

17. Without leaning against something (as a wall
or the like),

1 8. If the pupil wears two garments, he shall
wear the upper one after tha fashion of the sacred
thread at the sacrifices.

19. But, if he wears a (lower) garment only, he
shall wrap it around the lower part of his body.

20. He shall turn his face towards his teacher
though the latter does not turn his towards him.

21. He shall sit neither too near to, nor too far
(from the teacher),

15. Manu II, 203.

18. At sacrifices the sacred thread passes over the left shoulder
and under the right arm. Manu II, 63, and Taitt. Ar. 11, i, 3.
20. Manu II, 197.

24 APASTAMBA. 1, 2, 6.

22. (But) at such a distance, that (the teacher)
may be able to reach him with his arms (without

23. (He shall not sit in such a position) that the
wind blows from the teacher, towards himself.

24. (If there is) only one pupil, he shall sit at the
right hand (of the teacher).

25. (If there are) many, (they may sit) as it may
be convenient.

26. If the master (is not honoured with a seat
and) stands, the (pupil) shall not sit down.

27. (If the master is not honoured with a
couch) and sits, the (pupil) shall not lie down on
a couch.

28. And if the teacher tries (to do something),
then (the pupil) shall offer to do it for him, if it is in
his power.

29. And, if his teacher is near, he shall not
embrace (the feet of) another Guru who is inferior
(in dignity) ;

30. Nor shall he praise (such a person in the
teacher's presence) by (pronouncing the name of)
his family.

31. Nor shall he rise to meet such an (inferior
Guru) or rise after him,

32. Even if he be a Guru of his teacher.

33. But he shall leave his place and his seat, (in
order to show him honour.)

23. See Sutra 15 and Manu quoted there.

29. The term Guru includes a father, maternal uncle, &c. (see
above), r,nd these are inferior to the teacher. Manu II, 205.

31-32. 'The pupil is not to show the mentioned marks of
respect to any of his own inferior Gurus, even if the person is the
Guru, e.g. the maternal uncle, of his teacher.' Haradatta.


34. Some say, that (he may address) a pupil of
his teacher by (pronouncing) his name, if he is also
one of his (the pupil's) own Gurus.

35. But towards such a person who is generally
revered for some other reason than being the teacher
(e.g. for his learning), the (student) should behave as
towards his teacher, though he be inferior in dignity
to ihe latter.

36. After having eaten in his (teacher's) presence,
he shall not give away the remainder of the food
without rising.

37. Nor shall he sip water (after having eaten in
the presence of his teacher without rising).

38. (He shall rise) addressing him (with these
words), ' What shall I do ? '


1. Or he may rise silently.

2. Nor shall he (in going away) move around his
teacher with his left hand turned towards him ; he.
shall go away after having walked around him with
his right side turned towards him.

3. He shall not look at a naked woman.

4. He shall not cut the (leaves or flowers) of
herbs or trees, in order to smell at them.


34. 'But Apastamba's own opinion is that he ought not to
address by name a (matenvil uncle or other) Guru (who visits his
teacher).' Haradatta.

36. According to I, i, 3, 40 seq. ; a student shall give what he
is unable to eat to a child, or to a slave. If he has eaten in
the presence of his teacher, lie shall not give the food away
without rising for the purpose.

7. 3. Manu IV. 53; Ya^. 1, 135.

4. Gopatha-braMimu/ra I, 2, 2.


5. He shall avoid (the use of) shoes, of an
umbrella, a chariot, and the like (luxuries).

6. He shall not smile.

7. If he smiles, he shall smile covering (the
mouth with his hand) ; thus says a Brahmawa.

8. He shall not touch a woman with his face, in
order to inhale the fragrance of her body.

9. Nor shall he desire her in his heart.

10. Nor shall he touch (a woman at all) without
a particular reason.

11. A Brdhmawa declares, ' He shall be dusty, he
shall have dirty teeth, and speak the truth.'

1 2. Those teachers, who instructed his teacher in
that science which he (the pupil) studies with him,
(are to be considered as) spiritual teachers (by the

13. But if (a teacher), before the eyes of his
(pupil), embraces the feet of any other persons, then
he (the pupil also) must embrace their feet, (as long
as he remains) in that (state of studentship).

5. Manu II, i? 8.

10. Manu II, 179.

11. ' Though both (these first two precepts) have been given in
Sutra I, i, 2, 27, still they are repeated, in order to show that a
Srauta penance for the breach of them, is enjoined by a revealed
text.' Haradatta.

12. The term vawwya, 'ancestor,' for the teacher's teacher is
explained by the circumstance, that Hindus consider a 'school,'
consisting of a succession of teachers and pupils, as a spiritual
family, and call it a vidyavawja, vidyaparampara. Manu II, 205.

13. 'Another (commentator) says, "He, the pupil, must embrace
their feet (at every meeting) from that time (when he first saw
his teacher do it)." Because the word " but " is used in the Sutra,
he must do so even after he has returned home (on completion of
his studies).'- Haradatta.

1, 2, 7. STUDENTSHIP. 27

14. If (a pupil) has more than one teacher, the
alms (collected by him) are at the disposal of him to
whom he is (just then) bound.

15. When (a student) has returned home (from
his teacher), he shall give (whatever he may obtain
by begging or otherwise) to his mother.

1 6. The mother shall give it to her husband ;
17. (And) the husband to the (student's) teacher.
1 8. Or he may use it for religious ceremonies.

19. After having studied as many (branches of)
sacred learning as he can, he shall procure in a
righteous manner the fee for (the teaching of) the
Veda (to be given to his teacher), according to his

20. But, if the teacher has fallen into distress, he
may take (the fee) from an Ugra or from a Sudra.

21. But some declare, that it is lawful at any
time to take the money for the teacher from an
Ugra or from a

14. 'More than one teacher/ i.e. several, who have taught him
the several Vedas. Each Brahman generally knowing one Veda

This passage shows, that the young Brahmans in olden time,
just as now, went from one teacher to the other, learning from
each what he knew. The rules, which seemingly enjoin a pupil
to stay with one and the same teacher, refer only to the principle,
that the pupil must stay with his teacher, until he has learnt the
subject which he began with him.

1 8. 'Religious ceremonies, i.e. the wedding and the like. For
them he may use it optionally. He, i.e. on failure of the teacher ;
the father, on failure of the father; the mother, OP failure of all
(the pupil) himself.' Haradatta.

19. Manu II, 245 and 246; Y%$. I, 51; Weber, Ind. Stud.
X, 125.

20. ' The word Ugra denotes either the offspring of a Vaijya
and of a -Sudra woman, or a twice-born man who perpetrates
dreadful deeds.' Haradatta.

28 APASTAMRA. ' I, e, 7.

22. And having paid (the fee), he shall not boast
of having done so.

23. And he shall not remember what he may
have done (for his teacher).

24. He shall avoid self-praise, blaming others,
and the like.

25. If he is ordered (by his teacher to do some-
thing), he shall do just that.

26. On account of the incompetence of his
teacher, (he may go) to another (and) study (there).

27. He shall behave towards his teacher's wife
as towards the teacher himself, but he shall not
embrace her feet, nor eat the residue of her food.

28. So also (shall he behave) towards him who
teaches him at (the teacher's) command,

29. And also to a fellow-student who is superior
(in learning and years).

30. He shall behave to his teacher's son (who is
superior to himself in learning or years) as to his
teacher, but not eat the residue of his food.

31. Though he may have returned home, the

24. Manu II, 179.

26. See above, I, i, T, 13, and note. Here also Haradatta
states that the permission to leave the teacher is to be restricted to
those who have not solemnly bound themselves to their teacher by
allowing him to perform the ceremony of initiation.

27. Manu II, 208-212.

28. ' The use of the present " adhyapayati," shows that this rule
holds good only for the time during which he is taught by such
a man.'^-Haradatta,

29. ' Because (an older fellow-student) is of use to him, accord-?
ing to the verse: One-fourth (of his learning) a pupil receives
from his teacher, one-fourth he acquires by his own intelligence,
one-fourth from his fellow-students, one-fourth he is taught by
time.' Haradatta.

30. Manu II, 207-209.


behaviour towards his (teacher and the rest) which
is prescribed by the rule of conduct settled by the
agreement (of those who know the law, must be
observed by him to the end),


1. Just as by a student (actually living with his

2. He may wear garlands, anoint his face (with
sandal), oil his hair and moustaches, smear his eye-
lids (with collyrium), and (his body) with oil, wear a
turban, a cloth round his loins, a coat, sandals, and
wooden shoes.

3. Within the sight of his (teacher or teacher's
relations) he shall do none of those (actions, as
putting on a garland), nor cause them to be done.

4. Nor (shall he wear garlands &c. whilst per-
forming) acts for his pleasure,

5. As, for instance, cleaning his teeth, shampoo-
ing, combing the hair, and the like.

6. And the teacher shall not speak of the goods
of the (pupil) with the intention to obtain them.

7. But some declare, that, if a pupil who has
bathed (after completing his studies) is called by his
teacher or has gone to see him, he shall not take off

8. i. Haradatta does not connect this Sutra with the preced-
ing one. He explains it by itself: '(We will now declare) how a
student (who has left his teacher, but is not married) ought to

6. ' If the teacher comes to the house of his (former) pupil (who
has become a householder), he shall, for instance, not say, " Oh,
what a beautiful dish ! " in such a manner, that his desire to obtain
it becomes apparent.' Haradatta.

7. This opinion is contrary to Apastamba's view given in
Sutras 2 and 3 above.

3O APASTAMBA. T, a, 8.

that (garland or other ornaments) which he wears
according to the law at the time (of that ceremony).

8. He shall not sit on a seat higher (than that of
his teacher),

9. Nor on a seat that has more legs (than that
of his teacher),

10. Nor on a seat that stands more firmly fixed
(on the ground than that of his teacher),

11. Nor shall he sit or lie on a couch or seat
which is used (by his teacher).

12. If he is ordered (by his teacher), he shall on
a journey ascend a carriage after him.

1 3. (At his teacher's command) he shall also enter
an assembly, ascend a roller (which his teacher drags
along), sit on a mat of fragrant grass or a couch of
straw (together with his teacher).

14. If not addressed by a Guru, he shall not
speak to him, except (in order to announce) good

15. He shall avoid to touch a Guru (with his
finger), to whisper (into his ear), to laugh (into his
face), to call out to him, to pronounce his name or to
give him orders and the like (acts).

io. 'When he gives to his teacher a wooden seat (with legs),
he shall not sit on a cane-seat (without legs), for the latter touches
the ground on all sides.' Haradatta.

n. Manu II, 119.

12. This rule is an exception to I, 2, 7, 5. Manu II, 204.

13. 'The roller is an implement used by husbandmen, with
which the ploughed land is made even. If one person ascends it
and another drags it along, the ground becomes even. If that is
dragged by the teacher, the pupil shall ascend it at his command.
He shall not disobey from fear of the unseemliness of the action.'

1 5. Manu II, 199; regarding the term Guru, see above, I, 2, 6, 29.


1 6. In time of need he may attract attention (by
any of these acts).

1 7. If (a pupil) resides (in the same village) with
(his teacher after the completion of his studies), he
shall go to see him every morning and evening,
without being called.

1 8. And if he returns from a journey, he shall
(go to) see him on the same day.

19. If his teacher and his teacher's teacher meet,
he shall embrace the feet of his teacher's teacher,
and then show his desire to do the same to his

20. The other (the teacher) shall (then) forbid it.

21. And (other marks of) respect (due to the
teacher) are omitted in the presence of the (teacher's

22. And (if he does not live in the same village),
he shall go frequently to his teacher's residence, in
order to see him, and bring him some (present), with
his own hand, be it even only a stick for cleaning
the teeth. Thus (the duties of a student have been

23. (Now) the conduct of a teacher towards his
pupil (will be explained).

24. Loving him like his own son, and full of
attention, he shall teach him the sacred science,
without hiding anything in the whole law.

25. And he shall not use him for his own pur-
poses to the detriment of his studies, except in times
of distress.

17. This and the following Sutras refer to a person who has
finished his studentship, while the preceding ones, from Sutra 8,
apply to the time of studentship also.

24. Weber, Ind. Stud. X, 126.

32 APASTAMBA. 1,3, 9.

26. That pupil who, attending to two (teachers),
accuses his (principal and first) teacher of ignorance,
remains no (longer) a pupil.

27. A teacher also, who neglects the instruction
(of his pupil), does no (longer) remain a teacher.

28. If the (pupil) commits faults, (the teacher)
shall always reprove him.

29. Frightening, fasting, bathing in (cold) water,
and banishment from the teacher's presence are the
punishments (which are to be employed), according
to the greatness (of the fault), until (the pupil) leaves
off (sinning).

30. He shall dismiss (the pupil), after he has
performed the ceremony of the Samavartana and
has finished his studentship, with these words,
' Apply thyself henceforth to other duties.'


i. After having performed the Upakarma for
studying the Veda on the full moon of the month
6ravaa (July-August), he shall for one month not
study in the evening.

26. 'Another commentator says, "That pupil who offends his
teacher in word, thought, or deed, and directs his mind impro-
perly, i.e. does not properly obey, does not (any longer) remain a
pupil." ' Haradatta.

29. But see also Manu VIII, 299, where corporal punishment
is permitted.

9. i. The Upakarma is the ceremony which is performed every
year at the beginning of the course of study. It is in fact the
solemn opening of the Brahmanic term. 'Because Apastamba
uses the word evening (i.e. first part of the night) it is not sinful to
study later in the night.' Haradatta. Manu IV, 95 ; Ya^.1, 142,
143; Weber, Ind. Stud. X, 130 and 134.


2. On the full moon of the month of Pausha
(December-January), or under the constellation
Rohi;d, he shall leave off reading the Veda.

3. Some declare, (that he shall study) for four
months and a half.

4. He shall avoid to study the Veda on a high-road.

5. Or he may study it (on a high-road), after
having smeared (a space) with cowdung.

6. He shall never study in a burial-ground nor
anywhere near it within the throw of a -Samya.

7. If a village has been built over (a burial-
ground) or its surface has been cultivated as a field,
the recitation of the Veda (in such a place) is not

8. But if that place is known to have been (a
burial-ground), he shall not study (there).

2. The term lasts therefore for five months; (i.e. latter half of
.Sravawa, Bhadrapada, Ajvina, Karttlka, Margirirsha, and the first
half of Pausha.) The Rohim-dav of Pausha is meant.

3. ' According to this latter opinion the Upakarma should be
performed on the full moon of Bhadrapada, as has been taught in
another work (Manu IV, 95); the (time of the) Utsar^ana, (the

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