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/JFOR'>is>



Zhc political Ibietori? of ]£nglan&

IN TWELVE VOLUMES

Edited by WILLIAM HUNT, D.Litt., and
REGINALD L. POOLE, M.A.



II.

THE HISTORY OF ENGLAND

FROM THE NORMAN CONQUEST TO THE
DEATH OF JOHN

io66-i2i6



THE POLITICAL HISTORY OF ENGLAND,

Seventy -Jive years have passed siitce Lingard completed
his History of England, ivhich ends with the Revolu-
tion of 1688. During that period historical study has
made a great advance. Year after year the mass of
fnaterials for a new History of England has increased;
new lights have been thrown on events and characters,
and old errors have been corrected. Many notable
works have been written on various periods of our
histo7y ; some of them, at such length as to appeal
almost exclusively to professed historical stztdents. It
is believed that the time has come when the adva^zce
which has been made i7t the knowledge of English
history as a whole should be laid before the public in
a single work of fairly adequate size. Such a book
should be f 07 ended 07t independent thought and research,
but sho7ild at the sa77te time be written with a full
knowledge of the works of the best moder7i historians
and with a desi7^e to take advantage of their teaching
wherever it appears sound.

The vast mt7nber of atitkorities, printed and in
manuscript, on which a Histo7y of E7igla7id should be
based, if it is to represent the existing state of k7iow-
ledge, re7tders co-operation almost necessary and certai7ily
advisable. The History, of which this volu77te is an in-
stahnent, is a7i atte7npt to set forth in a readable fo7^77t
the results at present attained by resea7^ch. It will con-
sist of twelve volumes by twelve different writers, each



ii POLITICAL HISTORY OF ENGLAND.

of them chosen as being specially capable of dealing with
the period ivhich he ttndei^takes, and the editors^ while
leaving to each author as free a hand as possible^ hope
to insttre a general sii7iilarity in method of treat?nent, so
that the twelve volumes may in their contents, as zvell as
in their outward appearance, foinn one History.

As its title i7nports, this History will primarily
deal with politics, with the History of England and,
after the date of the union with Scotland^ Great Britain^
as a state or body politic ; but as the life of a nation is
complex, and its condition at any given time cannot be
tinderstood without taking into account the various forces
acting upon it, notices of religious 7natters and of in-
tellectual, social, and econo^nic progress will also find
place in these volumes. The footnotes zvill, so fa7^ as
is possible, be C07ifi7ied to references to a2itho7Hties, and
refe7^ences will 7iot be appended to state77ients which
appear to be 77iatters of co77i77ion knozvledge and do
not call for supp07^t. Each volu77ie will have a7i Ap-
pe7idix giving S077ie account of the chief authorities,
origi7ial and secondary, which the author has used.
This account will be co77ipiled with a view of helping
students rather tha7i of 7naking lo7tg lists of books with-
out a7iy 7iotes as to their C07ite7its or value. That the
History zvill have faults both of its own and such as
will always in some 77ieasure attend co-operative work,
must be expected, but 7io pains have been spared to 77iake
it, so far as may be, not wholly unworthy of the g7^eat-
ness of its subject.

Each volume, while for7ni7ig part of a cornplete
History, will also i7i itself be a separate and co7nplete
book, will be sold separately, a7id will have its own
index, and two or more 77iaps.



POLITICAL HISTORY OF ENGLAND, Hi



Vol I. to 1066. By Thomas Hodgkin, D.C.L., Litt.D., Fellow
of University College, London ; Fellow of the British
Academy.

Vol. II. 1066 to 1 216. By George Burton Adams, M.A.,
Professor of History in Yale University, New Haven,
Connecticut.

Vol. III. 1 216 to 1377. By T. F. Tout, M.A, Professor of
Medieval and Modem History in the Victoria University
of Manchester; formerly Fellow of Pembroke College.
Oxford.

Vol. IV. 1377 to 1485. By C. Oman, M.A., Fellow of All
Souls' College, and Deputy Professor of Modem History
in the University of Oxford.

Vol. V. 1485 to 1547. By H. A. L. Fisher, M.A., Fellow

and Tutor of New College, Oxford.
Vol. VI. 1547 to 1603. By A. F. Pollard, M.A., Professor of

Constitutional History in University College, London.
Vol. VII. 1603 to 1660. By F. C. Montague, M.A., Professor

of History in University College, London ; formerly Fellow

of Oriel College, Oxford.

Vol. VIII. 1660 to 1702. By Richard Lodge, M.A., Professor
of History in the University of Edinburgh; formerly
Fellow of Brasenose College, Oxford.

Vol. IX. 1702 to 1760. By I. S. Leadam, M.A., formerly
Fellow of Brasenose College, Oxford.

Vol. X. 1760 to 1 801. By the Rev. William Hunt, M.A.,
D.Litt, Trinity College, Oxford.

Vol. XI. 1 801 to 1837. By the Hon. George C. Brodrick,
D.C.L., late Warden of Merton College, Oxford, and
J. K. Fotheringham, M.A., ?vlagdalen College, Oxford,
Lecturer in Classics at King's College, London.

Vol. XII. 1837 to 1 901. By Sidney J. Low, M.A., Balliol
College, Oxford, formerly Lecturer on History at King's
College, London.



THE



HISTORY OF ENGLAND



FROM THE NORMAN CONQUEST TO
THE DEATH OF JOHN

(1066-1216)



BY

GEORGE BURTON ADAMS

PROFESSOR OF HISTORY IN YALE UNIVERSITY



LONGMANS, GREEN, AND CO.

39 PATERNOSTER ROW, LONDON

NEW YORK AND BOMBAY

1905



Mjs



a.



Copyright, 1905, by
LONGMANS, GREEN, AND CO.



ALL RIGHTS RESERVED.



Set up and Electrotvped by J. S. Gushing & Co.,
Norwood^ Mass. r



CONTENTS



A.D.

Oct., 1066.
Nov.



CHAPTER I

After the battle of Hastings
The march on London



PAGE
I



Tlie publication of this volume, which was ready in March,
has unavoidably been postponed by tJie Piiblishers

November, i(po^



Jan.-Feb., 1070.

Aug.



Conquest of the west .
Reformation of the Church ,
Lanfranc made primate
Effect of the conquest on the Church
The king and the Church .



39

43

45
48



CHAPTER HI

1070-4. The revolt in Ely

Norman famihes in England
Centralization of the State .
The New Forest .
Aug., 1072. William invades Scotland ,
1073. He subdues Maine
1075. Revolt of Earls Roger and Ralph
1082. The arrest of Bishop Odo .

William's son Robert .

1086. The Domesday Book .

9 Sept., 1087. The death of William .



52
54
56
58

59
60
61

65
66

67
69



M^r^=^ii



Set up and Electrotyped by J. S. Gushing & Co.,
Norwood, Mass. '"



CONTENTS



AD.

Oct., 1066.
Nov.



25 Dec.
Jan., 1067.



March-Dec.



CHAPTER I

After the battle of Hastings
The march on London
Winchester occupied .
London submits .
The coronation of WilUam .
Regulations for government
The confiscation of lands
The introduction of feudalism
Power of the Norman duke
"William in Normandy .
Revolts in England



Feb.-March, 1068.



Summer.



1069.
Dec.
1070.

Aug.



Jan.-Feb.



CHAPTER II

Conquest of the south-west . ,

Coronation of Matilda

Final conquest of the north

Raid of Harold's sons .

Danish invasion; the north rebels

The harrying of Northumberland

Conquest of the west .

Reformation of the Church .

Lanfranc made primate

Effect of the conquest on the Church

The king and the Church



CHAPTER III



1070-4.


The revolt in Ely




Norman families in England




Centralization of the State .




The New Forest , . . .


Aug., 1072.


William invades Scotland ,


1073-


He subdues Maine


1075-


Revolt of Earls Roger and Ralph


1082.


The arrest of Bishop Odo .




William's son Robert .


1086.


The Domesday Book . .


9 Sept., 1087.


The death of William .



VI



POLITICAL HISTORY OF EA^GLAND



>





CHAPTER IV












A.D.

26 Sept., 1087.


Coronation of William II


Apr.-June, io88.


The barons rebel








Nov.


The trial of William of St. Calais








1095.


The revolt of Robert of Mowbray








28 May, 1089.


The death of Lanfranc










Ranulf Flambard














Troubles in Normandy












April, 1090.


The court resolves on war












Feb., 109 1.


William invades Normandy
Malcolm attacks England












1092.


William occupies Carlisle












Nov., 1093.


Death of Malcolm and Margaret










X ;


CHAPTER V


Lent, 1093.


Illness of William II


March.


Anselm named archbishop .
Conditions on which he accepted










Jan., 1094.


His first quarrel with the king










19 March.


William crosses to Normandy










1095.


Second quarrel with Anselm










March.


The case tried at Rockingham










1096.


Robert mortgages Normandy










1097.


Renewed quarrel with Anselm










Nov.


Anselm leaves England






. ,




1098.


Wars on the continent










2 Aug., 1 100.


William II killed












CHAPTER VI


2 Aug., 1 100.


Henry claims the crown


5 Aug.


His coronation
His character










Aug.


His coronation charter










23 Sept.


Return of Anselm










II Nov.


Henry's marriage

Beginning of investiture strife

Merits of the case . , .










July, HOT.


Robert invades England
He yields to Henry










1 102.


Robert of Belleme punished










1101-2.


Fruitless embassies to Rome










27 April, 1 103.


Anselm again leaves England











CHAPTER VII



1104. Henry visits Normandy

1 103-5. Dealings with Anselm .

21 July, 1 105. Meeting with Anselm and Adela .

Aug., 1 106. The compromise and reconciliation



137
139
142
144



CONTENTS OF THE SECOND VOLUME



Vll



28 Sept., 1 106. The battle of Tinchebrai

Terms of investiture compromise
21 April, 1 109. Anselm's last years, and death
1109-11. Reform of local courts
1 109-14. Marriage of Matilda and Henry V
1 109-13. War with Louis VI of France
Growing power of the Church



145
H7
149

154
155
159



CHAPTER Vni



March,


1 1 16.


William recognized as heir .
Renewed war with France .




1 1 20.


An advantageous peace


25 Sept.,


1 1 20.


Henry's son William drowned
Robert made Earl of Gloucester




1 123.


Revolt of Norman barons .


Jan.,


1127.


Matilda made Henry's heir .
She marries Geoffrey of Anjou




1 1 29.


A period of peace . ,




1 1 30.


The Pipe Roll of 11 30

The Exchequer .

Henry's charter to London .


I Dec,


1135.


His death ....
CHAPTER IX



Dec, 1 135. Stephen of Boulogne secures London
Obtains support of the Church
His coronation
Normandy accepts Stephen

1 1 36. Charter to the Church .
Matilda appeals to Rome
The first revolt
The impression created by Stephen

1 1 37. Stephen in Normandy.



163
165
168
169
171
172
176
J 78
181
182
184
187
189



192
193-

195

197

200
202
206
207
210



CHAPTER X

1 138. The beginning of civil war
The revolt around Bristol
22 Aug. The battle of the Standard
June, 1 139. The arrest of the bishops
Matilda in England
1 140. Stephen's purchase of support
2 Feb., 1 141. The battle of Lincoln .



214
217
219
223
226
230
231



CHAPTER XI

March, 1141. Matilda received in Winchester
24 June, 1 141. She is driven from London .
Stephen released
1 142-4. Geoffrey conquers Normandy



233

235
236

238



Vlll



POLITICAL HISTORY OF ENGLAND



1 144.
1 149.
1152.

"53-
Nov.



The fall of Geoffrey de Mandeville

Henry of Anjou in England

He marries Eleanor of Aquitaine

Henry again in England

He makes peace with Stephen



CHAPTER Xn



/



PAGE
241
244
247
250

251





The character of Henry II .






255


19 Dec, 1 154.


His coronation .....






259


>^ "55-


The pope's grant of Ireland






262


Jan., 1156.


Henry in Normandy ....






264


1 158.


Treaty with Louis VII






267


June, 1 1 59.


Attack on Toulouse . . , ^
New forms of taxation






268
269


1 162.


Thomas Becket made primate






272



CHAPTER XIII

1 162. The position of Becket
July, 1 1 63. First disagreement with Henry
The question of criminous clerks
1 1 64. The constitutions of Clarendon
Oct. The trial of Becket

Becket flees from England .
1165-70. War between king and primate
14 Tune, 1 1 70. Young Henry crowned

July. Henry and Becket reconciled
29 Dec. Murder of Becket



275
277

278
282
285
290

291

293
293
295



CHAPTER XIV

Oct., 1171. Henry II in Ireland
May, 1 1 72. Reconciled with the Church
Henry and his sons
Discontent of young Henry
1 1 73. Plans of Henry II in the southeast
Young Henry and the barons rebel
12 July, 1 1 74. Henry IPs penance at Canterbury
12 July. The king of Scotland captured .
6 Aug. Henry returns to Normandy
30 Sept. Peace concluded ....



298
300
301

304
305
307
310

311

312



CHAPTER XV



1175.



1176.



Government during peace , . . . .


316


The homage of Scotland


318


Judicial reforms .......


320


Itinerant justices and jury .....


322


The common law ......


324


Young Henry again discontented


327


Affairs in Ireland


329



CONTENTS OF THE SECOND VOLUME



IX



1 1 77. Dealings with France .

1 1 80. Philip II king of France

1 1 83. War between Henry's sons

II June. Death of young Henry



Z2>^

333
335



CHAPTER XVI



1 183.


Negotiations with France


I 184-5.


The question of a crusade .


1 185.


John in Ireland .


II 86.


Philip II and Henry's sons .


1187.


War with Philip II




Renewed call for a crusade .


1 188.


The Saladin tithe




A new war with Philip


Nov.


Richard abandons his father


4 July, 1 189.


Peace forced on Henry


6 July.


Death of Henry II



338

340
342

345
347
349
351
353
354
356
357



CHAPTER XVII

II 89. Richard's first acts

Methods of raising money .
Arrangements for Richard's absence
Conduct of William Longchamp .
June, 1190. Richard goes on the crusade
1191. Events of the third crusade

Strife of John and Longchamp .
Oct. Longchamp deposed .

Philip II intrigues with John



359
362

363

365
366

368

370

372
372



CHAPTER XVIII



Dec, 1 192.


Richard imprisoned in Germany .






374


1 193.


Negotiations for his release . . . .






375


6 March, 1194.


He reaches London ....
War with Phihp II ... .
Hubert Walter justiciar






377
378
379


15 Jan., 1 1 96.


Treaty with France ....
Renewed war .....






380
381


7 Dec, 1 197.


Bishop Hugh refuses Richard's demand






382


1 198.


Financial difficulties . . e .






385


6 April, 1 199.


The death of Richard ....
The growth of English towns






386

. 387



CHAPTER XIX

April, 1 199. John succeeds in Normandy
27 May. Crowned in Westminster

Philip II takes Arthur's side
1200. John's second marriage



390
394

395
397



POLITICAL HISTORY OF ENGLAND



A.D.










PAGE


I202.


Trial and sentence of John 399


I Aug.


John captures Arthur ....








400


1203.


Siege of Chateau-Gaillard .








403


24 June, 1204.


Capture of Rouen ....








405


1205.


French conquest checked in Poitou








405




CHAPTER XX


1205.


Question of the Canterbury election .... 409


17 June, 1207.


The pope consecrates Langton
Taxation of the clergy








410
411


24 March, 1208.


The interdict proclaimed
Power of the king








412

414


Nov., 1209.


John excommunicated .








416


1210.


Expedition to Ireland .








417


1212.


Alliance against France

Philip II plans to invade England








419
. 421


May, 1 21 3.


John yields to the pope








. 423



20 July, 1 213.

Feb., 1214.
27 July.



15 June, 1 21 5.



21 May, 1216.
19 Oct., 1216.



On authorities
INDEX



• CHAPTER XXI

The king absolved

Henry I's charter produced

John invades Poitou

Battle of Bouvines

The barons resist the king

The charter demanded

Magna Carta granted .

Civil strife renewed

The crown offered to Louis of France

Louis lands in England

The death of John

APPENDIX



426
429
430
431
432
433
437
440
442

444
446

%

448



457



MAPS
(At the End of the Volume)

1. England and the French Possessions of William I. (1087)

2. England and France, July, 1185




VJHWERSITV



CHAPTER I

THE CONQUEST

The battle of the 14th of October, 1066, was decisive of chap.
the struggle for the throne of England, but William of Nor- ^
mandy was in no haste to gather in the results of the victory
which he had won. The judgment of heaven had been pro-
nounced in the case between him and Harold, and there was
no mistaking the verdict. The Saxon army was routed and
flying. It could hardly rally short of London, but there was
no real pursuit. The Normans spent the night on the battle-
field, and William's own tent was pitched on the hill which
the enemy had held, and in the midst of the Saxon wounded,
a position of some danger, against which his friend and ad-
viser, Walter Giffard, remonstrated in vain. On the next
day he fell back with his army to Hastings. Here he re-
mained five days waiting, the Saxon Chronicle tells us, for
the nation to make known its submission ; waiting, it is more
likely, for reinforcements which were coming from Normandy.
So keen a mind as William's probably did not misjudge the
situation. With the only real army against him broken to
pieces, with the only leaders around whom a new army could
rally dead, he could afford to wait. He may not have under-
stood the rallying power of the Saxon soldiery, but he probably
knew very well the character of the public men of England,
who were left alive to head and direct a new resistance. The
only candidate for the throne upon whom all parties could
unite was a boy of no pronounced character and no experi-
ence. The leaders of the nobility who should have stood
forth in such a crisis as the natural leaders of the nation were
VOL. II. I



2 THE CONQUEST 1066

CHAP, men who had shown in the clearest way their readiness to
^ sacrifice England to their personal ambitions or grievances.
At the head of the Church were men of but little higher
character and no greater capacity for leadership, undisguised
pluraHsts who could not avoid the charge of disregarding in
their own selfish interests the laws they were bound to admin-
ister. London, where the greater part of the fugitives had
gathered, could hardly have settled upon the next step to be
taken when WiUiam began his advance, five days after the
battle. His first objective point was the great fortress of
Dover, which dominated that important landing-place upon
the coast. On the way he stopped to give an example of
what those might expect who made themselves his enemies,
by punishing the town of Romney, which had ventured to beat
off with some vigour a body of Normans, probably one that
had tried to land there by mistake.

Dover had been a strong fortress for centuries, perched on
its cliffs as high as an arrow can be shot, says one who may
have been present at these events, and it had been recently
strengthened with new work. William doubtless expected a
difficult task, and he was correspondingly pleased to find the
garrison ready to surrender without a blow, an omen even
more promising than the victory he had gained over Harold.
If WilHam had given at Romney an example of what would
follow stubborn resistance, he gave at Dover an example of
how he proposed to deal with those who would submit, not
merely in his treatment o£ the surrendered garrison of the
castle, but in his payment of the losses of the citizens ; for his
army, disappointed of the plunder which would have followed
the taking of the place by force, had burned the town or part
of it. At Dover William remained a week, and here his army
was attacked by a foe often more deadly to the armies of the
Middle Ages than the enemies they had come out to fight.
Too much fresh meat and unaccustomed water led to an out-
break of dysentery which carried off many and weakened
others, who had to be left behind when William set out again.
But these losses were balanced by reinforcements from Nor-
mandy, which joined him here or soon afterwards. His next
advance was towards Canterbury, but it had hardly begun
when delegations came up to meet him, bringing the submis-



io66 THE MARCH ON LONDON 3

sion of that city and of other places in Kent. Soon after chap.
leaving Dover the duke himself fell ill, very possibly with ^
the prevaiHng disease, but if we may judge by what seems to
be our best evidence, he did not allow this to interrupt his
advance, but pushed on towards London with only a brief stop
at any point.^ Nor is there any certain evidence to be had
of extensive harrying of the country on this march. His
army was obliged to live on what it could take from the in-
habitants, and this foraging was unquestionably accompanied
with much unnecessary plundering ; but there is no convincing
evidence of any systematic laying waste of large districts to
bring about a submission which everything would show to be
coming of itself, and it was not like William to ravage without
need. He certainly hesitated at no cruelty of the sort at
times, but we can clearly enough see reasons of policy in
most at least of the cases, which may have made the action
seem to him necessary. Nearly all are instances either of
defensive action or of vengeance, but that he should systemat-
ically ravage the country when events were carrying out his
plan as rapidly as could be expected, we have no reason to
consider in accordance with William's policy or temper.

In the meantime, as the invading army was slowly drawing
near to London, opinion there had settled, for the time at
least, upon a hne of policy. Surviving leaders who had been
defeated in the great battle, men high in rank who had been
absent, some purposely standing aloof while the issue was
decided, had gathered in the city. Edwin and Morcar, the
great earls of north and middle England, heads of the house
that was the rival of Harold's, who seem to have been wilHng
to see him and his power destroyed, had now come in, having
learned the result of the battle. The two archbishops were
there, and certain of the bishops, though which they were we
cannot surely tell. Other names we do not know, unless it
be that of Esegar, Harold's staller and portreeve of London,
the hero of a doubtful story of negotiations with the approach-
ing enemy. But other nobles and men of influence in the
state were certainly there, though their names are not re-
corded. Nor was a military force lacking, even if the '* army "

1 William of Poitiers, in Migne's Patrologia Latina, cxlix, 1258. and see F, Bar-
ing, in Engl. Hist, Rev,, xiii. 18 (1898),



4 THE CONQUEST 1066

CHAP, of Edwin and Morcar was under independent and not trust-
^ worthy command. It is clear that the tone of public opinion
was for further resistance, and the citizens were not afraid to
go out to attack the Conqueror on his first approach to their
neighbourhood. But from all our sources of information the
fatal fact stands out plainly, of divided counsels and lack of
leadership. WiUiam of Malmesbury believed, nearly two
generations later, and we must agree with him, that if the
English could have put aside " the discord of civil strife," and
have " united in a common policy, they could have amended
the ruin of the fatherland." But there was too much self-
seeking and a lack of patriotism. Edwin and Morcar went
about trying to persuade people that one or the other of
them should be made king. Some of the bishops appear to
have opposed the choice of any king. No dominating per-
sonality arose to compel agreement and to give direction and
power to the popular impulse. England was conquered, not
by the superior force and genius of the Norman, but by the
failure of her own men in a great crisis of her history.

The need of haste seems an element in the situation, and
under the combined pressure of the rapid approach of the
enemy and of the public opinion of the city — citizens and
shipmen are both mentioned — the leaders of Church and
State finally came to an agreement that Edgar atheling
should be made king. It was the only possible step except
that of immediate submission. Grandson of Edmund Iron-
side, the king who had offered stubborn and most skilful
resistance to an earlier foreign invader, heir of a house that
had been royal since the race had had a history, all men
could unite upon him, and upon him alone, if there must
be a king. But there was no other argument in his favour.
Neither the blood of his grandfather nor the school of adver-



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