George D Mathews.

The coinages of the world; ancient and modern online

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Hanover became an Electorate, and in 1714, on the death of Queen
Anne, Elector George Lewis, the nearest Protestant heir of that
deceased sovereign, ascended the throne of England as George
I., retaining his Lordship of Hanover.



TWO-THIRD PIECE OP BRUNSWICK, WITH HANOVERIAN REVERSE,

1764.

Pieces of various value were now issued, bearing either the bust
and legend of the English sovereign, or the royal arms, along
with some Hanoverian device, such as the horse running, the wild
man of the Hartz, St. Andrew and his cross, having on them the
Hanover value in thalers, Marien groschen, ducat, or pistole.



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OP THE WORLD




'HALER OF 1788.

o a Kingdom, but as the Salic law
d from assuming the Hanoverian



JNSWICK WITH ENGLISH ARMS.

Ictoria's uncle, Ernest Augustus,

death, in 1851, the throne was

but the Kingdom has lately been

ad Hanover seem to have been, to
le titles of the sovereign on either



PHAUA.

of Prussia, derives its name from
Charlemagne, having subdued the
) remain Duke of the Efagem and
•al Archbishop of Cologne brought
liere it remained till 1802, when the
Hesse Darmstadt family. In 1807
of Westphalia by taking portions
3k and Upper Saxony, appointing



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ANCIENT AND MODEEN.



his youngest brother Jerome, its monarch. On the bat
sic in 1813, this kingdom ceased to exist, and the Duct
united to Prussia. On the recent coins of Westpha]
therefore a bust with king's name, Hieronymus Xap
on reverse vahie and date.

EINEFEIN
, MARK

THALER OF JEROME NAPOLEON OF WESTPHAI

WURTEMBERG.

Wurtemberg was under the control of Counts till
the Emperor Maximilian made it a Dukedom, On th
Luneville in 1800, it was raised to an Electorate, In
leon conferred on its ruler the rank of King^ adding




DOUBLE TIIALEB OF JOHN FREDERICK OF WURTEMBUI

his dominions, a change confirmed by the Congress
The State is now part of the German empire.

On recent coins of Wurteznburg we have the king's
names and titles, such as Dux Wurt or Wirt emhurg :
(Teck) and the arms as usual on a crowned shield with



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kto
aps-



mce
and
the
ling
Lssel
badt



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V*



ANCIENT AND MODERN. 115

(Grand Duchy in 1806), and Hesse Homburg (Landgraviate),
each being so distinguished from the name of its capital.

The coinages of the three States are interchangeable, those
since 1803 being distinguished only by the titles of the ruling
prince. The arms of Hesse are a lion rampant, surmounted by a
crown, the devices on the coins being generally a head or bust on
the obverse, with name and titles, and on reverse the shield with
arms or value and date.

BADEN.

In 1130 Herman H., the ruler of the Baden territory, assumed the
title of Marhgraf. In 1475 Baden was divided, according to the
German custom, into Baden-Baden di,ndi Baden-Dourldch. In 1771
these were united by Duke Charles Frederick of Baden becoming
Duke of Baden-Baden. In 1803 the Duchy was advanced to an
Electorate. In 1806 the Elector received the title of Grand Duke
(Gr5sherzog), the heir apparent being known as the Hereditary
Grand Duke and the other sons and daughters as Margraves and
Margravines. The coins are of the usual designs — busts, names and
titles, with crowned shields with arms, value and dates.



THALER OF BADEN.



MECKLENBURG.



In the Twelfth century the Mecklenburg territory was made a de-
pendency by Henry the Lion. In 1349 the Emperor Charles raised
it to a Dukedom. In 1701, after several divisions and reunions,
the State was divided into the Dukedoms of Mecklenburg Schwerin
and of Mecklenburg Strelitz. In 1815 the Duke of Mecklenburg
Schwerin was made a Grand Dtike. Each of the Duchies has its
own coinage, needing no description, as the name of the State
always appears.



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' THE AVORLD ;

E.

1129, though in 1013 it followed
vided its territory. The coins
iing up nearly all their field.

lLT.

ists of the Duchies of A. Bern-
The independence of Anhalt
the present threefold division
ary. The coins of Anhalt are
Df a bear with a ducal crown
ig a wall, while beneath it is an

5URG.

early times subject to Saxony,
were formed by the Counts of
3 dynasty then founded has re-
>ry till the present time, besides
. In 1448, Christian of Olden-
id founded the Danish house of
mily is a branch of the Olden-
,mily of Sweden. On the coins
3nerally Oldbxburg Couraxt

INE.

the German Empire, and dates
I. obtained its lands. What is
parated from it in the Tenth cen-
ider was divided into Upper and
jorraine came into the hands of
3 Kingdom of Belgium, and the
nd in Holland. In 1736, Upper
Jen governed by its own dukes,
Poland, but in 1766 was united
ne. As a result of the Franco-
is ceded b^ France to Prussia,
uded within that of the German

Z,

le, on the death of Clovis, in 511
d later, of Lorraine. In 985 it



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ANCIENT AND MODERN.



became a free Imperial city. By the treaty of Westphalia in
it was ceded to France, but is now connected with Prussia.
960 A. D. down to 1666, both the Bishop and City of Metz
coins.



THALER OR LARGE CROWN OP METZ, 1632.

ORANGE.

The early home of the House of Orange is said to have b(
the banks of the Rhone.

In 1178 A. D., Frederick I. granted the right of coining r
to the Count of Orange. The earlier issues bear the nai
Frederick on the obverse, and on the reverse the arms of O
—a comet or horn. During the sixteenth century the Hoi



THALER OF WILLIAM, PRINCE OF ORANGE, 1649.

Nassau succeeded that of Chalon, which was then in possess:
the principality. In 1673 the King of France confiscated t
tates of Nassau, restoring them, however, in 1678. They
again taken during the French War and, in 1702, given t
Prince of Conti, the title. Prince of Orange, passing to tt
scendants of the Prince of Nassau-Dietz.



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id re-
old in
unger
ilders,
in the
g also
iler of
but is
usual
iles of
ie and



remen

The

luded

how-
power
e first

1810,
', they
:nown



is the
ityby
ns — a
coins
Elbe.



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ANCIENT AND MODEKN.



119



As the city foiins a member of the Gemian Empire, the crowned
double-headed eagle with the imperial orb on its breast, and hold-
ing sword and sceptre, with name and titles of the reigning Em-
peror is often found on the reverses.




GOLD DUCAT OF HAMBURG, 1840.



LUBECK.



Lubeck, one of the oldest North German towns, was d<
in 1226, a free city. As a member of the Empire, its coi
the two-headed eagle, having on the breast the numeral o
with Impbbiaus Civitas. On the reverses are the date,
and name of the city.



DOUBLE thaler OP LUBECK.



BREMEN.



Bremen was erected, in the Eighth centurjr, into a bisho]
Charlemagne, and has always been a city of importance. Il
consist of a key diagonal-wise on a shield, surmounted by
net, with value in grotes, and on reverse the two-headed
having an orb on its breast sustaining the imperial crown, w
name and titles of the Emperor for legend. As Bremen i



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1



place of the

i NOS SALVS,



he Emperor
i their civic
During the

and manu-
)f the Rhine
ns is found
ih legend as

this device
e of its gold
g a banner,

from other
? pieces.



jrmany. In
the election
Its coinage
s, or a view
id a bridge
reverse, with



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ANJIENT AND MODERN. 121



FKANKFORT THALER OF 1628.



COLOGNE.



This city was founded by the Ubii about 40 B. C, and
hundred years later received, in honor of Agrippina, the
Claudius, the name of Colonia Agrippina, whence its
name of Cologne. It entered the Hanse League in the Tl
century and contended with Lubeck for the first place,
a bishopric, in the lEighth century Cologne was made j
bishopric. Some of the occupants of the See became disti]
as princes of the Empire, so that a struggle arose betwe
and the civic rulers, resulting in the removal of the arcl
residence to Bonn. In 1801 the See was secularized, and
the whole territory was handed over to Prussia.

The coins of Cologne resemble, in general style, thos*
other cities — the Emperor's bust, with name and titles, &c.
of the archbishop, with such legends as Anchiescopus ((
'E^iscopus)y Coloniensis FRiNceps 'Elector, and on the r
crowned shield, with date and legend, lEiPiscopics et 1
Dux BuLews^5 MxRchio Francice Coloniensis, &c., &c.

It is, however, both needless and impossible for us to at
describe the coinages of the other Episcopal or free cities,
we have said indicates their characteristics, each of cours
the peculiarity of the name and rank of its ruler, and oft
distinctive device. Those of Salzburg yior instance, are
with ecclesiastical emblems and designs. Stralsund hai
arms a broad arrow. Stolberg has a stag with antlers, pa
front of a crowned pillar that is surmounted with the orb.
burg has a fir cone. Danzic, two crowned Maltese cros



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OP THE WORLD.



a), Paderborn, Hameln^ and so on
^nished and classified by the col-




P STOLBERG, 1764.



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CHAPTER XIY.

SCHLESWIG HOLSTEIN.

The arms of Schleswig are two lions running to th(
connected with Denmark the coins of Schleswig ha
obverse, the Danish arms, while on their reverses i
crowned shield with the national arms, and on the Schei
provincial currency of low values, the name of the S
and date.




THALER OF SCHLESWIG HOLSTEIN, WITH DANISH ARMS

In 1864, Schleswig, which had previously formed
stein one Principality, waa formally taken possess
Denmark. Prussia and Austria then attacked Denmarl
both States from it, finally quarrelling over the spoil.

DENMARK.



GROAT OF CHRISTIAN IL, 1535.



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g'

ad
ir-
in
he
3r,
ler
ch

3a,



LSt



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ANCIENT AND MODERN. 125

This shield bears the arms of Denmark, Norway, Sweden,
Schleswig, Gothen and Wenden. The shield resting on the cross
carries the arms of Holstein, Stormarn and Ditmarsen, while the
shield of pretence has those of Oldenburg and Delmenhorst.

The Danish coins have generally on the obverse the bust and
name of the ruler, and on the reverse a crowned shield with the
royal arms, three lions and nine hearts, or perhaps, as on recent
issues, only value and date.



TAVO RIGSDALER, 1868.



2 KRONER,' 1875.



NORWAY.



Our earliest coins of Norway are those of 0]^laf, 1066, ha^ ing for
legend Onxap Rex Nor., the title being sometimes Dux ratlier
than Rex. Toward the close of the Fourteenth century, Nor-
way had been annexed to Denmark.

The Danish-Norwegian coins bore on the obverse the bust,
name, and titles of the Danish king, and on the reverse the Nor-



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3 COINAGES OF THE WORLD ;



HN ADOLPHUS, HEIR OP NORWAY, DUKE OF
HLESWIG HOLSTEIN, 1611.

ampant, climbing a battle axe. In the ex-
ers crossed, the ]N orwegian M. M, with ref er-
Kon|g8berg. Up to 1818 the coins of Nor-
)f Denmark ; since then they belong to the




CK FOR NORWAY. NORWAY THALER, 1796.

SWEDEN.



SPHEN, ISSUED AT STOCKHOLM, 1512.



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ANCIENT AND MODERN.



127



The arms of Sweden are three crowns, and as there is no gold
coinage the silver money consists of the Rixsdaler or Government




■^^1



RIXDALEB OF SWEDEN.

dollar of 48 schillings. This dollar is worth 100 copper 6re or ac
(JOat^ aerum). Lately this ore has been replaced by skillings
-which there are two issues; the one, the government money, hav
a large crowned monogram of the King within branches, and
the reverse a large I on circular disk, with legend, Skilling R]
MONT. The other skilling is only half the value of this, and
called Skilling Banco.

On the coins of the Wcisa family, 1528-1658, there is alwayi
religious symbol, the obverse presenting, with bust, a legend, c
sisting of the king's name, and titles, D. G. SvEGORwm Gothoe
Vandalorww Rex, while the reverse is a crowned shield ^
arms.

During the wars of Charles XII., Sweden was greatly impo^
ished. As a measure of necessity, during 1716-1719, the Ba
Goertz, the Prime Minister, issued a series of eleven dalers of c
per to circulate at the value of silver. The reverses of these c(
all bear "Z I>aler S. Jbf." in three lines, and on the obverse
each there is a different design, as follows :



A Crown, 1716.

Pallas, 1716.

Publica fides, Wett och Wa-

pin, 1717.
Saturn, 1718.
Flink och Fardig, 1718.

The series was closed by one bearing the baron's own effig
circumstance that led, ultimately, to his being indicted and ex(
ted for treason.



Jupiter, 1718.
Mars, 1718.
Mercurius, 1718.
Hoppetri7l9.
Phoebus, 1718.



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THE COINAGES OP THE WORLD I




SWEDISH DALER OF NECESSITY, I7l8.

intil 1751, the arms of Hesse Cassel were on the coins,
e of Holstein came to the throne, retaining it till
eon then appointed Bemadotte, one of his Marshals,
and in 1813 annexed Sweden to Norway. In 1818
3ended the throne as Charles XIV., his coins bearing
legend, sverigbs nobr. G{othland) och (and) west-
ung, with, on reverse, a crowned shield or two
with value and date.



RIXDALER OF OSCAR, 1844.



RIXDALER OF CHARLES XT.



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ANCIENT AND MODERN. 129

RUSSIA.

In 981 A. D., the Byzantine Emperor, John Zimis
conquered the Russians, sealed a peace with them by
daughter in marriage to their Duke Vladomir. In 131
tars overthrew the rising civilization, but in 1462 thei
thrown off, and the modern Russian system began,
-earlier period of its history Russia consisted of many p
ruled over by the sons of the dominant Duke, each of w
money. In 1534 many of these States were brought t
Ivan, who then assumed the title of Tsar or Czar, wh
Peter the Great assumed the title of Emperor. Rus
consists of the gold Imperial, with ten silver roubL
which is divided into 100 copper cents or copecks. Fr
1837 platinum Was used, but found to be unsuitable. 1



SIX ROUBLES. {Platinum,)

letters, so like and yet so unlike the Roman, render the
noticeable, while, at the same time, there is very litth
the designs. On the obverses may be found the bust (



GOLD PIECE OF DEMETRIUS, 1580 A. D,



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130 THE COINAGES OF THE WORLD ;

arch, and on the reverses, generally, the Russian two-headed
3d, with the Imperial crown above. On the
Uy a shield, with figure of St. George and



POLAND.

is found upon the earliest pages of Eu-
ly famous for military prowess, it exhausted
Ids, and when torn by internal dissensions,
o its allied adversaries, so that now it has
73 Poland became an elective monarchy,
lois for its ruler. Next year Henry aban-
on succeeding to the throne of France, as



3 PIECE OP JOHN CASIMIK, 1665.

ition of Poland took place at the^Jhands of
iissia, these powers dividing among them-
L of her territory, despite the protests of the
B King. The Polish coins of this date have
vith legend,STAKiLAus Augustus D.G.Rex.
TU {Lithicanice)^ with a crowned shield on
arms of Poland and Lithuania. In 1793
d in 1795 the last partition, or final division



GKOS PIECE OF SIGISMOXD,

I by the same powers. In 1807 Napoleon
Warsawy but in 1815, this, as the Stngdom,



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ANCIENT AND MODBEN,



131



(xf Poland^ was given to Russia, by the bond of a persi
On the Russian coins now issued the Czar was ealle
Poland. In 1830 the Poles revolted and revived the B
Poland, declaring themselves independent, issuing the
bear on the obverse a crowned shield with the arms of I
Lithuania, and on the reverse, the value within branch
date below. The revolt was soon afterwards suppr
Poland declared to be an integral part of the Russian I




FIVE ZLOTS OP THE KINGDOM OF POLAND, 183

In 1832 Russian silver one-and-a-half rouble pieces w
These correspond exactly in value to ten Polish zlo
these coins might circulate freely in both countries, th<
value was stated in Russian, and their Polish value in I
acters.




BUSSIAN-POLISH ONE-AND-A-HALF BOUBLB.



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HAPTER XV.



AUSTRIA.



ne from its position in Europe-
. This portion of his dominion
nder a Mark- Graf ^ or Lord o\
made to the territory, so that in
rom Habsburg or Hawk's Castle o
! Imperial purple,
lonsi^t of a double-headed eagle.
Drown, the eagle having on its br<
ling a sword in the right talon i
uring the present century the sc

globe. On the obverse of Au«
eror's bust, with name and titles, a
igle, with remainder of titles, or
re Emperor of Germsmy, Archdu
jT, Count of the Tyrol, King of Hui

Styria,ifcc., &c.



rSTRIA, KING OP CASTILE, 1621-1665

B Austrian monarchy became ruler
an immense variety of titles are i
the country for whose use such

iperor of Germany, proclaimed hi
istria, laying down, in 1806, his tit



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ANCIENT AND MODERN. 133



Emperor of Germany and King of the Romans. I*^
bardy and Venice were added to Austria, and
these territories, with or without Galicia and 111



CROWN OF FRANCIS JOSEPH I., OF AUSTl

on the Austrian coinage, while at the san
were issued for Lombardy and Venice, having the I
with the values, dates and locality. In 1866, wl
and Venice were annexed to Piedmont, this latter s



GOLD FOUR FLORIN OF AUSTRIA, 1871

HUNGARY.

The Magyars, as the old Hungarians are called, a
origin, and entered their present home under the
Arpady about 890 A.D. About the year 1000, Ar
ant, St. Stephen, was crowned King of Hungary



DUCAT OF ISABELLA, QUEEN OF IIUNGAKY,



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^



134 THE COINAGES OF THE WORLD



till 1301. From this period the rulere
houses till 1626, when, on the prostration
ks, the Hapsburg family ascended the
formed part of the Austrian Empire, but



MABIA THERESA, A, D. 1742.

id with it by a personal union with its
arge amount of independence. Hence,
^ary and Bohemia have on the obverse
[, with arms, or the sovereign's bust, with
e, and on the reverse, religious emblems.
iOuis Kossuth in 1848, coins were issued
Grovernment, having on the obverse a
he Hungarian Arms with legend, and on
garian and date. In 1867, a new arrange-
sn Austria and Hungary, securing 3ie
>f the latter. v



tUNGARIAK FLORIN, 1869.



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ANCIENT AND MODERN. 13i

BOHEMIA.

The name BoJiemia comes from the old Celtic tribe of the Boiiy
that having crossed from France into Italy was for several centu-
ries at bitter war with Rome. On its final defeat by Scipio in 191
B. C, a portion of the tribe leaving Italy settled north of the
Danube, hence the name of the territory JBoiohemium — ^home of
the Boii — contracted to JBohmen — Bohemia, In 937 A. D., Otho
made Bohemia tributary to the German Empire, and in 1061 Henry
VI. conferred the title of King of Bohemia on the Duke of Prague.
In his family the throne remained till 1306 A. D. During this
period, or from about the year 1200, Ottocar began the issue of
BractecUes* cup-like coins of very thin silver, with the type on one



GROS OF THE CITY OP PRAGUE, ISSUED BY CHARLES I. OF
LUXEMBURG, 1347.

€ide and the indent on the other, like the incused coins of Grsecia
Magna. From 1310 to 1437 Bohemia was ruled by kings of the



<JROWN OP FERDINAND I. OP GERMANY, LAST INDEPENDENT KING

OP BOHEMIA.

♦These coins are now regarded as a feudal money, their one-sidedness proclaiming the de-
pendent rank of their issuers, for the German Emperors at that same date were issoing solid
money bearing a double impress. A large amount of it was issued at Strasburg.



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COINAGES OF TUB WORLD ;

In 1440 this dynasty was expelled, and the
In 1490 Ladislaus, its sovereign, was made
Under the reign of Ferdinand I., Bohemia
, and has remained so ever since.
[)nnected our familiar word Dollar^ which i&
)f Thaler^ a name given to the silver pieces
ade from the mines in the Bohemian Thah



RAGUSA.

it aristocratic Republic, like Venice, this State
jpendency on the Adriatic. In 1368 Ragusa
protection of Hungary, and afterwards under
poleon abolished its Republican government,,
ith the province of Dalmatia, when in 1814 it
ion of Austria. On its coins there is on the
egend Mhacus Hespubl, and on the reverse a
sed by crossed branches and religious motto.

TURKEY.

Y are devoid of interest. The Mahommedaa
taking of any likeness of a natural object for
the coins bear simply Arabic inscriptions oi>
logram of the Sultan, called the Toghra, is
;he obverse, while on the reverse is generally




OP MAHOMET IV., A. D. 1680.

it, the Sultan's year of reign, and the date
le standard piece is the piastrCy found with it»
I silver, and worth about 4 cents, while ten
dastre. The Turkish billon dollar, oftentimes
counterfeit, or was struck for Tripoli, whose
of Turkey. The little flower beneath the
lint mark, guaranteeing the value of the coin,
coins of low value issued by Turkey, chiefly^
rth Africa, is one that is easily recognized



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ANCIENT AND MODERN.



137





PIASTBB OF MEHEMET ALL



by a double triangle on the obverse, and on the reverse Com
tinopUy in coarsely designed Arabic, and the date of the H(
in Roman letters. These coins seem to be cast by the yard,
broken off in lengths ; they often perplex young collectors bj
apparent anomaly of Arabic letters and Boman numerals.



ROUMANIA.

Among the provinces of Eastern Europe subject to Turkej
the Danubian states of Moldavia and Wallachia. In 1869 t
principalities formed a monarchical union, taking the name of ]
mania, and calling their ruler Prince Hospodar. The coinaj
Roumania is altogether modem, and has no interest, consis
chiefly in copper Sani,

GREECE.

In 1829 modern Greece, having successfully revolted from '
key, adopted the monarchical form of government, and in ]
called Otho of Bavaria to the throne. Greek money consist
r gold pieces of 20 or 40 drachm^ ; of silver ^ 5, 1, ^, and i dracl
each drachm^ having 100 copper cents or lepta, of which there
10 the diobolus, 6 or the obolus, with 2 and 1 lepta pieces. On t
coins there is the bust, name and title of the King, and on th<



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copper corns

ed by Prince
ounterpart of



d one of the
they became
when France
F Britain, by
ir Republic,
-were struck
se Britannia
I Britannia,
winged lion
3 lONIKON
>th of silver
of Britannia,
bhe numerals
le obverse of
I reverse has
ins, with the

3e, when its
he ordinary



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CHAPTER XVI.



GREAT BRITAIN.



The coinage of Great Britain goes back to the very verge of
prehistoric times. CaBsar, writing about the year 66 B. C, refers
to the use by the Britons of some medium of exchange, but in
terms so general as to leave it uncertain whether this were coined
money or simply rings or plates of metal. Many coins indeed exist
which are ascribed by zealous numismatists to the prehistoric
period, but the coins themselves bear neither legend nor device by
which they can be confidently assigned to Britain. They may,
however, have been struck there by native workmen in rude imi-
tation of Greek money. On one of these so-called British coins
there are characters supposed to be the letters Lego, considered
to be an abbreviated form of Legondx^ the name of one of Caesar's
assailants on his second invasion, in 64 B. C. On others are the
letters cvn, cvno, cvnobbli, with such other letters as
CAMv, CAMVL, doubtlcss denoting Camulodunum^ now Col-
chester in Essex, the capital of the territory ruled over by a native
prince called Cunobeline, the Cymbeline of Shakspeare.

Shortly after Cunobeline's death, and the re-conquest of Britain,
64 A D., all the native mintages were suppressed. During the
Roman period of British history, from the Christian era to about
the year 460 A. D., large quantities of coin, bearing Imperial de-
vices, and known as Colonials^ were struck. The number of
molds for casting money, and the many dies for different rulers
that have been found, show that counterfeiters must also have
been all the time busy with their nefarious arts.

On the withdrawal of the Romans, the enfeebled British sought
the aid of the Saxons to defend them against the assaults of the
Northern tribes, the Picts and Scots. This led to the permanent
occupancy of Britain by Saxon tribes, and the formation of those
seven distinct kingdoms known in history as the Heptarchy y
namely, JSjenty South Saxons, East Saxons^ East Angles^ West
Saxons and Northumberland^ itself consisting of two principali-


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Online LibraryGeorge D MathewsThe coinages of the world; ancient and modern → online text (page 7 of 21)