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solemn closing of the term) should be advanced ; and after the
Utsar^ana has been performed, one may study the Veda during
the light nights of each month until the full moon of Sravaa,
in order to fix in one's mind the part learned already ; and in the
dark fortnight of each month one may study the Vedangas, i.e.
grammar and the rest (Manu IV, 98). On the full moon of .SYavawA
the UpSkarma should be performed once more, and that part of
the Veda should be studied which has not yet been learned.'
Haradatta.

4. Nigama^, ' high-roads/ are squares and the like. Haradatta.
6. The .Samya is either the pin in the bullock's yoke or the

round stick, about a foot and a half in length, which is used for
the preparation of the Vedi. Manu IV, 116; Ya^. I, 148.

8. ' Nor anywhere near it within the throw of a .Samya.'* This
must be understood from Sfitra 6.

[2] D



34 APASTAMBA. I, 3, 9.

9. A Sbdra. and an outcast are (included by the
term) burial-ground, (and the rule given, Sutra 6,
applies to them).

10. Some declare, that (one ought to avoid only,
to study) in the same house (where they dwell).

1 1 . But if (a student and) a .Sudra woman mere^
look at each other, the recitation of the Veda must
be interrupted,

12. Likewise, if (a student and) a woman, who
has had connexion with a man -of a lower caste,
(look at each other).

13. If he, who is about to study the Veda, wishes
to talk to a woman during her courses, he shall first
speak to a Brahmawa and then to her, then again
speak to a Brahmawa, and afterwards study. Thereby
the children (of that woman) will be blessed.

14. (He shall not study in a village) in which a
corpse lies ;

15. Nor in such a one where A'atfdalas live.

1 6. He shall not study whilst corpses are being
carried to the boundary of the village,

1 7. Nor in a forest, if (a corpse or A r a#d&la) is
within sight.

1 8. And if outcasts have entered the village, he
shall not study on that day,

9. VZgfi. I, 148.

13. The last part of the Sutra may also be interpreted : ' Thus
she will be blessed with children/ Haradatta.

14. Manu IV, 108; Ya#. I, 148.

1 8. Haradatta explains Bahya, 'outcasts.' by 'robbers, such as
Ugras and Nishadas.' But, I think, it means simply such outcasts
as live in the forest or outside the village in the VM, like the
Z^ers, Mah^rs, Mangs of the present day. Most of these tribes,
however, are or were given to thieving. See Kulluka on Manu X,
28, and the Petersburg Diet. s. v.



I, 3,9. THE STUDY OF THE VEDA. 35

19. Nor if good men (have come).

20. If it thunders in the evening, (he shall not
study) during the night.

21. If lightning is seen (in the evening, he shall
not study during that night), until he has slept.

22. If lightning is seen about the break of dawn,
or at the time when he may distinguish at. the dis-
tance of a aSamya-throw, whether (a cow) is black or
red, he shall not study during that day, nor in the
following evening.

23. If it thunders in the second part of the third
watch of the night, (he shall not study during the
following day or evening).

24. Some (declare, that this rule holds good, if it
thunders), after the first half of the night has passed.

25. (Nor shall he study) whilst the cows are pre-
vented from leaving (the village on account of thieves
and the like),

26. Nor (on the imprisonment of criminals) whilst
they are being executed.

27. He shall not study whilst he rides on beasts
(of burden) .

28. At the new moon, (he shall not study) for
two days and two nights.



19. Ya/#. I, 150.

20. Manu IV, 106; Ya^f. I, 145. 'This rule refers to the
rainy season. (For thunder) at other (seasons.) he orders below
a longer (cessation).' Haradatta.

27. Manu IV, 120; Ya^fl. I, 151.

28. "'For two days," i.e. on the day of the new moon and
the preceding one, the fourteenth of the half month/ Haradatta.
Manu IV, 113 ; Ya^f. I, 146.



D 2



36 APASTAMBA. I, 3, TO.

PRASNA I, FATAL A 3, KHAA'DA 10.

1. (Nor shall he study) on the days of the full
moons of those months in which the A"aturmasya-
sacrifice may be performed (nor on the days pre-
ceding them).

2. At the time of the Vedotsarga, on the death of
Gurus, at the Ash/aka-Sraddha, and at the time of
the Upakarma, (he shall not study) for three days ;

3. Likewise if near relations have died.

4. (He shall not study) for twelve days, if his
mother, father, or teacher have died..

5. If these (have died), he must (also) bathe for
the same number of days.

6. Persons who are younger (than the relation
deceased), must shave (they* hair and beard),

10. r. The three full-moon days are Phalguni (February-March),
Asha^i (June-July), Karttikf (October-November).

2. The construction is very irregular, the first noun standing-
in the nominative and the rest in the locative. A similar irre-
gularity occurs below, 1,3, n, 31. The Vedotsarga is the ceremony
which is performed at the end of the Brahmanic term, in January.
' In the case of the death of a Guru, the vacation begins with the
day on which the death occurs. On the other occasions men-
tioned he shall not study on the day preceding (the ceremony), on
the day (of the ceremony), nor on the day following it.' Haradatta.
Manu IV, 119; Ya. I, 144. 'The Gurus' intended here, are
fathers-in-law, uncles, &c.

3. 'This rule applies to a student only. It is known from
another work that those who have been infected by impurity (on
the death of a relation), must not study whilst the impurity lasts.'
Haradatta. Yag?;. I, 144.

6. The word anubhavina^, interpreted by Haradatta as ' persons
who are younger than the deceased,' is explained in different ways
by others ; firstly, as ' the mourners,' and secondly, as ' SamSno-
dakas or gentiles beyond the sixth degree.' In the latter case the
Sutra ought to be translated thus : ' On the death of gentiles beyond
the sixth degree, (the head) ought to be shaved.'



I, 3, 10. THE STUDY OF THE VEDA. 37

7. Some declare, that students who have returned
home on completion of their studentship, shall never
shave, except if engaged in the initiation to a .Srauta-
sacrifice.

8. Now a Brahmawa also declares, ' Verily, an
empty, uncovered (pot) is he, whose hair is shaved
off entirely ; the top-lock is his covering.'

9. But at sacrificial sessions the top-lock must be
shaved off, because it is so enjoined in the Veda.

LO. Some declare, that, upon the death of the
teacher, (the reading should be interrupted) for three
days and three nights.

1 1. If (he hears of) the death of a learned Brah-
mawa (Stotriya) before a full year (since the death)
has elapsed, (he shall interrupt his reading) for one
night (and day).

12. Some declare, (that the deceased *$rotriya
must have been) a fellow-student.

13-14. If a learned Brahmatfa (Srotriya) has
arrived and he is desirous of studying or is actually
studying, (or if he is desirous of teaching or is teach-



7. Regarding ihe Diksha 'initiation/ see Aitareya-brahmawa
I, i, and Max M tiller's History of Ancient Sanskrit Literature,
p. 309 seq.

8. Hence it follows that the top-lock should not be shaved off,
except in the case mentioned in the following Sutra.

9. Sattras, * sacrificial sessions,' are sacrifices which last longer
than twelve days.

10. 'But in his opinion it should be twelve days, as declared
above, Sutra 4." Haradatta. It appears, therefore, that this Sutra
is to be connected with Sutra 4.

11. ' Because the word "death" is used here, death only is the
reason (for stopping the reading), in the case of Gurus and the
rest (i.e. the word "died" must be understood in Sutra 2 and
the following ones).' Haradatta.



38 APASTAMBA. 1, 3, 10.

ing,) he may study or teach after having received
permission (to do so from the 6rotriya).

15-16. He may likewise study or teach in the
presence of his teacher, if (the latter) has addressed
him (saying), ' Ho, study ! (or, Ho, teach !) '

17. When a student desires to study or has
finished his lesson, he shall at both occasions em-
brace the feet of his teacher.

1 8. Or if, whilst they study, another person comes
in, he shall continue his recitation, after those words
(' Ho, study ! ') have been pronounced (by the new-
comer).

19. The barking of (many) dogs, the braying of
(many) asses, the cry of a wolf or of a solitary jackal
or of an owl, all sounds of musical instruments, of
weeping, and of the Saman melodies (are reasons
for discontinuing the study of the Veda).

20. If another branch of the Veda (is being recited
in the neighbourhood), the Siman melodies shall not
be studied.

21. And whilst other noises (are being heard,
the recitation of the Veda shall be discontinued), if
they mix (with the voice of the person studying).



15-16. Manu II, 73.

17. Manu II, 73.

1 8. Haradatta states rightly, that the plural ('they study') is
useless. According to him, the use of the verb in the singular
may be excused thereby, that the advice is addressed to each of
the persons engaged in study. Mami IV, 122.

19. The ekasr/ka, 'solitary jackal,' is now called Bdlu or
Pheough, and is considered to be the constant companion of a
tiger or panther. Its unharmonious cry is, in the present day also,
considered tn be an evil omen. Ya#. I, 148; Manu IV, 108,
115 and 123.

21. Manu IV, 121.



1, 3, 10. THE STUDY OF THE VEDA. 39

22. After having vomited (he shall not study)
until he has slept.

23. Or (he may study) having eaten clarified
butter (after the attack of vomiting).

24. A foul smell (is a reason for the discon-
tinuance of study).

25. Food turned sour (by fermentation), which
he has in his stomach, (is a reason for the dis-
continuance of the recitation, until the sour rising
ceases).

26. (Nor shall he study) after having eaten in the
evening,

27. Nor as long as his hands are wet.

28. (And he shall discontinue studying) for a day
and an evening, after having eaten food prepared in
honour of a dead person (for whom the Sapiwaft-
karaa has not yet been performed),

29. Or until the food (eaten on that occasion) is
digested.

30. But he shall (always) eat in addition (to the
meal given in honour of a dead person), food which
has not been given at a sacrifice to the Manes.

22. Manu IV, 121.

24. Manu IV, 107; YagT*. I, 150.

25. Manu IV, 121.

26. ' Therefore he shall sup, after having finished his study/
Haradatta.

37. Manu IV, 121 ; Ya^. I, 149.

28. Manu IV, 112; Ya^. I, 146.

29. 'If that food has not been digested by the end of that
time (i.e. in the evening), he shall not study until it has been
digested .' H aradatta.

30. ' Because in this Sutra the expression " food not given at
a .SVaddha" occurs, some think that the preceding Sutra refers
to " food eaten at a Sraddha." ' Haradatta. This explanation is
not at all improbable.



40 APASTAMBA. I, 3, IT.



PRASNA I, PATALA 3, KHAA-DA 11.

1 . (The recitation of the Veda shall be interrupted
for a day and evening if he has eaten), on beginning
a fresh Ka;/^a (of his Veda), food given by a mother-
less person,

2. And also if he has eaten, on the day of the com-
pletion of a KaWa, food given by a fatherless person.

3. Some declare, that (the recitation shall be inter-
rupted for the same space of time), if he has eaten
at a sacrifice offered in honour of gods who were
formerly men.

4. Nor is the recitation interrupted, if he has
eaten rice received the day before, or raw meat
(though these things may have been offered in
honour of the dead),

5. Nor (if he has eaten at a funeral dinner) roots
or fruits of herbs and trees.

6. When he performs the ceremony for beginning
a Ka/^a, or when he studies the index of the Anu-



11. i. The Black Ya^ur-veda, to which Apastamba belongs, is
divided throughout into books called Ka</as.

3. Haradatta names as such gods, Nanduvara and Kubera.
Other commentators, however, explain Manush yapraknti by Manu-
shyamukha, ' possessing human faces.' A similar rule occurs
Gautama XVI, 34, where a Manushyayaga is mentioned as
a cause for discontinuing the recitation of the Veda. In his com-
mentary on Gautama, also, Haradatta is in doubt. He first refers
the term to the sacraments like the Simantonnayana, and then adds,
that some explain it to mean ' a sacrifice to gods who formerly
were men/

4. This Sutra is an exception to I, 3, 10, 28.

6. Haradatta's commentary on this Sutra is very mergre. and
he leaves the word anuvakyam unexplained. I am not certain
that my explanation is correct But it is countenanced by the
statements of the Gr/hya-sutras regarding the order of studying.
Weber, Ind. Stud. X, 132.



I, 3,11. THE STUDY OF THE VEDA. 41



vakas of a (Kaw^/a), he shall not study that
on that day (nor in that night).

7. And if he performs the ceremonies prescribed
on beginning or ending the recitation of one entire
Veda, he shall not study that Veda (during that day).

8. If the wind roars, or if it whirls up the grass
on the ground, or if it drives the rain-drops forward
during a rain-shower, (then the recitation shall be
interrupted for so long a time as the storm lasts).

9. (Nor shall he study) on the boundary between
a village and forest,

10. Nor on a highway.

11. If (some of his) fellow-students are on a
journey, he shall not study during that day, (the
passage) which they learn together.

12. And whilst performing acts for his pleasure,

13. Such as washing his feet, shampooing or
anointing himself,

14. He shall neither study nor teach, as long as
he is thus occupied.



7. Ya^#. I, 145. This Sfitra is a (rapaka or ' such a one
which indicates the existence of a rule not expressly mentioned.'
Above (I, 3, 9, i) the yearly performance of the Upakarma and
Utsarga ceremonies for the beginning and end of the Brahmanic
term has been prescribed. In this Sutra the performance of the
UpSkarma and Utsarga at the beginning and completion of the
Parayaa or the vow lo go through a whole Veda is incidentally
mentioned. Thence it may be inferred that these ceremonies must
be likewise performed on the latter occasions, though na absolute
rule to this effect has been given. Such 6?apakas are of frequent
occurrence in all Sutras, and constitute one of the chief difficulties
of their interpretation.

8. Ya7/. I, 149; Manu IV, 102, 122.

ii. Others explain the Sutra thus : * If he meets fellow-students,
after they have come home from a journey, he shall not study with
them on that day/



42 APASTAMBA. 1, 3, ir.

15. (He shall not study or teach) in the twilight,

1 6. Nor whilst sitting on a tree,

17. Nor whilst immersed in water,

1 8. Nor at night with open doors,

19. Nor in the day-time with shut doors.

20. During the spring festival and the festival (of
Indra), in the month of Ashad/fca (June-July), the
study of an Anuvaka is forbidden.

21. (The recitation) of the daily portion of the
Veda (at the Brahmaya^a is likewise forbidden if
done) in a manner differing from the rule (of the
Veda).

22. (Now follows) the rule (for the daily recita-
tion) of that (Brahmaya^a).

23. Before taking his morning-meal, he shall go
to the water-side, and having purified himself, he
shall recite aloud (a portion of the Veda) in a pure



15. Ya#. I, 145 ; Manu IV, 113.

1 6. Ya^T?. I, 151 ; Manu IV, 120.

20. According to Haradatta, Apastamba uses the word Anuvaka
in order to indicate that smaller portions of the Veda may be
studied. Others think, that by Anuvaka, the Sawhitd and the
Brahmawa are meant, and that the study of the Arigas is per-
mitted. The Vasantotsava, or spring-festival, which, according to
the Dramas, was, in olden times, kept all over India, falls, according
to Haradatta, on the thirteenth of the first half of A'aitra, about
the beginning of April.

21.' Hence, if one has forgotten it and eaten one's breakfast, a
penance, not the Brahmaya^a, must be performed.' Haradatta.

23. See Taittiriya Arawyaka II, n, i and n ; AJV. Grt. Sft.III,
2, 1-2. In our days this rule is usually not observed. Brahmawas
mostly recite at the daily Brahmaya^a, ' Veda-offering/ one par-
ticular formula, which symbolically comprises the whole Veda.
A few learned Brahmaa friends, however, have assured me, that
they still recite the whole of their Sakha every year according to
this rule of Apastamba.



I,3,n. THE STUDY OF THE VEDA. 43

place, leaving out according to (the order of the)
texts (what he has read the day before).

24. If a stoppage of study is enjoined (for the
day, he shall recite the daily portion) mentally.

25. If lightning flashes without interruption, or,
thunder rolls continually, if a man has neglected to
purify himself, if he has partaken of a meal in honour
of a dead person, or if hoarfrost lies on the ground,
(in these cases) they forbid the mental recitation (of
the daily portion of the Veda).

26. Some forbid it only in case one has eaten a
funeral dinner.

27. Where lightning, thunder, and rain happen
together out of season, the recitation shall be inter-
rupted for three days.

28. Some (declare, that the recitation shall stop)
until the ground is dry.

29. If one or two (of the phenomena mentioned
in Sutra 27 appear, the recitation shall be interrupted)
from that hour until the same hour next day.

30. In the case of an eclipse of the sun or of the
moon, of an earthquake, of a whirlwind, of the fall of a
meteor, or of a fire (in the village), at whatever time
these events happen, the recitation of all the sacred
sciences (Vedas and Angas) must be interrupted
from that hour until the same hour next day.

31. If a cloud appears out of season, if the sun or
the moon is surrounded by a halo, if a rainbow, a
parhelion or a comet appears, if a (high) wind (blows),

25. Ygn. I, 149; Mann IV, 106, 120, 127; Taht.Ar. II, 15, i.

26. Manu IV, 109, 116.

27. Manu IV, 103 and 104.

30. Ya^Taf. I, 145; Manu IV, 105, 118.

31. Manu IV, 104, and see above.



44 APASTAMBA. T, 3,11.

a foul smell (is observed), or hoarfrost (lies on the
ground, at all these occasions (the recitation of all
the sacred sciences must be interrupted) during the
duration (of these phenomena).

32. After the wind has ceased, (the interruption
of the recitation continues) for one muhurta.

33. If (the howl of) a wolf or of a solitary jackal
(has been heard, he shall stop the reading) until he
has slept.

34. At night (he shall not study) in a wood, where
there is no fire nor gold.

35. Out of term he shall not study any part of
the Veda which he has not learnt before.

36. Nor (shall he study during term some new
part of the Veda) in the evening.

37. That which has been studied before, must
never be studied (during the vacation or in the
evening).

38. Further particulars (regarding the interruption



32. One muh{irta= 48 minutes.

36. Other commentators interpret the Sutra in a different sense.
They take it to mean : ' And during the night (from the twelfth
to the thirteenth of each half of the month, he shall not study
at all, be it in or out of term).'

37. ' What has been studied before, must not be studied (again)
at any time in the vacation nor in the evening.' Haradatta.

38. Haradatta thinks that by ' Parishad,' Manu's and other Dhar-
ma-^astras are meant. Tliis explanation is, however, not exact.
Parishad, 'assemblage/ means, in the language of the -Sastras,
either a Pank, an assemblage of learned Brahmans called together
to decide some knotty point of law, or a Brahminical school, which
studies a particular redaction of the Veda (see the Petersburg
Diet. s. v.) The latter meaning is that .applicable to this Sutra.
By ' ParishadaA ' are here intended the Vedic schools, and their
writings and teaching. Gautama also says, XVI, 49, Pratividyaw
yan smaranti smaranti, '(he shall observe the stoppages of the



I, 4, 12. THE STUDY OF THE VEDA. 45

of the Veda-study may be learnt) from the (teaching
and works of other) Vedic schools.

PRASNA I, PAFALA 4, KHAJVDA 12.

1. A Brahmawa declares, ' The daily recitation (of
the Veda) is austerity."

2. In the same (sacred text) it is also declared,
1 Whether he recites the daily portion of the Veda
standing, or sitting, or lying down, he performs aus-
terity thereby ; for the daily recitation is austerity.'

3. Now the Va^asaneyi-brahmatta declares also,
' The daily recitation is a sacrifice at which the Veda
is offered. When it thunders, when lightning flashes
or thunderbolts fall, and when the wind blows vio-
lently, these sounds take the place of the exclama-
tions Vasha/ (Vausha/ and Svaha). Therefore he
shall recite the Veda whilst it thunders, whilst light-
ning flashes and thunderbolts fall, and whilst the
wind blows violently, lest the Vasha/ (should be
heard) in vain.'

Veda-study) which they teach in (the writings belonging to) each
of the Vedas.'

12. i. c lt procures as much reward as penance.' Haradatta.
Manu II, 1 66 ; Weber, Ind. Stud. X, 113. The phrase occurs
frequently in the Brahmawas, e.g. Taitt. Ar. II, 14, 3.

2. Regarding the proper position at the ' Veda-offering/ or
daily recitation, see above, I, 3, ir, 23, and Taitt. Ar. II, n, 3.
Passages similar to the first part of the sentence quoted in this
Sutra occur Taitt. Ar. II, 12, 3, and 15, 3. It ought to be observed,
that the Taitt. Ar. in both places has the word ' vra^-an,' which is
also read in the P. and P. U. MSS. The second part is taken
apparently from the same work, II, 14, 2.

3. See -Satapatha-brahmawa XI, 5, 6, 8, where a passage very
similar to that quoted by Apastamba occurs. Vasha/ and the other
exclamations, which are pronounced by the Hotri-priest, serve as
signals for the Adhvaryu to throw the oblations into the fire.



46 APASTAMBA. I, 4, 12.

4. The conclusion of the passage from that (Va^a-
saneyi-brahma^a is found) in another Sakh (of the
Veda).

5. ' Now, if the wind blows, or if it thunders, or
if lightning flashes, or thunderbolts fall, then he
shall recite one /frk-verse (in case he studies the
7?/g-veda), or one Ya/us (in case he studies the
Ya^ur-veda), or one Saman (in case he studies the
Sama-veda), or (without having regard to his par-
ticular Veda, the following Ya^us), " Bhu/* Bhuva^,
Suva^, in faith I offer true devotion." Then, indeed,
his daily recitation is accomplished thereby for
that day/

6. If that is done, (if the passage of the Va"a-
saneyi-brahma#a is combined with that quoted in
Sutra 5, the former stands) not in contradiction with
the decision of the, Aryas.

7. For they (who know the law) teach both the
continuance and the interruption (of the daily re-
citation of the Veda). That would be meaningless,
if one paid attention to the (passage of the) Va^a-
saneyi-brahmawa (alone).

8. For no (worldly) motive for the decision of
those Aryas is perceptible ; (and hence it must have
a religious motive and be founded on a passage of
the Veda).

9. (The proper interpretation therefore is, that)
the prohibition to study (given above and by the



5. ' Some suppose that the words Bhu/5 BhuvaA and Suva^ &c.
(are to be used only) if one studies the Brahmawa portion of the
Veda, not everywhere.' Haradatta.

6. Haradatta explains Aryas by vijish/aA, ' excellent ones/ i.e.
persons who know the law, and he gives Manu as an instance.

8. See above, I, i, 4, 9 and 10, and notes.



1,4,12. THE STUDY OF THE VEDA. 47

Aryas generally) refers only to the repetition of the
sacred texts in order to learn them, not to their
application at sacrifices.

10. (But if you ask, why the decision of the Aryas
presupposes the existence of aVedic passage, then I
answer) : All precepts were (originally) taught in the
Brahmawas, (but) these texts have been lost. Their
(former existence) may, however, be inferred from
usage.

11. But it is not (permissible to infer the former
existence of) a (Vedic) passage in cases where plea-
sure is obtained (by following a rule of the Smrzti
or a custom).

12. He who follows such (usages) becomes fit
for hell.

13. Now follow (some rites and) rules that have
been declared in the Brahmawas.

14. By way of laudation they are called 'great
sacrifices ' or ' great sacrificial sessions.'

15. (These rites include): The daily Bali-offering

10. How then is their existence known? ' They are inferred
from usage.' ' " Usage " means the teaching of the law-books
and the practice. From that it is inferred that Manu and other
(authors of law-books) knew such texts of the Brahmaas. For
how could otherwise (7?;shis like Manu) teach in their works or
practise (such customs) for which no authority is now found?
And certainly they were intimately connected with the revealed
texts (i. e. saw them)/ Haradatta.



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