Georg Bühler.

The sacred laws of the Aryas : as taught in the schools of Apastamba, Gautama, Vasishtha and Baudhayana online

. (page 9 of 55)
Online LibraryGeorg BühlerThe sacred laws of the Aryas : as taught in the schools of Apastamba, Gautama, Vasishtha and Baudhayana → online text (page 9 of 55)
Font size
QR-code for this ebook


11. Compare above, I, i, 4, 8-10.

13. The consequence of the introduction of these rules into
a Smrz'ti work is, that their omission must be expiated by a Smarta
penance and not by a .Srauta one.

14. The commentator observes, that, as these rites are called
'great sacrifices/ by way of laudation only, the particular laws
binding on performers of real Soma-sacrifices cannot be trans-
ferred to the performers of these ceremonies. Regarding the



48 APASTAMBA. 1, 4, 13.

to the (seven classes of) beings; the (daily) gift of
(food) to men according to one's power;

PRASNA I, PAFALA 4, KHAND\ 13.

1. The oblation to the gods accompanied by the
exclamation Svaha, which may consist even of a piece
of wood only ; the offering to the Manes accompanied
by the exclamation Svadha, which may consist even
of a vessel with water only ; the daily recitation.

2. Respect must be shown to those who are
superior by caste,,

3. And also to (persons of the same caste who are)
venerable (on account of learning, virtue, and the like).

4. A man elated (with success) becomes proud, a
proud man transgresses the law, but through the
transgression of the law hell indeed (becomes his
portion).

5. It has not been declared, that orders (may
be addressed by the teacher) to a pupil who has
returned home.

6. The syllable ' Om ' is the door of heaven.



term 'great sacrifices,' see also Taitt. Ar. IT, u, 10, i seq., and
-Satapatha-brahmawa XI, 5, 6, i,

13. i. Taitt. Ar. II, 10, 2 and 3, and Satapatha-br. ioc. cit. 2.
Haradatta observes, that some consider the Devaya^/la, mentioned
in ihe Sutra, to be different from the Vaijvadeva, but that he holds
it to be the same. Further he mentions, that some prescribe this
Vauvadeva to be performed even if one has nothing to eat.

2. ' Namely, by allowing them to walk in front on the road and
by giving them perfumed garlands and the like at festive occasions.'
Haradatta.

5. Haradatta gives as an example the order to fetch water, and
adds lhv\t a voluntary act on a former pupil's part ought not to be
forbidden.

6. Compare also Taitt. Ar. I, 2. 4, and Manu II, 74.



I, 4, 13. A STUDENT V?HO HAS RETURNED HOME. 49

Therefore he who is about to study the Veda, shall
begin (his lesson) by (pronouncing) it.

7. If he has spoken anything else (than what
refers to the lesson, he shall resume his reading by
repeating the word ' 5m '). Thus the Veda is sepa-
rated from profane speech.

8. And at sacrifices the orders (given to the
priests) are headed by this word.

9. And in common life, at the occasion of cere-
monies performed for the sake of welfare, the sen-
tences shall be headed by this word, as, for instance,
' (Om) an auspicious day,' ' (Om) welfare,' ' (Om)
prosperity.'

10. Without a vow of obedience (a pupil) shall not
study (nor a teacher teach) a difficult (new book)
with the exception of (the texts called) Tri//^ravawa
and Tri/^sahava^ana.

11. Harita declares, that the (whole) Veda must
be studied under a vow of obedience until there is
no doubt (regarding it in the mind of the pupil).



9. The example given in the Sutra is that of the Pu;zyahavaana,
which precedes every Grz'hya ceremony, and at which the sacrificer
requests a number of invited Brahmawas to wish him success. The
complete sentences are, The sacrificer: Om karmawa// puydham
bhavanto bruvantviti, ' Om, wish that the day may be auspicious
for the performance of the ceremony.' The Brahma#as: Om
puwyihaw karmawa iti, ' Om, may the day be auspicious for the
ceremony.' In the same manner the Brahmawas afterwards wish
1 welfare,' svasti, ' prosperity,' vrz'ddhi, to the sacrificer.

10. Manu II, 112.

11. The meaning of Harita is, that the vow of obedience is
required for the Tri/faravawa and Tri^sahava^ana, which Apastamba
exempted in the preceding Sutra. It follows from this rule that
the Ahgas or works explanatory of the Veda need not be studied
under a vow of obedience.

[2] E



50 APASTAMBA. I, 4, 13.

12. No obedience is due (to the teacher for teach-
ing) works which do not belong to the Veda.

1 3. (A student) shall embrace the feet of a person,
who teaches him at the request of his (regular
teacher), as long as the instruction lasts.

14. Some (declare, that he shall do so) always, (if
the substitute is) a worthy person.

1 5. But obedience (as towards the teacher) is not
required (to be shown towards such a person).

16. And (pupils) older (than their teacher need
not show him obedience).

17. If (two persons) teach each other mutually
(different redactions of) the Veda, obedience (towards
each other) is not ordained for them.

1 8. (For) the (wise) say, ' The Veda-knowledge
(of either of them) grows.'

19. 6Vetaketu declares, 'He who desires to study
more, after having settled (as a householder), shall
dwell two months every year, with collected mind,
in the house of his teacher,'

20. (And he adds), ' For by this means I studied
a larger part of the Veda than before, (during my
studentship.) '

2 1 . That is forbidden by the Sastras.

22. For after the student has settled as a house-
holder, he is ordered by the Veda, to perform the
daily rites,

13. This rule is a supplement to I, f, 7, 29.

14. '"A worthy person," i.e. on account of his learning or
character.' Haradatta.

1 6. 'According to some, this rule refers only to the time after
the instruction has been completed; according to others, to the
time of studentship.' Haradatta, But see Manu II, 151 seq.



1,4,14- A STUDENT WHO HAS RETURNED HOME. 51



PRA.SNA I, PAFALA 4, KHANDA 14.

1. (That is to say) the Agnihotra, hospitality,

2. And what else of this kind (is ordained).

3. He whom (a student) asks for instruction, shall
certainly not refuse it ;

4. Provided he does not see in him a fault, (which
disqualifies him from being taught).

5. If by chance (through the pupil's stupidity the
teaching) is not completed, obedience towards the
(teacher is the pupil's only refuge).

6. Towards a mother (grandmother and great-
grandmother) and a father (grandfather and great-
grandfather) the same obedience must be shown as
towards a teacher.

7. The feet of all Gurus must be embraced (every
day) by a student who has returned home ;

8. And also on meeting them, after returning
from a journey.

9. The feet of (elder) brothers and sisters must be
embraced, according to the order of their seniority.

10. And respect (must) always (be shown to one's
elders and betters), according to the injunction



14.x. The Agnihotra, i. e. certain daily oblations of clarified butler.
3. Maim II, 109-115. 5. ManuII, 218.

6. Manu II, 228, 235.

7. The word Gurus, ' venerable persons/ includes besides the
teacher and persons mentioned in the preceding Sutra, an elder
brother, a maternal uncle, and all others who are one's betters
or elders. See above, I, 2, 6, 29-35.

8. ' That is to say, whether he himself or " the venerable persons"
undertook the journey.' Haradatta.

9. Manu II, 133. 10. See above, I, 4, 13, 2.

E 2



52 APASTAMBA. 1,4,14-

(given above and according to the order of their
seniority).

11. He shall salute an officiating priest, a father-
in-law, a father's brother, and a mother's brother,
(though they may be) younger than he himself, and
(when saluting) rise to meet them.

12. Or he may silently embrace their feet.

13. A friendship kept for ten, years with fellow-
citizens (is a reason for giving a salutation, and so
is) a friendship, contracted at school, which has lasted
for five years. But a learned Brahmawa (known) for
less than three years, must be saluted.

14. If the age (of several persons whom one
meets) is exactly known, one must salute the eldest
(first).

15. He need not salute a person, who is not a
Guru, and who stands in a lower or higher place
than he himself.

1 6. Or he may descend or ascend (to the place
where such a person stands) and salute him.

17. But every one (Gurus and others) he shall
salute, after having risen (from his seat).

1 8. If he is impure, he shall not salute (any-
body) ;

19. (Nor shall he salute) a person who is impure.



11. Manu II, 130.

12. The commentator adds that the mode of salutation must
depend on their learning and virtue.

13. Manu II, 134.

1 6. This Sutra, like the preceding, refers to those who are
not ' Gurus.'

17. Manu II, 120.

1 8. ' Impure,' i.e. unfit for associating with others on account
of the death of relations or through other causes, see below, I, 5,
15, 7 seq.



1,4,14- SALUTING. 53

20. Nor shall he, being impure, return a saluta-
tion.

21. Married women (must be saluted) according
to the (respective) ages of their husbands.

22. He shall not salute with his shoes on, or his
head wrapped up, or his hands full.

23. In saluting women, a Kshatriya or a Vai^ya
he shall use a pronoun, not his name.

24. Some (declare, that he shall salute in this
manner even) his mother and the wife of his
teacher.

25. Know that a Brahmawa of ten years and a
Kshatriya of a hundred years stand to each other in
the relation of father and son. But between those
two the Brahmawa is the father.

26. A younger person or one of equal age he
shall ask, about his well-being (employing the word
kusala).

27. (He shall ask under the same conditions)
a Kshatriya, about his health (employing the word
anamaya) ;

28. A Vai.$ya if he has lost anything (employing
the word anash/a).



23. He shall say, ' I salute/ not ' I, N. N., salute.' Manu II, 123.

24. Apastamba, of course, holds the contrary opinion. Manu
II, 216.

25- This verse, which is found with slight variations in most
Smmis, contains, according to Haradatta, an instruction given by
a teacher to his pupil. Manu II, 135.

26. Of course, in case the person addressed is a Brahman.
Manu II, 127. Kulluka quotes unJer this verse the above and
the following SOtras. But his quotation has only a faint resem-
blance to our text.

28. That is to say in these terms : * I hope you have not lost
any cattle or other property ! ' Haradatta.



54 APASTAMBA. 1, 5, 15.

29. A -Sttdra, about his health (employing the
word arogya).

30. He shall not pass a learned Brahmaa with-
out addressing him ;

31. Nor an (unprotected) woman in a forest (or
any other lonely place).

PRA.SNA I, PAT ALA 5, KHANDA 16.

1. When he shows his respect to Gurus or aged
persons or guests, when he offers a burnt-oblation
(or other sacrifice), when he murmurs prayers at
dinner, when sipping water and during the (daily)
recitation of the Veda, his garment (or his sacrificial
thread) shall pass over his left shoulder and under
his right arm.

2. By sipping (pure) water, that has been col-
lected on the ground, he becomes pure.

3. Or he, whom a pure person causes to sip water,
(becomes also pure).



31. He shall address a woman in order to re-assure her, and
do it in these terms : ' Mother, or sister, what can I do for you ?
Don't be afraid ! ' &c. Haradatta.

15. i. Taitt. Ar. II, i, 2 seq.; Manu IV, 58.

2. Pure water is that which a cow will drink. Ya^. I, 192;
Manu V, 1 28.

3. The ceremony of ' sipping water ' may be performed in two
ways; either the 'person sipping' may take the water out of a
river, pond, &c., or he may get the water poured into his hand by
another person. But, according to Apastamba, he must not take
a pot or gourd in his left hand and pour the -water into his right,
as some Smn'tis allow. The reason for this rule is, that Apa-
stamba considers it essential that both hands should be used in
conveying the water to the mouth; see also above, I, i, 4, 21.
This agrees with the custom now followed, which is to bend the
right hand into the form of a cow's ear, and to tou.ch the right
wrist with the left hand while drinking.



1,5,15- PURIFICATION. 55

4. He shall not sip rain-drops.

5. (He shall not sip water) from a (natural) cleft
in the ground.

6. He shall not sip water heated (at the fire)
except for a particular reason (as sickness).

7. He who raises his empty hands (in order to
scare) birds, (becomes impure and) shall wash (his
hands).

8. If he can (find water to sip) he shall not remain
impure (even) for a muhurta.

9. Nor (shall he remain) naked (for a muhurta if
he can help it).

10. Purification (by sipping water) shall not take
place whilst he is (standing) in the water.

1 1 . Also, when he has crossed a river, he shall
pnrify himself by sipping water.

12. He shall not place fuel on the fire, without
having sprinkled it (with water).

4. 'Some think, that this SOtra is intended to forbid also
the drinking of rain-water. Other commentators declare that,
according to this S&tra, it is allowed to use for "sipping" drops
of water which fall from a vessel suspended by ropes | because the
Sutra emphatically excludes "rain-drops" only].' Haradatta.

6. Manu II, 61. 'Because the term Cheated by fire" is used,
there is no objection to water heated by the rays of the sun. In
the same manner the use of " hot " water only is usually forbidden
in the Smritis.' Haradatta.

7. ' Because the phrase " with empty hands " is used, he commits
no fault if he raises his hand, holding a stick or a clod. Some
declare, that the term " touching water " (rendered by " washing ")
means " sipping water." ' Haradatta.

it. The translation given above is based on the interpretation
of Haradatta, who considers that Apastamba holds 'crossing a
river ' to cause impurity. The natural and probably die right inter-
pretation, however, is that rejected by Haradatta, ' But he shall sip
water after having come out (of the river or tank).'

12. '"On the fire used for Vedic or Smarta sacrifices or for



56 APASTAMBA. I, 5, 15.

1 3. (If he is seated in company with) other unclean
persons on a seat consisting of a confused heap
of straw, and does not touch them, he may consider
himself pure.

14. (The same rule applies, if he is seated) on
grass or wood fixed in the ground.

15. He shall put on a dress, (even if it is clean,)
only after having sprinkled it with water.

1 6. If he has been touched by a dog, he shall
bathe, with his clothes on ;

17. Or he becomes pure, after having washed
that part (of his body) and having touched it with
fire and again washed it, as well as his feet, and
having sipped water.

1 8. Unpurified, he shall not approach fire, (so
near that he can feel the heat).

19. Some' declare, that (he shall not approach
nearer) than the length of an arrow.

20. Nor shall he blow on fire with his breath.

21. Nor shall he place fire under his bedstead.

household purposes." . . . Some declare, that (the fuel need not be
sprinkled with water) if used for the kitchen fire.' Haradatta.

14. Haradatta's commentary is of little use, and I am not quite
certain that my translation is correct.

1 5. Manu V, 1 1 8.

17. This second proceeding is adopted in case the dog has
touched the hands or the lower parts of the body, as may be learnt
by the comparison of a verse of Manu.

18. Manu IV, 142; Ya^. I, 155.

20. Manu IV, 53. Haradatta mentions other explanations of
this Sutra. Some say, that the .Srauta fire may be kindled by
blowing, because that is ordained particularly in the Va^asaneyaka,
but that the domestic fire is not to be treated so. Others again
consider the rule absolute, and say, that a hollow reed or bellows
must be used for kindling the fire, lest drops of saliva should fall
upon it.

21. Manu IV, 54.



I, 5, 16. PURIFICATION. 57

22. It is lawful for a Brahmawa to dwell in a
village, where there is plenty of fuel and water,
(and) where he may perform the rites of purification
by himself.

23. When he has washed away the stains of urine
and faeces after voiding urine or faeces, the stains of
food (after dinner), the stains of the food eaten the
day before (from his vessels), and the stains of
semen, and has also washed his feet and afterwards
has sipped water, he becomes pure.

PKASNA I, PAT ALA 5, KHANDA 16.

1. He shall not drink water standing or bent
forwards.

2. Sitting he shall sip water (for purification)
thrice, the water penetrating to his heart.



22. The last condition mentioned in the Sutra indicates, that
the place must have a river or tank, not wells only, as the purifi-
cation by sipping water cannot be performed without help, with
water from wells.

23. Manu V, 138.

16. i. Haradatta takes aam here to mean 'to drink water,' and
thinks that it is forbidden to do this standing or in a bent position.
Others refer the prohibition to ' sipping -water for the sake of
purification/ and translate, ' He shall not sip water standing or in
a bent position (except in case of necessity),' i.e. if the bank of the
river is so high that he cannot reach the water sitting down, and
in this case he shall enter it up to his thighs or up to his navel.

2. Manu II, 60 and 62; V, 139; and Ya^w. I, 20 and 27;
Weber, Ind. Stud. X, 165. Haradatta observes, that the further
particulars regarding purification by sipping water must be supplied
from other Smrz'tis. The rule quoted by him is as follows : ; The
performer should be sitting in a pure place, not en a seat, except
when sipping water after dinner, and should sip thrice from his
hand water which is free from bubbles and foam, and which he
has attentively regarded, in such a quantity as would cover a Masha-



58 APASTAMBA. 1,5, 16.

3. He shall wipe his lips three times.

4. Some (declare, that he shall do so) twice.

5. He shall then touch (his lips) once (with the
three middle fingers).

6. Some (declare, that he shall do so) twice.

7. Having sprinkled water on his left hand with
his right, he shall touch both his feet, and his head
and (the following three) organs, the eyes, the nose,
and the ears.

8. Then he shall wash (his hands).

9. But if he is going to eat he shall, though pure,
twice sip water, twice wipe (his mouth), and once
touch (his lips).

10. He shall rub the gums and the inner part of
his lips (with his finger or with a piece of wood) and
then sip water.

n. He does not become impure by the hair (of
his moustaches) getting into his mouth, as long as
he does not touch them with his hand.

12. If (in talking), drops (of saliva) are perceived
to fall from his mouth, then he shall sip water.

13. Some declare, that if (the saliva falls) on the
ground, he need not sip water.



bean. The water sipped by a Brahman should reach his heart,
that sipped by a Kshatriya the throat, and that sipped by a Vawya
the palate. A SGdra sips once as much as to wet his tongue.'

7. The eyes are to be touched with the thumb and the fourth
finger, either at once, or one after the other, the nostrils with the
thumb and the second finger, the ears with the thumb and the
small finger.

9. Manu V, 138.

ii. Haradatta observes that this Sutra shows, that every other
foreign substance brought with the food into the mouth, makes the
food 'leavings ' and the eater impure. Manu V, 141.

i 2. Manu V, 141 declares sipping to be unnecessary in this case.



I. g, 16. PURIFICATION ; EATING. 59

14. On touching during sleep or in sternutation
the effluvia of the nose or of the eyes, on touching
blood, hair, fire, kine, a Brahmaaa, or a woman, and
after having walked on the high road, and after
having touched an impure (thing or man), and after
having put on his lower garment, he shall either
bathe or sip or merely touch water (until he con-
siders himself clean).

1 5. (Or he may touch) moist cowdung, wet herbs,
or moist earth.

1 6. He shall not eat meat which has been cut
with a sword (or knife) used for killing.

17. He shall not bite off with his teeth (pieces
from) cakes (roots or fruits).

1 8. He shall not eat in the house of a (relation
within six degrees) where a person has died, before
the ten days (of impurity) have elapsed.

19. (Nor shall he eat in a house) where a lying-
in woman has not (yet) come out (of the lying-in
chamber),

20. (Nor in a house) where a corpse lies.



14. Manu V, 145.

1 8. ' The term " tea days" is used in order to indicate the time
of impurity generally. In some cases, as that of a Kshatriya, this
lasts longer. In other cases, where the impurity lasts thirty-six
hours only, (the abstention from dining in such houses is
shorter.)' Haradatta. Manu IV, 217.

19. A lying-in woman is impure, and must not be touched
during the first ten days after her confinement. During this time,
she exclusively occupies the Sutikagri'ha or lying-in chamber.
Manu IV, 217.

20. Haradatta remarks that in the case of the death of a person
who is not a relation, it is customary to place at the distance of
' one hundred bows ' a lamp and water- vessel, and to eat (beyond
that distance).



60 APASTAMBA. 1, 5, 16.

21. Food touched by a (Brahmawa or other high-
caste person) who is impure, becomes impure, but
not unfit for eating.

22. But what has been brought (be it touched or
not) by an impure ^udra, must not be eaten,

23. Nor that food in which there is a hair,

24. Or any other unclean substance.

25 . (Nor must that food be eaten) which has been
touched with an unclean substance (such as garlic),

26. Nor (that in which) an insect living on impure
substances (is found),

27. Nor (that in which) excrements or limbs of
a mouse (are found),

28. Nor that which has been touched by the foot
(e^en of a pure person),

29. Nor what has been (touched) with the hem
of a garment,

30. Nor that which has been looked at by a dog
or an Apapatra,



21. 'Food which is simply impure, may be purified by putting
it on the fire, sprinkling it with water, touching it with ashes or
earth, and praising it.' Haradatta.

22. Others say, that the food becomes unfit for eating, only, if
in bringing it, the 6udra has touched it. Haradatta.

23. Manu IV, 207; \agn. I, 167. 'But this rule holds good
only if the hair had been cooked with the food. If a hair falls into
it at dinner, then it is to be purified by an addition of clarified
butter, and may be eaten.' Haradatta.

24. Haradatta quotes a passage from Baudhayana, which enu-
merates as 'unclean things' here intended, 'hair, worms or beetles,
nail-parings, excrements of rats/ The rule must be understood
as the preceding, i.e. in case these things have been cooked with
the food.

26. Manu IV. 207; Y%. I, 167, 168. This Sutra must be
read wiih Sutra 23 above.

30. Manu IV, 208 ; Ya^;). I, 167. Apapatras are persons whom



1,5,17- EATING AND FORBIDDEN FOOD. 6 1

31. Nor what has been brought in the hem
of a garment, (even though the garment may be
clean),

32. Nor what has been brought at night by a
female slave.

33. If during his meal,



PRASNA I, PATALA 5, KHAJVDA 17.

1. A .Sudra touches him, (then he shall leave off
eating).

2. Nor shall he eat sitting in the same row with

O

unworthy people.

3. Nor shall he eat (sitting in the same row
with persons) amongst whom one, whilst they eat,
rises and gives his leavings to his pupils or sips
water ;

4. Nor (shall he eat) where they give him food,
reviling him.

one must not allow to eat from one's dishes, e.g. A1a</alas, Patitas,
a woman in her courses or during the ten days of impurity after
confinement. See also above, I, i, 3, 25.

32. Haradatta thinks, that as the Sutra has the feminine gender,
dasf, it does not matter if a male slave brings the food. But
others forbid also this.

17. i. 'Some say, that this Sutra indicates that the touch of a
.Sudra does not defile at any other time but at dinner, whilst oihers
hold that a Sudra's touch denies always, and that the Sutra is
intended to indicate an excess of impurity, if it happens at dinner-
time.' Haradatta.

2. 'Unworthy people are those who are neither of good family,
nor possess learning and virtue/ Haradatta.

3. According to Haradatta a person who misbehaves thus, is
called ' a dinner-thorn.' This point of etiquette is strictly observed
in our days also. Manu IV, 212.

4. Manu IV, 212 ; Ya^v*. I, 167.*



62 APASTAMBA. 1, 5, 17.

5. Nor (shall he eat) what has been smelt at by
men or other impure (beings, as cats).

6. He shall not eat in a ship,

7. Nor on a wooden platform.

8. He may eat sitting on ground which has been
purified (by the application of cowdung and the
like).

9. (If he eats) out of an earthen vessel, he shall
eat out of one that has not been used (for cooking).

10. (If he can get) a used vessel (only, he shall
eat from it), after having heated it thoroughly.

1 1 . A vessel made of metal becomes pure by
being scoured with ashes and the like.

12. A wooden vessel becomes pure by being
scraped.

1 3. At a sacrifice (the vessels must be cleaned)
according to the precepts of the Veda.



Online LibraryGeorg BühlerThe sacred laws of the Aryas : as taught in the schools of Apastamba, Gautama, Vasishtha and Baudhayana → online text (page 9 of 55)