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its history.

Ver. 3. He sees 4>ne of the '' Heads" of the
great body of Paganism, ^ as it ware wounded
to death.'' The wound is stated, (ver. 14.) to
have been '' given by a sward'' It destroys the
head, but does not kiU the body, the '' wound
is healed'' in the sudden pre-eminence of tiie
beast, and the whole empire is subjected to the
new form of Paganism in wander. — The impe-
rial head of Paganism shall be destroyed by
battle. Paganism shall appear to be undcme
fcr ever. Biit its wound shall be healed by the
rise of the Papacy, (Paganism under a new form,)
which shall subdue the nations to more than
their old obedience,— to adoration.

Ver. 4. ''And they worshipped the dragon,
which geive power unto the beast."

In the new homage of the nations to the Pa-

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fUfy, ^bey are virtuaUy doing homage to Pagaa^
issi, the origin and essence of its power and nar

Ver. 6. '' There was given to him a month
speakmg great things and blasphemies."' — The
language of the Papacy shall be contemptuous:
of governments, and insulting to the majesty of

Ver. 6. It shall insult the name of God> of his
Church on earth, and of his redeemed in heaven.

y er. 7. It shall wage a continual war of per-
secution against the people of God, and '' shall
overcame them f they shall be constantly over-
powered and defeated. Its influence shall ex-
tend over a vast space of the world. And this
power of persecution shall continue during 1260
years (ver. 6).

Yer. 8. '^ And all that dwell upon the earth
shall worship him." The earth (yv) should be
translated the " land." In the prophetic Scrip-
tures, the '' land," generally signifies the people
acknowledging the God of Israel ^\ The text

*^ Blasphemy is either the denial of the homage due to the
Deity, or the assumption of that homage. " Datum est ei os
loquens magna et blasphemias, magno quippe cum £ei8tu et arro-
gantia sibi vindicaret quae solius Dei et Christi sunt, in inju*
riam Christi et Sanctorum." VUring. m loc*

" Isai. xxiv.

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implies that allChristaidom sliaH be subservimt
to the Papacy^ excepting those whose names are
written in the Book of Life^ the Saints^ the
Church of God.

Ver. 9. The description closes with that de-
mand on the attention of mankind^ usual in the
language of our Lord^ when a declaraticm of
some most important truth was to be pro-
nounced : " He that hath ears to hear, let him
hear." The declaration is, that the papacy shall
be punished in the manner of its crime ; that^
for having thrown the saints into captivity, it
shall be thrown into captivity ; and for having
slain them, it shall be slain. And in this high
consciousness that the guilt of its persecutor
shall be stricken with complete retribution^ the
Church is commanded to sustain its sufferings in
patience, and in reliance on the sure judgments
of heaven.



Ver. 11. And I beheld another beast coming up out of
the earth; and he had two horns like a lamb, and he
spake as a dragon.

12. And he exerciseth all the power of the first beast
before him^ and causeth the earth, and them which dwell
therein to worship the first beast, whose deadly wound
was healed.

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fire come down from Jbteaven on the earthinthe eight of

14. And decehreth them that dwell on the earth, by the
means of those miracles which he had power to do in the
sight of the beast ; saying to them that dw^II on the
earthy that they should make an image to the beas^
which had'the wound l^ a sword, and did Hve.

1& And ht had power to give J^ imto the.imagBof
i^beaat, that the image of the beast should bioth 4!(>e«Bi^
and cause that as many as would not worship the im^ge
of the beast should be killed.

16. And he caused all, both stnall and great, rich
and poor, free and bond, to receive a mark in their right
hand, or in their foreheads :

17. And that no man might buy or sell, save he that
had the mark, <Mr the name of die beast, or the number of

. 18. Here is wisdom. Let him that hath understand^
ing count the number of the beast : for it i^ the number
of a man ; and his number is Six hundred threescore
and six.


Ver. 11. Another extraordinary shape of
power shall arise in Christendom, (i? yvi) bearing
a close resemblance to the Papacy, like it com-
bined of the '' wild beast," and the dragon : as-
suming to be independent of temporal sove-

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reigns, ani penbcatmg tiie Gkar<d» iii'41ieiqpuit
of pagan and papal Home, it jahall^.kawreTert
have a distinction from the Papacy; .it, shall
consist of two parts ; which 4ihaU be (ofiom of^pi^)
lamb-hke, adopting the semblance of the irirtuies
of primitive Christianily, the exam^ vof our
Lord. — This power sfaaB consist of two Jsodies
of men pretending to a reouu^kaUe d^^ee of
86lf*<lenial^ humility, and holy ^seal, b»t in reality
hostile to Christianity, and inflamed with /the
spirit of persecution.

Ver. 12. And those men '^ exercise all the
power of the first beast before him.'' Hiey dball
be by the papal conmiission combmed exer dsers
and depositories of his authority among nations^
and they sh^U ccHoipel th^ dwellers, in duristfin-
d<mi to ^ worship the first beast whose deadly
wound was healed,"-«-to be converts to Popei^,
the revival of paganism^ extinguished by the
sword of Constantine.

Ver. 13. '* And he doeth great wonders :" this
religious Order shall act with great influence
upon Christendom by the usual means of Po*
pery, pretended miracles, and by *' calling down
fire from Heaven," or exciting monarchs to de-
stroy the Church.

Ver. 14, The object of the combination is de-
clared. By their influence with Princes they shall

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be enaUed to ettabligh aa inttitutidD poseewh
ing tbe close resemblance of an '' linage^'* to the

Ver. 15. Tbar next success shall be that <^
giyii^ '' Itfe to the Image,'' and making it
^ speak/"— Hie Institution shall gradually acquire
a local existence, and shall have a voice of its
own, a power of menaceand sentence ; that '^ as
many as would not worship the Image/ those
who disowned or resisted its authority, should
be put to death.

Ver. 16. '' And he causeth all, &c. to receive
a mark." JJeshouldbetransIated J/, thelmage.
In the previous verse die Order had been em-
powered to give life to the image that it might
^' speak, and cause ** (iva koi XaXi|9f koi iroti|crf,)
the recusants to be slain. In the present verse
the woriL is effiscted. The Image (wom, in direct
reference to the irocii<rp,) compels men of all con-
ditions to '^ receive a mark on their right hands
or foreheads." Among the uicients; it was not
unusual to mark slaves with the name or device
of the master ^^ The Papacy is a tyranny, and

^ The stamp was frequently put upon prisoners* The Athe-
nians taken at Syracuse were stamped with the figure of a horse
on the forehead. (Plut* in Nicia.) Prisoners of war were
$lav€i. The votaries of some of the idolatrous worships were
stamped with an emblem of their idol, thus the priests &c. of

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t^refore the sulijects of the Papacy must bear
the brand of slaves.

Ver. 17. '' No man shall buy or sell^ save he
tiiat hath the mark/' — ^Those who disdain to be
ammig the slaves of Popery shall be exduded
from the common dealings of man with man ;
shall be excommnnicated.

The translation in the text is not exact In-
stead of '' save he that hadi the mark, or the
name of the beast,** Sec, it should be, ^' save he
who hath the mark, either the name of the beast,
m the number,** &c. which latter refers to the

Institution, (a m^I ^X^*^ ^ X^P^y^f ^ '^^ ovo/ia rov

t^puw, n Tov apc0f4ov, &c.) the mark equally imply-
ing direct obedience to the papal see, or indirect
through the '' Image.**

The Order was tiie Dominican. The image
of Ae Papacy, erected under its influence, was
the InquisitioiL The Order is subsequently
named, 'Hhe false prophet, that wrought mi-
racles before the beast ^^.**

Ver. 1& The description of the Inquisition
having been given, this verse gives the date of
its origin, the surest mode of getting rid of the

Bacchus with a vine leaf. But slavery of some kind or other
seems to have been always included in the pagan marks. The
Orientals stamped their slaves as property.
^J Apoc. xix. 20.

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vagMne^thathMgsaboiitaUdiescript^ Tltt
date^ by directly referring us to history, gives
tbe aiily proof to which no doubt can ding.

It vmf have been known to the reader,
that the namber of the bea«t,. ''the 666/' haa
exerois^ more intellects dian perfaapi» any one
problem, sacred or profim^ that ever per-
plexed the human mind* Whole treatises have
bean* written upon it It occupies a considetable
apfiee in ahnost every commentary <»i the ApoN
calypse. The enqmryand the fiaiiure began so
early as Ireiueus^ in the second century, amd have
been perpetuated to our days by a multitude^
among whom w^:e many of the most undeniabio
lea]!ni]!^imd sagadtjr: hitherto no satisfiftctory
solution has been given.

One of those offered by Ii^en»us has been the
most p^qpular. And a mom^it and tte place of
hoDiHur may be given to a Father of the Church,
though all reference to tiie opinions of iSmse
who have succeeded him be postponed. He
thus writes in the Treatise on the Heresies ^.
'' It is undoubtedly better and safer to await
the fulfilment of the prophecy, than to conjee*
ture and divine any names. This, however, we
fiay, not through any want of names containing

" P. 448. fol. Lond. 1702.

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the 'Bomtef/ but titxougli godljr fysi, and a
zeal of the truth. EyavBa^ contaiiis the number
in question ; but of this name we affirm nothing.
But Aaretvoc ooBtams the 006, and is veiy like
the answer^ for this^Jast ^i^ire is called by tile
nama For they are Latins, who now reign^ but m
this coiijecture we shaU not depend much ; (we
shaQ not boast, sed nan in hae noa gloriabimurX^
He even gives it up in the next aoitence. ^' But
Titrav written with tibe two gre^ vowd% c and %
in the first syllable, is of all the names fbond
among us the most worthy of attention, (nuigia
fide dignum est,) fat it has there<}uir^ mu&ber,
tati has six letters, and is old; and sacted,'' &c

This passage shows the doable n»concep*
tion of those who have taken it for gmnted^
that Irensras satsi^ed himsdf wiib tiie word
Lateinos, and that he had gmied his docovery
from some hearer of St. John himself. He evi^
dently makes a common guess upon comnum
grounds, thinks little of it, and abandons it fbr
what he thinks a better. The adjective femi*
nine TV^QY) (Romana,) which is generally and
strangely offered as a correlative of the Oreek«-
Latin-masculine is equally ineffectual, and but
an additional instance of the difficulty in which
the problem is presumed to be involved.

Vitringa, undoubtedly a man of understand-

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ing, and of the moet extenBive leamingi ap^
preaches it with an almost superstitious awe.
His apostrophe is solemn and eloquent

^'Here is wisdom, let him that hath under-
standing count the Number of the beast' — ^Yes,
here is wisdom. Let the man, gifted by grace
with such gifts, here disfAay the acuteness of
his genius, the clearness of his sagacity, the
depth of his spiritual knowledge, things, which
iSdl to the lot of few ; but for whidi he who by
grace possesses them, will here find abundant
exercise. If I have made any progress in the
knowledge of di?ine things, which might be sup^
posed from my long study and labour, and from
the office, puUickly conferred upon me ; I still
dare not presume so fieur upon my ability and
knowledge, as to arrogate that highest rank of
intelligence and sagacity, (supremum ilium in*
telligentiae et perspicacitatis gradum,) which
the Holy Spirit seems to demand in those who
are destined to explain the ' number.' For no-
thing can be more evident, than that an intellect
of a higher and more divinely awakened kind,
(divinioris et prsestantioris mentis acumen,) is
here demanded, than in interpreting any other
part of this book of prophecy."

He proceeds to say, that he might '' modeste
declinare," give up the attempt from a justified

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feding of Iramility ; but that the reader naturally
expects some elucidation. He then goes through
a crowd of the conjectures of his predecessors ;
names, Hebrew, Greek, Latin ; numbers squared
and cubed ; disproves them all, and finally rests
upon the extraordinary guess Dp^:)nMf for the
equally extraordinary reason that Adcmikam is
said in Ezra ^, to have had a family of six hun-
dred and sixty-six.

The coincidence is curious, but altogether
unimportant; for it has no conceivable reference
to the text, and explains nothing. One of the
most singular circumstances in the whole sub-
ject, is the great variety of words which cor-
respond to the number 666. If it had beett
the intention, that the prophecy should long
be hid ; and who shall say, that an early inter-
pretation was purposed ? perhaps no number in
the wtiole combination of figures could have
served so well to bewilder, by glimpses of elu-

After such testimonies to the nature of the en-
quiry, it becomes almost necessary to deprecate
the charge of presumption in venturing to pro-
pose, what yet seems to me, an easy and con<r
sistent solution.

» Chap. ii. 13.

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The ^st error of thci commentators has lain in
their disregard of the plain meaning of the ori*
ginal. The '' numher" is described to be ''a^^fio^
^v6fuywov,'' not '' the number of a man f but a
'' numbeir of xmn,'* a number^ such as are in hu*
i«an tt3e« or simply^ a number. The idiom is
commosu by which of two substantives, the 1^*
t^x% in the genitive and without an article, acts

adjectively, ypa\pov ug avrov ypa^iSi av6p«i>irov ^»

^ write to him with a man's pen ;" or simply, '' a
pep." In this prophecy ^\ the angel finds the
w^ of the city X44 cubits, furpov uvOfwirovy hy
man's measure, measure in use among men ; or
sNPplyjL ''by measure." But there can be no
dispute about the idiom.

It is further obaervaUe that the expression,
" the number of a man," to which the commen*
tiators have uniformly looked as the most essen-
tial of all, is the least essential ; for wherever the
passage is afterwards alluded to, it is left out.
Thus, in the next chapter^, " If any man wor»
ship the beast and his image, and receive his
Bdark in his fordo^ad, or in his hand ®." — '' They
have no rest day or night, who worship the beast
and his image, and whosoever receiveth thf

" Esaias viii. 1. Septuag. '* Apoc. xxi. 17.

" Apoc. xiv. 9. « lb. xi.

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mark of his name^.'* — ^ And I law, as it were a
sea of glass mingled with fire^ and them that had
gotten the yictory over the beast and over hig
image^ and oyer the number of hii9 name, stand
on the sea of glass^ having the harps of God."

The exact translation would be ^ Let him that
hath understand^g calculate the number of the
beasts £3r it is a number , and his number is eOfi.**
The commentators looked for a name from a
nnmber, while they fibould have taken the di-
rectly contrary course, zdA looked for a number
from a name* The problem is to be solved by
the discovery of that peculiar number which is
at once the '^number of the name of the beast,"
and equivalent to 666.

It is to be remarked that dates and numbers are
the frequent instruments of the Apocalypse ; ob-
viously, from their use in flxii^ fects. '' The
1260 years," is so habitually applied to the Pa-
pacy, that the number is almost a substitute
for the title ; the 066 similarly appiies to the
Inquisitioiu The words Lateinos and Romiitb
are useless ; and belong to the heap of merely
eurious coincidences. What can be leaarned by
being told that the propJiecy aludes to some Latin
esdstence masculine, aad some Roman oi Hebrew

** Apoc. XV. 2.

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existence feminine, supplying neither time nor
circumstance ? The 666 is not the name of a
man, nor contained in a name of any kind ; it is
a dcOe, and, to a certain degree, a description ;
its purpose is to mark the birth of the Inquisi-
tion, and to connect that birth with the Papacy.

The natural paraphrase of the verse (18) is
thus. — The Inquisition has been, in the preced-
ing verses, described and denounced, by the
Spirit of God ; but, to remove whatever doubt
might arise from mere description, and to prove
to posterity, that it is the Inquisition which is
here denounced and held up to the abhorrence
of Christians by the Divine Spirit ; the exact
date of its origin shall be given. That origin
shall be when the title of Head of all the
Churches, the impious name of the Beasts shall
have reached its 666th year, '^shall number
666.** That name was given in 533. The Inqui-
sition shall be bom in 1198.

The prediction was exactly fulfilled. In the
first year of Pope Innocent III., the first year of
the complete supremacy, when the Papacy was
enthroned spiritual and temporal lord of the ci-
vilized world — ^in the year 1198, was the por-
tentous offspring of its nature and its crimes.
The Inquisition, issued to mankind !

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In this slight detail of the leading events al-
luded to in the prophecy^ some repetitions of the
dates and facts given in the preceding chapters,
must be excused. They are made necessary by
the parallelism.

A.D. 324. Constantine by a series of battles
from A.D. 312, finally conquered the heathen
masters of the empire, and gave the death blow
to paganism by the decree declaring Christianity
the Imperial Religion.

A.D. 390. Christianity was finally established
by Theodosius. The western empire stained
with Christian blood was thenceforth broken up,
and filled with the northern tribes. Before the
close of the sixth century ten barbarian king-
doms were formed in Europe.

Their names and number are stated by Machia-
vel*, certainly an unconscious interpreter of
Scripture; the dates are furnished by Bishop
Lloyd. 1. The Huns in Hungary, A.D. 356. 2.
Ostrogoths in Moesia, 377. 3. Visigoths in Pan-
. nonia, 378. 4. Franks in France, 407. 6. Van-
dals in Africa, 407. 6. Sueves and Alans in
Gascoigne and Spain, 407. 7. Burgundians in

" Hist. Flor. lib. i.

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Burgundy^ 407. 8^ HeruU and Turingi in Italy^
476. 9. Saxons and Angles in Britain^ 476.
10. Lombards began to reign in Hungary 626,
were seated in the north of Germany in 483, and
finally settled in the north of Italy. This divi-
sion had been twice prophesied by Daniel '^^ '^ the
ten horns are ten kings ^.^ Those kingdcnos all
adopted the faith which in the sixth century
emanated from Rome. The kingly soccessiye
heads of paganism were gone. The Roman had
been '^ wounded to death," by the sword of Con*
stantine ; one more was to appear^ but it was de*
clared by propheey that its time was not come^.
The Papacy established its iniuence over the ten
sovereignties of the western empire; and pagan-
km, revived from the dead, began its new career,
under its new form.

The spirit of the Micient Roman paganism con-
sisted in ceremonial pomp, founded on fables,
and constructed with a view to attract the peo*
pie, — in the worship of dead men, whom it deified ;
— in the worship of Images, which it honoured
with prayer, hymns, and incense,*-and in perse-
cution of the Christian Church. Popery was its
heir in all those things in the face of the Chrfetiui
world. It differed from the elder pagaidsm in wor-

* Daniel, ii. and vii. " Dan. vii. il4. " Apoc. xtu. 10.

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shipping, by the name of a saiiit> the statae wbioh
its predecessof worshipped by the name of a gfod-
dess, and kissing the feet of St. Peter^ fbr those
of Jove*

But Roman paganism with atl its BiU WU
simplicity itself to the new master of its throne.
It was a thing of external glitter^ and there its
powers and its ambition closed ; it solicited no
hold upon the mind; it had none of those
keener and fiercer instruments of grasp and pos*
session^ the fangs and claws^ that were yet to
strike into the very marrow of mankind. It was a
luxurious and giddy^ a splendid, and sometimes
a profligate exhibition, laughed at by the higher
minds, amusing to the multitude, popular and
pleasant to all; the graver game of the idle
and self-indulgent nations of the south ; a mofe
serious shape of human pleasure, gratifying the
worshipper by some empty sense of duty done
without restraint upon his passions, and keeping
his vanity awake without disturbing the slumber
of his conscience. It went down to the grave for
a time, with its idle generation. But, when it re-*
turned to the world, a great revolution had passed
over the surface. It found the old system of so^
eiety broken into ruin irreparable, a host of new
nations with new and rival interests, a bolder tem-»
perament, and a manlier intellectual capability.

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Straggling for mastery, sword in hand, on the
soil which had once lain smooth and uniform as
the slavery that moved over it. It found a still
sterner trial in the presence of the true Religion,
that stood, even in that day of adversity, like its
Lord in the wilderness, the sign to the Evil Spi-
rit that his time was at hand ; and putting his
proudest temptation to shame.

To fight its battle through this iron multitude
up to empire, other means were essential than
the feeble contrivances of the past. A kingdom
and a priesthood, it must seek conquests and
converts, and it must obtain the one without an
army, and the other without the GospeL Au-
ricular confession, absolution, indulgences, mira-
cles of bones, images, and pictures, and, to crown
the whole stupendous imposture, Transubstan-
tiation, the claim of man to be the maker of God!
were the guilty and powerful means by which
paganism, new risen, forced its way through the
tumult of nations, — the spells by which weakness
was made stronger than strength ; which turned
the Lombard and the Norman, that had cloven
down the Roman empire, into the nerveless
slaves of Rome; and bowed in ^worship the
bold barbarian crowns and helmets of the north
and west before the feet of a Monk and an Itar

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One of the prophetic characters of Popery was
its '^ blasphemy ;" the enormous crime of insuh*
ing the majesty of God by abusing his name, and
usurping his attributes. What are the claims
of the right to forgive sins, of miracles, of ca-
nonization, of infallibility in either Pope or coun-^
cil, of a right to be the sole interpreter of Scrips
ture, to withhold the Scripture, to hold the keys
of purgatory, to commute the virtues of the
living for the crimes of t&e dead, to dissolve
oaths, to dethrone kings, to break allegiance, to
command that men shall be tortured and slain
for^their feith ? — ^Blasphemy !

Pope Innocent III. writes, ^ so hath Christ
established the kingdom and the priesthood in
the Church, that the kingdom is sacerdotal, and
the priesthood is kingly, he hath set one man over
theworld^, him whom he hath appointed his ticar
(m earth ^, and, as to Christ is bent every knee in
heaven, in earth, and under the earth, so shall
obedience and service be paid to his vicar by all \
that there may be one fold and one shepherd."
This was worthy of the founder of the Inquisition.

^ Unum praefidens imiversis.

^ Quem suum in terris vicarium ordinavit.
« ** Et sicut ei flectitur omne genu coelestium, tenrestriun), et
etiam inferonun, Ita Illi omnes obedienty &c« Spicil. Dacben
t. V.

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The epistles of Gngory VII. supply abundant
examples of this appalling presmnption. *^ The
Roman Pontiff alone is by right umpetMl, In
him alone is the right of making laws. Let all

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