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Letters from George Lord Carew to Sir Thomas Roe, ambassador to the court of the Great Mogul. 1615-1617 online

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levied readie vppon the frontier of Italic to marche in his ayde yf the
Governour of Millan invade Piemont; but yf the Duke of Savoy will
obstinattlye refuse to come to an indifferent and fayre agreement
thatt he will then abandon him.

This last monethe the Ladie Farmer,^ daughter to Sir William Death of Mr.
Cornwallis, by anischance slew with a pistoll a gentleman called
Onelye : she came to her triall to Newgatt, beinge indited of mur-
*ther, but her answeres were nott vnlike to one distracted, wherevppon
the judges respited judgment.

About 3 monethes past, the Erie of Abircom's eldest sonne, whose
surname is Hamilton, was created Baron of Strabane in Irland.''

Betwene the Turke and the Kinge of Pole there is no good Intel- Affairs of
ligence; by the procurement of the great Signor 150,000 Tartares are
in the fild to empeche the Poluckes desseygne in Moscovie, towards
which territorie the Prince of Poland is marchinge with a competent
armye.

The Kinge of Sweden, havinge discovered thatt divers of his
subiects had traffique withe the Kinge of Pole in the furtherance of
his entended enterprise vppon Sweden, hathe cut of the handes of
some of the cheefest delinquents, and, to put the Polocke in despaire
to be elected Kinge, hathe, accordinge to the forme of thatt countrie,
caused himsellfe to be crowned*.

* He is nott yett crowned.



« Cornelia, daughter and coheir of Sir William Cornwallis, by Lucy, third daughter
and coheir of John Neville last Lord Latimer ; and wife of Sir Richard Fermor of Tus-
more, co. Oxon. (Baker's Hist, of Northamptonsh. i. 599.) Chamberlain describes Mr.
Onlay, " as a young dancing reveller of the Temple," who resorted much to Lady Fermor.

^ James, eldest son of James first Earl of Abercorn, who had large estates in Ireland ;
and this honour was conferred upon his son, being then only 13 years of age, to encourage
his residence in that country. Upon the death of the Earl of Abercorn, in March 1618,



110 LETTERS OF GEORGE LORD CAREW [A.D. 1617.

Itt is reported thatt the Frenclie Kinge hathe caused an arrest to

wS^of Mar- be made in Venice of 40,000 crownes which the Mareschall de Ancre

shaid'Ancre. had there in banke. There is allso in Amsterdam 17 great chestes

of the Jklareschall d'Ancre's arrested which were brought thether

frome Reven, and were to have bene carried to Livorno: itt is

thought thatt great store of money and iewclls are in them*

Fifteene hundred souldiours, levied in the Vnited Provinces for
the Kinge of Sweden, are latelye embarqued, and are accompanied
with 6 or 7 good shippes of warre.

The Count of Levenstein, a German, is presentlye to embarque att

Amsterdam 3,000 foote, which he hathe levied in the ayde of the

Venetians against the Archduke Ferdinand, commonlye called the

Duke of Gratz : they are to pass the Strayts as the Count Jolin of

. Nassav hathe done.

^ The Prince ^Mavrice his eldest base sonne, who was 16 yere olid, is
latelye dead ; his dcathc is greatlye lamented, being a youthe of great
expectation.

In revendgc of the great spoyles which the Cossackes (who 9,re
protected by the Kinge of Pole) have done vppon the Turkes in the
Black Sea, all by sea as vppon the maritime townes, the Grand
Signer hathe sent an arraye of 80 thousand horse and foote vppon
the frontiers of Poland, whereby thatt kingdome suffers extreme
calamities. To resist this great army the Kinge of Pole, with the ayde
of some Christian princes his ncyghbours, hathe levied great forces.

The Cantons of Bearne and Zurickc confederatt themselves with
the Duke of Savoy agaynst the Spaniard, and they have sent to the
Grisons to permitt passadge for 8,000 of there Swisses to pass vnto the
Venetians ayde, whereunto they easilye assented, beinge more inti-
mate vnto the State of Venice then vnto the Governour of Millan.
Hetherto the Gazette from the Hage.

* This report of 17 chestes of the Mareschall d'Ancre's, is false.



Lord Strabane succeeded to the Karldoin, and resigned the B.irotiy to his brother Claude,
but it BuliRcqueiitly iiiurged again into the Earldom. — Nichols's Progresses of James L vol.
iii. pp. 382, 1102.



A.D. 1617.] TO SIR THOMAS ROE. Ill

The Mareschall de Temincs is latelye dead.

The Turkishe piratts dominier iii the Mediterrane Sea, and our Turkish Pirates,
marchants are day lye taken by them, m so muche as, yf the Christian
princes do nott endevour there extirpation, the trade into the Levant
willbe vtterlye destroyed. In Sj)ayne they spoyle the maritime
villadges and take many prisoners, which is principallye affected by
the banished Moores that once inhabited the easterne coast'of Spayne.
It is to feared that these piratts, which now are become good
mariners, will visite ere itt be longe the christian coastes upon the
ocean.

The D.uke of Ossvna, Viceroy of Naples, is commanded (as itt is
reported) to recall his shippes sent into the Gulphe of Venice, where-
vppon the Venetians do recall there armada, which was att sea, to
attend his attempts.

To the contrarye of this last above written intelligence, itt is
affirmed, by lettres newly e arrived frome Venice, thatt the Duke of
Ossvna's fleet, consisting of 12 gallions, 19 gallics, and 4 galliotts, of
which sayed galliotts one Capten Eliott, our countryman, and an
ancient sea capten, is commander, lye still in safe road neere vnto
Eagusa ; that the Duke of Ossvna h^ithe sent a present of a shippes
loadinge of Turkishe slaves to the Grand Signor ransome free; thatt he
invites him to attempt the winninge of Candia, assuringe him thatt
he will keep the Venetian sea forces from passinge out of the Gvllphe
to him any impediment.

The 12. of this monethe Sir Walter Ealeghe sett sayle att Pli- Raieghe's Ex-
mouthe. God send him a prosperous retourne ! His fleet consists
of 7 good shippes of warre and 3 pinnaces; he is excellentlye well
manned, munitioned, and victualled, and will be able to land 6 or
700 men, his shippes beinge guarded.

Madame de Ancre hathe receved her triall, and is sentenced to be Trial of Ma-
gvilltie of Sorcerie, Judaisme, and Peculate, which is stealingc or
pourloyninge the Kinges money, and was adiudged to be hanged and
burnt.

The 26. of this monethe I saw lettres which came from Venice, Affairs of Italy.



112 LKTTERS OF GEORGE LOUD CAKEW [A.D. 1617.

which report tliatt the Venetian armada in the Gulphe or Adriatique
Sea have encountred with the Spanishe fleet, and of them they have
sunke 2 galleons, and taken 2 gallies of Naples,* but the reporte
speakethe of a greater victorie. In these lettres itt is likewise
affirmed thatt nottwithstandinge the Duke of Ossvna's present of
slaves to tlie Grand Signor, and instead of attcmptinge any thinge
vppon the Isle of Candia, he hathe comanded his Capten Bassa to
geve his attendance with 70 gallies and 10 shippes of warre to attend
the Venetian generall in the Gvllphe, and to be disposed by him
agaynst the Spaniard,! besides the sayed Bassa hathe commission to
draw into Albania 10,000 souldiers (as a further ayd) yf need required
itt. A Holland shippe with 200 souldiars bound for Venice feU into
the Spanishe fleet, but suche Avas the Hollanders' resistance and dex-
teritie thatt the shippe recovered Eagusa, from whence they marched
to Cataro, and there is no dowbt of there safe comminge to the
Venetian army, which lies att the siedge of Gradisca. The Spaniards
demanded these souldiars of the Ragusans, who, denienge there de-
mand, in revendge they spoyled the countrie about the towne even
to the walls. In the Haven they tooke the Holland shippe, hanged
the master, and made the mariners slaves. The Venetian armye are
masters of the filld, and lye close to Gradisca, and have planted there
batterie, and in the hope to winne itt. ' The Archduke's Generall
Tranmansdorffe is slayne. Vercelly, a towne of the Duke of Savoyes,
is beseedged by the Spaniards, nevertheless the DukchatheS tymesput
succours into itt. The Marques of Caluzo, the governoiir of the towne,
in the sight of the bescedgers, vppon the wall of the towne hanged
the Podesta, the principall magistrate of Vercelli, because he vsed per-
swasions to the inhabitants to render themselves vnto the Spaniards.
The towne is well manned, and provided of all things, so as itt is
thought thatt the governour of Millan will (liyle in the enterprise.

* For the sinkinge and takiiige of these galleons and gallies, lioiitins were made in
Venice, but there was no suche victorie, or any ineountre by sea.

t This newes is vncertayne, but it is sure that the Turke is well inclined to .-issist tin-
Venetians.



A.D, 1617.] TO SIR THOMAS ROE, 113

The Archduke Ferdinand of Gratz, with all the nobillitie of Stiria, Affairs of Ger-
Carinthia, and Croatia, and allso accompaned with the Archduke
Maximillian, is gone to Brage to beginne the Diet, wherein hini-
sellfe expectethe to be elected Kinge of Bohemia.

Since which tyrae we are credible advertised thatt he is elected
Kinge of Bohemia, and by degrees there is little dowbt to be made
of his beinge Emperour.
■ Sir John Digbye is gone frome London to embarque himsellfe in Sir John l^'gby

j^-, • r CI 11 • nil s'^nt Ambassa-

the west countne tor Spayne; but the marriage so muche bruted dor to Spain,
betwene the hopefull Prince and the Infanta remaynes dowbtfull.

Julye. — The Marquise d'Ancre is executed ; her head was cut of, July-
and her bodye burnt to ashes. d'AnCTTexe-

About the latter end of this last monethe Sir John Egerton, *="*^^-
Vicecount Brackeley, had his lettres pattents delivered vnto him for ^^^^^ "^'^*'
his Erldome of Bridgwater, so as now he is a confirmed Erie.

The Englishe councellers whicJi. attend ed4;he Kin o;e into Scotland



are all of theme sworne councellers of thatt realme.

Sir John Herbert, the ancient Secretary of Estate,* is dead.

The Archduke Ferdinand of Gratz is crowned Kinge of Bohemia, Foreign new?
and makes itt his steppe to the kingdom of the Eomans, and so to
the Empire. He is an obstinatt Papist Jesuited, and will nott per-
mitt a Protestant into his house or court to serve him.

The Cossackes (who are an vnregular people dwellinge betwene
Evrope" and Asia and in the Hands in the Black Sea, and vnder
the protection of the Kinge of Poland,) have gevinge suclie a great
overthrow vnto the Turkes in the Blacke Sea as it dothe in a man-
ner destroy the trade betwene the Tartares and the Turkes. The
Grand Signor is muche troubled with itt, for itt diverts his sea
forces frome doinge of any exploytes in the Mediterran Sea.

Gradisca is nott yett wonne by the Venetians, nor Vcrcelli bv
the Spaniards; they are, as of longe tyme they have bene, closelvc
besiedged, but nether of them as yett taken.

« He was second, or under, Secretary of State in 1G03.
CAMD. SOC. Q



1 14 LKTTKRS OF GEORGE LORD CAREW



[A.D. icr



Tlic 1'iirkc ha the latelye sent an ambassador to the Eniperour to
require liim to deliver vnto him sixty vilUigcs in Hungaria, wrong-
fullje (as lie sayethe) detayned from him. Yf" he refuse the request
he threatens warre; and, like a prince that would be satisfied when
his ambassador was dispatched, an army of 24,000 Turkes were
sent into Hungary presently to destroy the Emperour's territories
there. Whatt effects this ambassage will produce tyme will dis-
cover.

After a longe siedge, and muche bloode shed on ether side, Ver-
celli is rendered to the Spaniard by composition; the articles are
honourable, as is reported. The losse of itt is a great blow to the
Duke of Savoy.

Gradisco is relieved with men and victualls by the Archduke
Ferdinand — I should have sayed the Kinge of Bohemia; and little
hope remayncs thatt the Venetians' foi'ces will carry itt. Neverthe-
lesse the siedge continews.

August. Angust. — The ncwes from Venice is thatt the Duke of Ossvna,

Viceroy of Naples, hathe taken three gallies of the Venetians bound
for Spalato in Dalmatia. One of them was light; the other two
loaden with goodes of Jewes, Turkes, Greekes, and Armeniens,
to the valew of 1 ,000,000 of crownes. Further itt is sayed thatt
the Venetian Armada lies in the porte of Lesina, nott daringe to
looke outt, althoughe itt be composed of twelve shippes of warre,
six gallyasses, and forty gallies. The Duke of Ossvna's fleet consists
of eighteen gallions and thirty-three gallies. It is thought thatt the
Venetians are in great danger of present rvyne, for yf the Duke of
Savoy should aCcord to a peace with Spayne then thatt armye now
employed vppon him would .fall vppon the Venetian territories.
The Kinge of Bohemia vexethe them with a warre in Istria, and
the Duke of Ossvna lockes them vppe in the Gulphe, whereby there
trade ccassethe, and succours helld from them. Neverthelesse the
Count Levcinstein is now readie to cmbarque in the Low Countries
3,000 foote in fifteen good shippes in there ayde. God send him



A.D. 1617.] TO SIR THOMAS ROE. 115

good successe, for the attempt is brave and honourable ! 1 i\e dis-
coursers say thatt the Venetians must be enforced to call in the
Turke to there ayde, and to pay an ycrelye tribute, as Kagusa dothe,
for his protection, sed meliora spero. _

The Kinge of France (as it is s^ed) hathe bestowed vppon
Mounsieur de Lvines the marquisatt of Ancre, and with itt of plate,
householldstuffe, money, and iewells of the dead marques, to the
vulew of 800,000 crownes.

The Marquis Hamilton of Scottland is sworne a counceller of
England. He tooke his oathe at Glasco when the Kinge was there.

In Italye there is a -generall feare of the Turkes invasion in thatt
territorie; to resist the same all. the shippes and gallies of Spa3'ne,
Cicilie, and Malta, are assembled in the mouthe of the Gulphe of
Venice, and the fleet which the Duke of Ossvna hathe there to
annoy the Venetians are vnder the ensigne of the Kinge of Bohe-
mia ; for the Kinge of Spayne makes no overt warre agaynst them ;
but his shippes, mariners, ' souldiars, and treasure are exposed in
thatt employment.

The Duke of Newbourge,'* the pretender to Cleve and Jidiers,
banishethe all Callvynists and Lutherans out of his territorye in the
Palatinatt. and admitts of none other then Romishe Papists. His
subiects which continew in there religion sell there patrimonies and
vndergoe exile.

The Venetians are in great feare of the Spanishe armada, which
daylie encreasethe; and they are so straightened as hardlye any
succours, ether by land or sea, cane come vnto them.

It is reported thatt the Emperor, the Kinge of Bohemia, the
Elector of Cojlogne, and the Duke of Saxe, have agreed vppon an

a Wolfgang William, Elector of Newburg, son of Pliilip Lewis, who claimed Juliers,
Berg, and Ravenstein, in right of his mother, one of the daughters and coheirs of
William Duke of Julich, Cleve, and Berg. The dukedom had passed by the marriage of
her elder sister and coheir to the Brandenburg family. Wolfgang William embraced
the Romish doctrine in 1()14, and seems to have exhibited all the zeal of a convert. He
died 1(553.



116 . LrBTTERS OF GEORGE LORD CAREW [AD. 1617.

enterview ;itt Moraco in Baviera, where a consultation will be helld
for the clectinge of a Kinge of the Romans, which in all likclyhood
will fall vppon the Kinge of Bohemia.

Of late there hathe bene an embargue in Spayne of more then
fifty Holland shij^ps, and vppon complaynt vnto the States Generall
they sent an expresse messendger. to the Archduke lettinge him to
vnderstand thatt yf he did nott presentlye procure there discharge,
and full satisfaction for all there damages, thatt they would right
themselves vppon the Kinge of Spaynes subiects. Whatt this is
like to produce you may easilye iudge.

The Ambassador of Savoy, who came to negociatt a league
betvvene the Vnited Provinces and his master, is retourned to the
Duke, and hathe obtuyned of the. States assurance of ayde in
money, but the alliance is protracted vntil they see whether the
Duke (Vercelli beinge left) will persevere in the warre, for itt is
sayed thatt now the Kinge of Spayne is inclined to a peace, and
offers fayrer conditions than ever he did. The feare the Venetians
have of a peace in Savoy troubles them infinitlye, for 'in all likc-
lyhood the armye now imployed in Piemont will be turned vppon
them.

f Frome Gvinea and Angola two Holland shipps are latelye arrived
att Amsterdam exceedinge richlye loaden, especially with copper,
which mettall, before this tpne, I never heard to be in those parts.

The faction about religion in the Vnited Provinces daylye en-
creasethe ; itt is feared thatt yll consequences will ensue.

Raieghe's expe- Sir Walter Ralcghc was first by fowle wether enforced to put
into Fallmouthe; after thatt, beinge 40 leagues cleare offe the coast, of
England in his course to the southward, was by force of wether
driven into the haven of Corke, in Irland, and in the storme one' of
his pinnaces was oversett with a sayle and lost in his sight.

Foreign news. Vppon the succouringe of Gradisca with men, munition, and
victuull, the Venetians rose frome the siedge, which continewed longe,
many men lost before itt, and the Venetians consumed an infinitt
masse of treasure in the enterprise. Gradisca is seated vppon the



S?UrORN»A.



A.D. 1617.] TO SIR THOMAS RO:

Eiver of Lizonzo, in Frivli; tlie other side of the river is the vtter-
most towiie of the Kinge of Bohemia's territorie.*

Frome all parts of Evrope intelligences concvirre thatt the Kinge
of Spayne hathe promised the Infanta (which the world supposed
thatt he had resolved to have sent into England to be our Prince's
wife,) vnto the King of Bohemia's sonne, his cosen and brother-in-
law, but vntill we heare frome our ambassador or agent in Spayne
the truthe will nott appeare.

Mareschall de Digueres is gone into Piemont with 8,000 foote and
1,200 horse; the horse is comanded by the Count d'Awergne, and
the Duke of Kohan goes a volontier in the armye : there is allso gone
into Piemont, in the ayde of the Duke of Savoy, 3,000 Swisse of
the Canton of Bearne, but Vercelli was lost before there arrivall.

The Ladie Bowes, Sir William Wraye's * sister, is latelye maried English news,
to the Lord Darcie of the Northe; her sister nott many monethes
past was maried to the Lord Riche.

The Lord Rosse, vppon the soddayne, no man beinge privie to his
departure, attended but with one servant, is gone into France; somme
say itt is to light ; a few days will discover the mistery.^

* I meane the Archduke Ferdinand.



a Isabel, eldest daughter of Sir Christopher Wray, Speaker of the House of Commons,
married first Godfrey Foljambe, Esq., secondly Sir William Bowes, Knight ; and thirdly
John Lord Darcy. Her sister Frances was twice married, first to Sir George St. Paul, of
Snarford, and secondly to Robert Rich, Earl of Warwick. Chamberlain, writing on 11th
October, 1617, says, " The Lord Rich is said to be in great perplexity, or rather crazed
in brain, to see himself overreached by his wife, who hath so conveyed her estate that he
is little or nothing the better for her, and, if she outlive him, likely to carry away a great
part of his. Her sister, the Lady Bowes, hathe dealt clean contrary, being lately married
to the Lord Darcy of the North, and being a great estate, whole and entire, and refusing
any jointure or other advantage, saying it is suflficient for her to have the honour without
any hindrance to the house." — Birch, ii. 37.

^ The cause of his quitting the country so suddenly was the disgraceful conduct of his
wife, and her mother Lady Lake, in respect to the charges brought against the Countess
of Exeter. He proceeded to Rome, where in January 1618 he was living in great privacy,



118 • LETTEKS OF GEORGE LOKD CAREW [AD. 1617.

The Hollanders have discovered to the southward of the Strayghts
of JMagellcn an open sea and free passadge to the south sea.

The Ladye Roxboroghe is gone to live in Scottland, and retournes
no more to serve her Majcstie; in her place the Ladie Elizabeth
Gray » succeeds,
foreign news. rpj^^ Kingo of Poland's armye, which was commanded by the
Prince his sonnc, is overthrowene by the Turcs and Tartares : the
Prince fled into Podolia to rayse new forces, which proved vayne;
wherevppon the Kinge frome all parts levies men with an intention
to go in person into the fildc.

The Kinge of Sweden latelye with 6,000 men beseedged Riga, in
Livonia : the inhabitants are resolved to defend itt vntil they be
succoured by the Kinge of Pole; whatt will be the successe tyine
will produce. It is allso sayed thatt the Kinge of Sweden will by
force restore the Duke of Curland ^ to his countrye, who this last yero
was banished by the Kinge of Pole and confiscated. This Duke of
Curland is a neere kinsman to her Majestic, and was in England
att the Kinge of Denmarke's first beinge here : his territorye is in
Livonia. •

•September. September.— rThc warrc in Piemont, betwene the Kinge of Spayne

and the Duke of Savoy, is reported to be ended and a peace con-
cluded. The like is expected betwene the Kinge of Bohemia and
the Venetians.

The Duke of Nevers, the Duchesse his wife,*' there eldest sonno

(S. P.O. vol. xcv. 5,) having embraced tbe Roman Catholic doctrines. In the following
March he was at Tivoli, and afterwards he proceeded to Naples, where he is said to have
died on the 27th of June, 1618. We find, however, that there was a brief in a cause between
the Attorney General and him relative to some lands at Walthamstow in November of that
year (S.P.O. vol. ccij. 20), and there was a rumour that he was alive as late as March
1(523 (S.P.O. vol. cxxxix. 64.)

" Lady Elizabeth Grey de Ruthyn.

'' Frederick, second Duke of Courland, 1587-1641. His mother was Anne, daughter of
Albert VI. Duke of Meckknburg, whose other daughter, Sophia, wa.s wife of Frederick
II. King of Denmark, and mother of Queen Anne of England.

'^ Catherine of Lorraine, daughter of Charles de Lorraine, Duke of Alaino, married to



A.D. 1617.] TO SIR THOMAS KOE. 119

the Prince of Rhetelois, and the Duke of Mayne, Avere all of tliem
bitten with a madde dogge ; they are in great feare Avhatt may be the
event; they are gone to St. Vallery, in Picardie, to trye whether
the ayre of the sea and sea sicknes may geve theme remedi^ the
dogge thatt bitt them was a little one of the Duchesses of Xevers

In France, Sillerye and Villcroy governe the atfayres of state ; the
great men of the sword are little employed, wherewith they are nott
well plesed. The Prince of Conde is still in the Bastille, where he
hathe gotten his wife with chilld, but of his deliverance in hast there
is no appa ranee.

The Kinges Majestic retourned to Woodstocke fi-ome his longe The King's
progresse out of Scotland the 6. September. The Queene and the Sc^oUand!''"
Prince mett him there ; and Sir George's feast (which by reason of
his iourney into Scotland was prorogued vnto the 13. of this monethe)
was helld at Windesor, att the which no knight was made by reason
thatt there was no roame voyde.

In August last great difference hathe fallen out betwene Sir Difference
Edward Cooke and his wife the Ladye Elisabeth Hatton, about the Edward fn^d
marriage of Fraunces Cooke, there yongest daughter, vnto Sir John Lady Coke.
Villiers, the father consentinge vnto itt, and the mother opposite.
The Lords of the Councell have bene often troubled with com-
playnts on ether side. The yonge gentlewoman was stolen away by
her mother; Sir Edward Cooke recovered her agayne; vppon com-
playnte of the mother she Avas sequestered to one of the Clarkes of
the Counsell's house, but by lettres frome his Majestic delivered to
her father. The Ladye Hatton, as is sayed, endeavoured to have
taken the mayde by force frome her father, for the which she was
comitted prisoner to an alderman's house in London; but att
Windesor the gentlewoman in the presence of the Kinge was for-
mallye and legallye contracted vnto Sir John Villiers, the Ladye

Charles de Gonzague, Duke of Nevers, 1599. Their eldest son was Francois de Paule de
Gonzague-Cleves, called Duke of Rethelois. He was Governor of Champagne and Brie,
and died before his father in 1622. The Duchess died 8th March, 1618, aged 33. —
Anselnie.



120 LETTFRS OF GEORGE LORD CAREW [A.D. 1617.

Hatton beinge then and yett vnder restraynt. Sir Edward gevcs
with his daughter 10,000'' in money, and for her present mayntenance
2,000 markes per annum, and aftef his deathe 1,000'* of yerelye
inhefttance. Within two or three daycs followinge Sir Edward
Cooke was restored agayne to his place in Counsell. '

Renewed After longc debatinges about a peace betwene Spayne and Savoy,

in Savoy. and when the intelligence in all parts was divulged thatt the peace


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Online LibraryGeorge Carew TotnesLetters from George Lord Carew to Sir Thomas Roe, ambassador to the court of the Great Mogul. 1615-1617 → online text (page 12 of 17)